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  • He may look sad to see you go but I'm sorry to say, when you leave the housetwo minutes later,

    他可能會傷心地看你們出門。但,很抱歉我必須要說的是,你們出門...兩分鐘之後

  • your dog forgot that you were even there. Hello, everyone. Thank you for watching DNews today. I am Trace.

    你們的小狗早就已經忘記你們的存在!大家好!謝謝你們今天收看DNews頻道。我是Trace

  • But, before we get into animal memory, make sure you stay to the end of this video for a HUGE announcement

    但,在我們了解動物記憶之前,你們要確定看完整個影片,因為在影片最後會有個重要的宣布...

  • So, an elephant NEVER forgets Flipper! No one you see, is smarter than he!

    所以,一隻大象從未忘記過任何事情。飛寶(海豚)!沒有人可以比他還要聰明!

  • My dogs and cats miss me when I'm not there... We are constantly personifying the smarts of our animal friends,

    我離開之後,我的小狗與小貓們都會想我...我們時常都會說我們的寵物像人一樣地聰明

  • but how would you actually TEST this?

    但,你們會怎麼樣測試他們是不是那樣地聰明?

  • In a 2014 issue of Behavioural Processes, a researcher from Stockholm University tried to do just that.

    在2014年的《行為過程》期刊中,一個來自斯德哥爾摩大學的研究家曾做過測試

  • Using delayed matching-to-sample training, researchers tested the memory retention of 25 species including chimpanzees,

    運用延遲樣本配對訓練方法,研究家們測試25種動物族群的記憶保留能力,像是黑猩猩、

  • dolphins, seals, crows, dogs, rats, macaques.

    海豚、海豹、烏鴉、狗、老鼠、以及短尾猿

  • They trained each animal to look at a colored light and then

    他們給予每個動物看一個有顏色的光,然後

  • presented them with a choice of two colored lights later. If the animal "remembered" the correct light they were rewarded!

    要他們從兩個光中選擇一個對的。如果動物能「記對」正確的光,他們則會得到獎勵!

  • In this way, they could test over and over again and

    藉由這樣的方式,研究員們可以反覆的測驗再測驗,並且

  • see how long an animal could remember which one they've seen first. Rats performed the best

    從中來發現一個動物對於第一次看到的記憶能持續多久。老鼠們表現的最亮眼

  • when there was no delay between the first light and the second two lights, but dogs were the best as the delay increased!

    是當兩個燈連續地測驗他們。但,小狗們對於延遲越久的兩個燈,表現則最好!

  • But don't get too excited. It turns out, dogs have an arbitrary short-term memory of a little over two minutes and

    但,也不要因此就開心不已。這樣的結果是因為小狗們有著任意短期2分鐘記憶的能力,而與

  • our genetic cousin the chimpanzee was completely average at around a minute. Just kind of impressive, which shows that at some points,

    我們基因相似的親戚,黑猩猩大約是1分鐘。令人難以相信的!也證明了一些看法

  • six million years ago when we branch off from chimpanzees, we developed an arbitrary memory. And, they didn’t. That's kind of cool.

    在6百萬年前,人類是由黑猩猩們演化而來。演化之後,我們則擁有了任意的記憶。而他們卻沒有。還真是特別!

  • Humans, for comparison can easily complete this task 48 hours later. The thing is, memory is reallyuhwhat's the word? DIFFICULT to test.

    對比之後,人們可以在48小時候完全完成這項任務。記憶...真的是...恩,該要什麼字來形容呢?很難看透!

  • The researchers acknowledge this only testing the arbitrary short term memory. Dolphins, who scored second highest,

    研究家們知道這樣的測試只是用來測驗任意短期的記憶。第二高分的海豚

  • have been documented to recall the whistles of their friends even 20 years later because of this different kind of memory.

    因為有著不同的生活型態,他們仍然可以記得20年前同伴的叫聲

  • Elephants can remember trauma, family members or friends over long periods of time as well.

    而大象們能長期記得創傷、所屬家族、以及朋友們

  • So does my dog REALLY forget me when I leave the house? No. Not REALLY.

    所以,那我離開時之後,我的狗兒真的忘記我了嗎?不對。不完全是那樣

  • This research shows that humans have a VERY adept arbitrary memory. Stuff that doesn’t matter that much.

    這研究指出人類有著飄浮不定的記憶能力,指的就是瑣碎事件!

  • Matching a colored light to another one doesn't really affect your survival, and yet for some reason, our brain chooses

    配對兩個亮光不會因而影響你們的存活。但,在一些因素上,我們的腦袋會傾向

  • to store the information. Animals likely don't do that. Where humans use episodic memory -- as in we understand what happened,

    記取這樣的資訊。而動物們較不會記得。人們擅於情節記憶-我們會記得之前發生了什麼事情、

  • what's happening now and what WILL happen in the future-- animals learn behaviorally. A dog knows it's time to eat,

    現在正發生什麼事情、以及之後會發生什麼事情--動物們則是行為上的學習。一隻小狗知道哪時候要吃飯

  • not because they know it is five o'clock at night. They can sense how hungry they are, and on average, they have been trained that

    不是因為他們知道現在是晚上五點的吃飯時間。是因為他們可以感受到自己餓了。而就平均而言,他們已經被馴化成

  • they will receive food before work and after. Based on this and other research, people believe animals have an inferred memory;

    在做事之前和之後可以獲得食物的獎勵。根據這個和其他相關研究,人們相信動物們有著推斷能力的記憶

  • they remember things that are relevant to their survival.

    動物們記得事情是因為那些與他們的生死相關

  • For example, a cat remembers where its food is when you go away for the weekend, but it probably

    例如,你們周末出門踏青,你們的家貓會記得食物放哪裡。但,小貓應該是

  • doesn't really know exactly how long you've been gone. A cheetah may remember, it had a kill this morning because

    不會知道你們到底離開了多久。一隻印度豹可能會記得早上的獵食,因為

  • he's still full of food, or myabe which female or male cheetah mated with because its brain imprinted her scent

    他仍感到飽足感、或是因為獵食味道仍記憶猶新。又或者他腦袋中還遊蕩著她的香味,而能記得才與哪位女性豹交配過

  • so he spreads his genes better, but that cheetah WON'T likely remember if it rained last week.

    來確保自己有較好的後代。但,他可能不會記得上禮拜有沒有下雨這回事

  • In the 1950s Psychologist George Miller determined humans can store seven "chunks" of information in our short term memory; give or take.

    心理學家米勒在大約1950年提出人類的短期記憶廣度大約為7個單位

  • But the problem is, the more we really dig into how memory works the more nebulous the whole thing becomes.

    但,問題是我們越是想要知道記憶是怎麼運作的,研究結果卻是越令人捉拿不定

  • Testing covert behavior -- or behavior we can't really see externally, is very problematic, because we can't see what is going on inside of the animals' heads.

    測驗讓我們忽略了行為表現--或者是我們無法從外表來判定,這非常令人苦惱,因為我們沒辦法知道動物的腦袋瓜裡到底在想些什麼

  • And, we can't ask them what they're thinking. In the end, take any study like this with a grain of salt, even

    而且,我們也不可能問他們在想些什麼。到了最後,對任何的資訊,像這個影片一樣,並不能完全盡信。甚至

  • the researchers say this is just one way to measure memory. So while your scent is probably

    研究家們指出這個只是一個測驗記憶的方式。所以,你們的味道應該會

  • imprinted on your pet as a member of its pack or family, it doesn't remember that birthday card you bought her last year.

    被視為是寵物的家人或是族群一樣地刻印在他們的腦袋中。但,她可不會記得你們去年送她的生日卡片

  • Instead, your pet is more concerned with things related to survival than the arbitrary joys you personify upon them,

    你們的寵物不會在意你們帶給他們「所謂的」喜悅感,反而比較在意,他們是否能生存的這件事

  • but that doesn't mean they don't care! They just care differently than we do. How does this study make you feel though?

    但,也不能因此就認定他們並不在意你們的關愛!你們彼此只是在意的事情比較不一樣而已。不過,你們對這個研究有什麼看法?

  • Let us know in the comment below. Make sure you subscribe for more DNews.

    請留言在下方,讓我們知道你們的想法。不要忘記訂閱我們DNews的頻道,來收看更多的影片!

  • And now, that announcement I mentioned earlier. I'm really excited to announce the launch of our brand new sister show Seeker!

    現在,很開心地,我要宣布的事情是,我們開始了新頻道叫做Seeker!

  • We take a science approach here on DNews. You probably know that. They take a look at the more human side.

    你們應該都知道,我們在DNews都是採用科學方式。而他們的頻道讓我們更看透人性化的一面

  • Like in this video about a risky oil exploration of the Arctic!

    就像在這個影片中,談論到一個北極圈石油勘探的險惡

  • The grounding was a major disaster and shockingly expensive for the oil. The mission cost an estimated six billion dollars and

    為了取得油,基礎建設本身就是一個最驚人的花費,估計大約花了60億,而且

  • they came away with nothing. So, the question is why are oil companies willing to take such giant risks?

    他們並未得到任何成果!所以,問題來了,為什麼石油公司甘願來冒這麼大的風險?

  • Seriously! It’s a fantastic brand spanking new show and I know you're going to love it. Evan and Lissette are the best.

    說真的!這是個嶄新的頻道。我知道你們將會喜歡上這頻道! Evan和Lissette是最厲害的!

  • So go click the first link in the description and check it out! Thanks for watching.

    所以,快點點下面的連結,去那裡看看!謝謝你們的收看!

He may look sad to see you go but I'm sorry to say, when you leave the housetwo minutes later,

他可能會傷心地看你們出門。但,很抱歉我必須要說的是,你們出門...兩分鐘之後

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 記憶 動物 測驗 黑猩猩 海豚 頻道

你不在的時候...你真的以為你的狗狗會想你?(Your Dog Forgets You When You Leave)

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    王健安 發佈於 2017 年 02 月 03 日
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