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  • Whether it’s Pixar’s Dory with short-term memory loss, or the sayinghe has the brain

    先別管皮克斯的多莉到底是否有短期記憶喪失的毛病,也別管那句「他根本就只有

  • of a goldfish” - were constantly told that fish are simple and have poor memories.

    金魚腦」的俗諺,我們常常聽到魚很笨、魚的記性很差這種說法

  • But are they more complex than we think?

    但他們是不是其實比我們想像的複雜一些呢?

  • This is the Rotating Snake Illusion - as you move your eyes, the snakes appear to be moving

    這是「旋轉蛇」圖樣,當你移動視線,蛇就好像會在圈圈內

  • in circles, but the image is actually stationary. It turns out that fish see this illusion in

    移動,但其實圖片本身是靜止的,結果顯示魚類在觀看這張圖片時

  • a similar way to you and I. Even though fish diverged from land vertebrates 450 million

    有跟我們非常相似的反應,即使他們的演化在4億5千萬年前就跟陸生脊椎動物

  • years ago, both have developed similar vision to hunt, escape predators, and avoid collisions.

    分開了,兩者卻都發展了類似能夠打獵、逃避掠食者、避免撞擊的視力。

  • Researchers have hypothesized that we see the same motion illusions as a result ofconvergent

    研究者假設,關聯性很低的生物,也有可能因為必須適應相同的環境

  • evolution’, where organisms not closely related independently evolve similar traits

    繼而發展出類似的特質

  • as a result of having to adapt to similar environments.

    這就是「趨同演化」的結果

  • Which of these red circles is larger? Your eyes are likely telling you the one on the

    哪個紅圈圈比較大?你的眼睛可能會告訴你說是

  • right, and a fish would think so too. But it turns out they are the same size. In a

    右邊那個,魚類也會這樣想,但結果其實它們是一樣大的

  • study on redtail split fins, the fish were trained to discriminate between disks of different

    在某項關於艾氏異仔鱂的研究當中,這種魚被訓練成能夠分辨不同大小的光碟

  • sizes and to prefer larger disks. And when presented with a similar illusion they chose

    並且會選擇比較大的那個,當牠們被呈現在類似的圖樣前面時,牠們也會選擇

  • the deceptively larger one.

    看起來好像比較大的那一個。

  • What about attention span? One particular report found that the human attention span

    至於「注意廣度」呢?有一樣特別的研究發現,人類的注意廣度

  • is down from 12 seconds in the year 2000, to 8 seconds today. Our use of the internet

    從2000年的12秒,下降至現在的8秒,理論推測這是我們對於網路

  • and devices is theorized to play a role but, either way, goldfish have a 9 second attention

    與各種載具的使用所導致的,但無論如何,金魚有9秒鐘的「注意廣度」

  • span, trumping that of a human.

    大勝人類!

  • When it comes to forgetfulness, a study using African Cichlids gave fish a food reward in

    談到「健忘度」,一項對於非洲慈鯛做的研究,他們在水族箱裡面設定了

  • a particular zone of an aquarium for 3 days in a row. Then, the fish were given a 12 day

    一個特定的區域,讓這些魚連續3天可以在那裡得到獎賞,然後,牠們要休息12天,

  • restperiod before being reintroduced into the aquarium. Using motion-tracking software,

    直到下一次再被帶進同樣的水族箱。利用情緒追蹤系統,

  • the cichlids showed a distinct preference to the area of the aquarium where they had

    慈鯛對於那塊他們先前得到獎賞的水族箱區域會有

  • previously received a reward. Studies have even shown goldfish can remember things for

    明顯的偏愛。研究甚至表示,金魚可以保持記憶至少3個月,

  • at least 3 months; distinguishing between shapes, colours, sounds, and even navigating

    不論分辨形狀、顏色、聲音甚至是在迷宮中的導航

  • mazes. On top of this, goldfish can recognize their owners. Ultimately, fish have been shown

    除此之外,金魚可以認得出他們的主人,最後,研究顯示魚類

  • to have quite good memories - after all they need to remember prey types, avoid predators

    其實擁有相當不錯的記憶力,畢竟牠們需要記住獵物長什麼樣子、躲開掠食者

  • and even avoid our hooks after being caught in the past.

    甚至要在被抓到之後記得從此不再靠近我們的魚鉤

  • But when it comes to pain were actually quite different than fish. When you injure

    不過當講到「疼痛」時,我們其實跟魚類滿不一樣的。當你弄傷自己,

  • yourself, receptors in your body callednociceptorssend signals to the neocortex where the sensation

    你體內的感覺器官,稱之「痛覺受器」,會把訊號傳達到「新皮質」,也就是痛覺會被

  • of pain is processed. But many fish lack nociceptors and all fish lack a neocortex, so pain isn’t

    處理的地方,但很多魚類都缺乏「痛覺受器」,而所有魚類都沒有「新皮質」,所以疼痛

  • experienced in the same way.

    感覺起來是不一樣的。

  • When Finding Nemo was first released, hundreds of fish were flushed to set themfree’,

    當「海底總動員1」第一次上映時,成千上萬的魚都被沖進馬桶「放生」,

  • while in reality these fish often die from trauma or exposure to fresh water. Additionally,

    但在現實情境中,牠們會因為嚴重受傷或暴露於淡水中而死去,此外,

  • researchers worry that Finding Dory’s release could increase the decline in ornamental fish

    研究者也擔心「海底總動員2」會造成觀賞魚數量下滑

  • populations as more people will want the Royal Blue Tang as a pet.

    因為人們會想擁有一隻藍刀鯛做寵物。

  • So we decided to make a video on 8 other Amazing Aquatic Animals on AsapTHOUGHT, where we visited

    所以我們打算在AsapTHOUGHT頻道做一支影片介紹其他8種奇妙的水生動物

  • an aquarium to check them out in person. Our lakes and oceans are full of some wild and

    是我們親自到水族館去拜訪過的,我們的湖泊與海洋充滿各式各樣野生又

  • beautiful creatures, so be sure to check it out with the link below!

    美麗的生物,一定要點擊下面的連結去看看!

  • And Subscribe for more weekly science videos!

    記得訂閱我們,看更多的科學影片哦

Whether it’s Pixar’s Dory with short-term memory loss, or the sayinghe has the brain

先別管皮克斯的多莉到底是否有短期記憶喪失的毛病,也別管那句「他根本就只有

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 魚類 水族箱 痛覺 金魚 研究 皮質

【泛科學精選】你有想過其實你可能比一隻魚還健忘嗎? (Are You More Forgetful Than A Fish?)

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    Ververia Li 發佈於 2016 年 07 月 18 日
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