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  • In 1956, during a diplomatic reception in Moscow, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev told Western Bloc ambassadors, "My vas pokhoronim!".

    1956 年一場莫斯科的外交晚宴中,蘇維埃政權的領導人 Nikita Khrushchev 對西方集團的代表們說「My vas pokhoronim (俄文)」。

  • His interpreter rendered that into English as, "We will bury you!"

    他的口譯員翻成英文:「我們會將你們埋葬!」

  • This statement sent shockwaves through the Western world, heightening the tension between the Soviet Union and the US who were in the thick of the Cold War.

    這句話震驚了西方世界,讓蘇美關係在冷戰期間更加緊繃。

  • Some believe this incident alone set East/West relations back a decade.

    有些人認為,單獨這事件就延誤了東西方關係足十年的發展。

  • As it turns out, Khrushchev's remark was translated a bit too literally .

    但後人發現,口譯員僅依字面上的意思,翻譯了 Khrushchev 的話。

  • Given the context, his words should have been rendered as, "We will live to see you buried," meaning that Communism would outlast Capitalism, a less threatening comment.

    根據當時的情境,這句話應譯成:「我們在你死後仍會長存」,意即共產主義將遠遠勝過資本主義,這樣翻譯聽起來也較不刺耳。

  • Though the intended meaning was eventually clarified, the initial impact of Khrushchev's apparent words put the world on a path that could have led to nuclear armageddon.

    雖然後來終究釐清了原先的意涵,但最初 Khrushchev 字面上的意思,差點促成了核戰世界末日。

  • So now, given the complexities of language and cultural exchange, how does this sort of thing not happen all the time?

    那麼,在複雜繁瑣的語言和文化交流下,這種事為何不常發生呢?

  • Much of the answer lies with the skill and training of interpreters to overcome language barriers.

    這大多得歸功於口譯員的技能和培訓,才能夠克服語言間的障礙。

  • For most of history, interpretation was mainly done consecutively, with speakers and interpreters making pauses to allow each other to speak.

    過去,逐步口譯的比例較多,意即演講者和口譯員輪流發言。

  • But after the advent of radio technology, a new simultaneous interpretations system was developed in the wake of World War II.

    但因為無線電的出現,二戰後發展出了「同步口譯」的系統。

  • In the simultaneous mode, interpreters instantaneously translate a speaker's words into a microphone while he speaks without pauses, those in the audience can choose the language in which they want to follow.

    同步口譯時,口譯員會立即對著麥克風口譯演講者的字句,中間沒有暫停,而聽眾們可以自由選擇想聽的語言頻道。

  • On the surface, it all looks seamless, but behind the scenes, human interpreters work incessantly to ensure every idea gets across as intended.

    儘管表面上看似天衣無縫,但實際上,口譯員得兢兢業業地確保每個理念都照原意傳達。

  • And that is no easy task.

    這可是項艱難的任務。

  • It takes about two years of training for already fluent bilingual professionals to expand their vocabulary and master the skills necessary to become a conference interpreter.

    對於已經能流利切換雙語的人來說,需要花大約兩年的時間培訓,擴充單字量和掌握口譯的必要技巧,才能成為一位會議口譯員。

  • To get used to the unnatural task of speaking while they listen, students shadow speakers and repeat their every word exactly as heard in the same language.

    為了適應「邊聽邊說」的技能,學生們會試著跟讀講者並照原文重複他們聽到的字句。

  • In time, they begin to paraphrase what is said, making stylistic adjustments as they go.

    隔一段時間後,他們會練習講出原文大意,並針對用詞做出些微調整。

  • At some point, a second language is introduced.

    這個技巧熟練之後,才會加入第二種語言。

  • Practicing in this way creates new neural pathways in the interpreter's brain, and the constant effort of reformulation gradually becomes second nature.

    這種練習方式讓口譯員的大腦新增了神經通路,讓重組句子的功夫逐漸變成一種習慣。

  • Over time and through much hard work, the interpreter masters a vast array of tricks to keep up with speed, deal with challenging terminology, and handle a multitude of foreign accents.

    隨著時間和努力不懈的練習,口譯員便能練就一番技巧,可以跟上講者的語速、準確地翻出專有名詞、或馬上理解五花八門的口音。

  • They may resort to acronyms to shorten long names, choose generic terms over specific, or refer to slides and other visual aides.

    他們會選擇將冗長的字詞翻成縮寫、或是以較廣泛的名稱代指專有名詞、或是參考投影片和其他視覺輔助工具。

  • They can even leave a term in the original language, while they search for the most accurate equivalent.

    他們為自己在原文中預留轉圜餘地,同時在腦中思索著最精準的替代詞。

  • Interpreters are also skilled at keeping aplomb in the face of chaos.

    口譯員能夠在一片混亂中處之泰然。

  • Remember, they have no control over who is going to say what, or how articulate the speaker will sound.

    記住,口譯員完全無法掌控誰要說些什麼,或是講者是否咬字清晰。

  • A curveball can be thrown at any time.

    突發狀況隨時可能發生。

  • Also, they often perform to thousands of people and in very intimidating settings, like the UN General Assembly.

    此外,他們常在成千上百人面前口譯,甚至是在令人生畏的場合下口譯,如聯合國常會。

  • To keep their emotions in check, they carefully prepare for an assignment, building glossaries in advance, reading voraciously about the subject matter, and reviewing previous talks on the topic.

    為了做好最萬全的準備,口譯員在會議之前會謹慎預習,事先編輯詞彙表、針對該主題廣泛閱讀、並不斷複習過去的會議或演講。

  • Finally, interpreters work in pairs.

    口譯員通常會成雙成對地搭擋,

  • While one colleague is busy translating incoming speeches in real time, the other gives support by locating documents, looking up words, and tracking down pertinent information.

    當一人在忙著即時翻譯演講時,另一人會協助他尋找文件、查詢字彙、並蒐集相關資訊。

  • Because simultaneous interpretation requires intense concentration, every 30 minutes, the pair switches roles.

    由於同步口譯得聚精會神,所以搭擋每半小時會對換角色。

  • Success is heavily dependent on skillful collaboration.

    成功的口譯仰賴合作無間的夥伴。

  • Language is complex, and when abstract or nuanced concepts get lost in translation, the consequences may be catastrophic.

    語言很複雜,若抽象或細微的理念被誤翻了,後果將不堪設想。

  • As Margaret Atwood famously noted, "War is what happens when language fails."

    正如 Margaret Atwood 的名言:「當溝通失效,戰爭將一觸即發。」

  • Conference interpreters of all people are aware of that and work diligently behind the scenes to make sure it never does.

    在所有人中,會議口譯員明白這個問題,並在幕後努力不懈,確保戰爭不會因此爆發。

In 1956, during a diplomatic reception in Moscow, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev told Western Bloc ambassadors, "My vas pokhoronim!".

1956 年一場莫斯科的外交晚宴中,蘇維埃政權的領導人 Nikita Khrushchev 對西方集團的代表們說「My vas pokhoronim (俄文)」。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 口譯員 語言 同步 演講 翻譯

【TED-Ed】口譯:將兩種語言玩弄於股掌之間 (How interpreters juggle two languages at once - Ewandro Magalhaes)

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    Kristi Yang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 09 日
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