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  • You probably guessed I'm not Sir Ken.

    你們大概猜到我不是 Sir Ken

  • Although I do share a similar lack of hair to Ken.

    不過我跟 Ken 一樣頭髮很少

  • We do have Ken's daughter in the house as well, which is great,

    今天好棒 Ken 的女兒也在現場

  • but I'm not going to humiliate her by bringing her up on stage,

    但我不會故意要她上台讓她難堪

  • because that wouldn't be fair.

    那樣不公平

  • What I'm going to do instead is basically talk to you about Ken.

    我現在要跟你們說說 Ken 的事

  • Sadly, Ken wasn't able to join us today.

    很遺憾 他今天無法來到現場

  • He lives in L.A. You may or may not know.

    你可能知道他住在洛杉磯

  • But we thought it was appropriate, as he's the officially...

    因為他 2006 和 2010 年的演講

  • the most watched TED speaker ever, with his 2006 and 2010 talks

    讓他成為有史以來點閱率最高的演講人

  • being watched 200 million times in 150 countries,

    在一百五十個國家 累積了兩億的點閱次數

  • we thought it was appropriate that he did the intro to the event.

    我們認為讓他做這次活動的開場 是至為恰當的

  • Sir Ken has also been working with us curating this event,

    Sir Ken 也是這次活動的策劃者之一

  • so he's really integral to it.

    他非常的重要

  • So, I'd like to introduce to you Ken Robinson.

    所以 我想跟你們介紹 Ken Robinson

  • [Applause]

    [掌聲]

  • Good morning and welcome to TEDxLondon and the Education Revolution.

    早安 歡迎來到 TEDxLondon 教育改革系列

  • I'm Ken Robinson and firstly let me say

    我是 Ken Robinson 容我先說

  • I'm sorry not to be with you today at the Roundhouse.

    我很抱歉今天無法跟你們 在 Roundhouse 會面

  • I would love to have been there.

    我真希望我能在現場

  • I have a great affection for the Roundhouse and for London.

    我非常愛 Roundhouse 和倫敦

  • Unfortunately, I have to be in Los Angeles,

    很可惜 我必須待在洛杉磯

  • which of course has its own benefits.

    當然這也是有好處

  • This event has been organised by TEDxLondon,

    這個活動是由 TEDxLondon 策劃

  • and I wanted to thank all the people who've put it together

    我要感謝所有讓他實現的人

  • and have worked so hard over the past few months

    過去幾個月他們都非常辛努

  • to make it work as an event in its own right.

    讓它能成功舉辦

  • But I also wanted to say a couple of word of thanks,

    不過我還要感謝他們

  • because the event, to some extent, has been triggered

    因為這個活動某種程度是

  • by the second talk that I gave at TED in Long Beach.

    是受我在長灘市的TED演講所引發的

  • I spoke at TED originally in 2006 and talked about creativity,

    2006年 我第一次在TED發表 有關創造力的演講

  • and Chris Anderson asked me to go back and talk again four years later

    四年後 Chris Anderson 再次邀請我去演說

  • and I thought of that really as the sequel

    而我把那當作是續集

  • and I called then for our efforts to be redoubled

    當時我說我們要加倍努力

  • to revolutionise education.

    來改革教育

  • So, today is an opportunity to develop some of those ideas

    所以 今天是我們透過所有即將上台的演講者

  • through all the speakers that you'll be hearing

    來發揚那些點子

  • and in the conversations you'll be having between the sessions.

    在中場休息間 你們會有對話

  • So I wanted just to give a few thoughts about the direction

    所以我想先給你們

  • in which these conversations might go and why I thought it was important

    接下來談話的方向

  • to talk about the need for revolution in education in the first place.

    和為甚麼我認為教育改革很重要

  • It's actually very appropriate that you should be meeting at the Roundhouse.

    你們相聚在 Roundhouse 是再適合不過的

  • The Roundhouse, if you've not been there before,

    如果你不曾來過或知道 有關 Roundhouse

  • has a long history in cultural policy and agitation.

    其實它在文化政策與融合有源遠歷史

  • It was a centre for Arnold Wesker, Centre 42,

    這是個Arnold Wesker的一家中心 第四十二號中心

  • which was named after a proposition that the trades unions put together

    是行業工會命名的

  • to promote cultural access and cultural equity.

    主要提倡文化交流與文化平權

  • I also saw a lot of productions at the Roundhouse in the '60s and '70s.

    我在六七十年代也曾看過很多 Roundhouse 的作品

  • That would be the 1960s, by the way, and 1970s.

    那是1960 與1970年代之間

  • And one of them was by Peter Brook, and I'm going to come back to that,

    其中之一是 Peter Brook 的作品 我晚點會再提到

  • just before I wrap these comments up.

    在我總結這個故事前

  • But I wanted to, firstly, congratulate and welcome the other speakers.

    首先我要恭喜並歡迎其他的演講者

  • I know of their work.

    我知道他們的成就

  • I particularly wanted to mention Jude Kelly, who'll be speaking shortly.

    我特別想說的是 Jude Kelly 他很快就會上台來演講

  • Jude and I have worked together for a very long time,

    Jude 是我長時間合作的夥伴

  • Jude does wonderful work at the Southbank Centre,

    Jude 在 Southbank Centre 做得很棒

  • but we also worked together 10 years ago on a report for the British Government

    十年前 我們也為英國政府共同研究過

  • called "All Our Futures: Creativity, Culture, and Education"

    一個叫做 “我們的未來:創造力, 文化和教育” 的研究

  • and Jude's work, like mine, crosses over

    而 Jude 的工作跟我一樣

  • from the professional arts into education and beyond.

    由專業藝術橫跨到教育甚至更廣

  • So, I wanted to say that you're in good company today for this conversation

    你們今天的同伴都很棒

  • and there's great expertise in the audience.

    而觀眾群中也有許多專家

  • The reason I think we need a revolution is really captured

    我認為我們需要改革的重點

  • in a phrase you hear politicians often misuse.

    是一句常備政治家誤用的話

  • They talk about the need to "get back to basics" in education,

    他們說需要把“教育帶回基礎”

  • and I think we should.

    我認為那是對的

  • The problem, I think, is that many politicians,

    問題是,我認為,那麼多的政治家中

  • when they say "get back to basics,"

    當他們說回到基礎

  • seem to believe the basics are a group of subjects

    他們似乎相信基礎是指一些

  • that they did when they were at school,

    他們讀書時所學的科目

  • and in particular, they tend to emphasise

    通常,它們涵蓋

  • literacy and numeracy and science.

    文學和數學和科學

  • Well, of course, they're fantastically important,

    當然,這些相當重要

  • but the basics of education are not a group of subjects.

    但教育的基礎並非一些科目

  • The basics in education are fundamental purposes

    而是教育的最根本目的

  • and I'd hope that you'd bear these purposes in mind

    我希望你能把這些記在心裡

  • during the day's conversations and the debates and issues,

    在今天的對話和辯論和議題中

  • which I hope will flow from today.

    我希望在今天以後還會繼續

  • There are three basics, as I see it.

    我將它們分為三個基本目的

  • Not in particular order of priority,

    不分先後次序

  • though I have a reason for putting them in this sequence.

    不過我有這樣排序的理由

  • The first of them is economic.

    第一是經濟

  • Education has powerful roles in economic growth,

    教育在經濟增長、發展和永續性上

  • development, and sustainability

    都扮演了相當重要的角色

  • and any conversation about education that doesn't take account of the economy

    所以任何沒有考慮到 經濟因素的教育對話

  • is really in some respects detached and naive from the world that we live in.

    都在某層面上是與現實世界脫節和天真

  • The problem is that the economies that we are now generating around the world

    問題在現在全世界的經濟體

  • are quite unlike the economies in which people,

    與人們特別是我的世代

  • certainly of my generation, grew up in,

    從小認識的經濟體相當不一樣

  • and completely unlike the ones in which public education was conceived.

    更與全民教育構想的經濟體大為不同

  • The economies of the 21st century demand that we develop our skills

    21世紀的經濟發展需要我們

  • of creativity and innovation and a great multiplicity of human talents.

    開發創意、革新還有多元的技能

  • Our education systems don't do that.

    我們的教育體制 卻沒做到這些技能的開發

  • So, one of the reasons for a revolution is to meet economic purposes.

    所以,教育改革的一大目的 是為了符合經濟需求

  • But the second is cultural.

    但第二個目的是文化

  • Education has fundamental roles in enabling our students,

    教育有基本的角色是教導學生

  • at whatever age they happen to be,

    不論年紀

  • to understand their own cultural backgrounds,

    都能理解自己的文化背景

  • their own histories and traditions,

    自己國家的歷史和傳統

  • their own identity and what shaped and formed it,

    自己的角色和這個身份的價值

  • but it has equal responsibilities to encourage them

    並且鼓勵他們去理解別人的文化

  • to understand other people's cultures.

    也是同樣重要的

  • The great challenges that we face on the planet just now

    我們當今面世界臨的最大挑戰

  • are partly environmental, but they're also partly cultural.

    部分是環境因素但 也有部分是文化所造成的

  • The great conflicts around the world

    世界上最大的衝突

  • are born out of cultural mistrust and misunderstanding.

    都是因為文化間的不信任和誤解產生

  • So, the cultural roles of education are fundamental

    所以,文化是教育的根本

  • and that has real implications for the curriculum.

    它對學校課綱具影響力

  • But the thirdand I come to it last because it's, to me,

    但第三,我把它放到最後

  • the bridge into everything that matters to me

    因為對我來說 它是通往一切意義的橋樑

  • in education, as we start to build for the future

    教育,當我們開始建設未來

  • the third of them is personal.

    第三個是個人化

  • Education in the end is about people.

    教育始終是關於人的

  • It's about individuals.

    是關於每一個個別的

  • It's about their hopes and their aspirations.

    是關於每個人的願望和期許

  • It's about their talents and their abilities and their passions.

    有關於他們的才華 他們的能力和所熱衷的

  • A lot of people are dropping out of education,

    很多人在選擇輟學

  • a lot of people are staying in, but detaching from it,

    很多人還待在學校但是與教育脫節

  • and they all have personal reasons for doing that.

    他們都有私人原因做這些決定

  • Education is not a mechanistic process,

    教育不是一個機械化的過程

  • it's a process that depends upon the imaginations

    教育是一個超越你能想像的過程

  • and interests of students being properly engaged.

    學生的興趣需要被重視

  • So, at the root of my call for a revolution

    所以,我所認為的教育改革的最終目的

  • is the need to personalise education,

    是一個個人化的教育

  • and I say it because, particularly over the last 10 or 15 years,

    我這麼說是因為,在過去10至15年間

  • education has in a way become more and more impersonal.

    教育似乎越來越制式化

  • The more the governments have driven to standardise education,

    政府越是規範課程內容

  • the more they've driven education towards a narrow view of conformity,

    越是把教育退向更窄的道路

  • the less personal it's become.

    讓教育更不符合個人需求

  • So, the root of the revolution, to me, is the need to reverse our priorities

    所以,對我來說改革的根本是 我們必須改變優次

  • and focus on the students and the teachers.

    優先重視學生和老師

  • I mentioned Peter Brook. I used to go to the Roundhouse in the '70s

    我先前提到 Peter Brook 70年代我常去 Roundhouse

  • and I saw a number of productions by Peter Brook.

    看過無數 Peter Brook 的作品

  • Peter Brook, if you don't know, was a theater director, still is.

    Peter Brook 是一名舞台劇導演

  • He was involved with the National Theatre,

    他曾活躍於國家戲劇院

  • the Royal Shakespeare Theatre,

    和皇家莎士比亞戲劇院

  • and then he moved to Paris to set up a centre for theatre research.

    後來他搬到巴黎 開設了一家戲劇研究中心

  • I remember seeing his production of "The Ik" at the Roundhouse,

    我記得在 Roundhouse 看過他導的"The Ik"

  • when the Roundhouse was a centre for innovative theatre in the '70s.

    '70年代,Roundhouse 是帶領創新劇院的中心

  • Peter Brook wrote a book a number of years ago, called "The Empty Space"

    Peter Brook 多年前寫一本稱 "The Empty Space" 的書

  • and in it, he talks about his interest in making theatre

    書中他談到他的興趣是讓舞台劇

  • the most powerful experience it can be

    變成為最震撼的經驗

  • and his argument really is that a lot of theatre experience

    他的論點是,很多舞台劇其實

  • is not terribly powerful;

    並非都很讓人震撼

  • it passes the evening, but it would have passed anyway,

    它讓我度過了一個黃昏,但時間總是會過的

  • and that theatre has transformative potential.

    舞台劇具有改造潛能

  • So his interest is in plumbing that potential.

    所以他的興趣是尋找改造的空間

  • And he says, to do that, to make theatre the most powerful thing it can be,

    他說要讓戲劇成為最震撼的事

  • we have to focus on what it really is,

    我們必須聚焦在戲劇是什麼

  • and he suggests a kind of thought experiment.

    他提議了一種想法的實驗

  • He said, "if you were to take an average theatre performance,

    他說“如果讓你從普遍的戲劇中

  • what could you take away from it and still have theatre?"

    拿走一些不改變戲劇本質的東西 你要拿走什麼?”

  • This is a way of getting to the irreducible minimum of theatre.

    這是一種最簡化舞台劇的方式

  • "Well," he said, "you can take away the curtains,

    他說“你可以拿走布幕

  • you can take away the scripts –a lot of theatre doesn't have scripts

    你可以拿走劇本(很多舞台劇都沒有劇本)

  • you can certainly get rid of the director –a lot of theatre didn't have directors

    你可以不要導演(很多舞台劇也沒有導演)

  • you could get away with the lighting, as long as you can see it,

    只要你看到甚至可以不要燈光設備

  • actually, even if you can't,

    其實,看不到也沒關係

  • you could get away with the stage crew,

    你可以不需要舞台工作人員

  • you could... in fact, you could get rid of the building."

    你甚至能不要在劇院裡。”

  • He said, "You don't need any of this, really, for theatre.

    他說 “你真的不需要這些

  • What you do need, all you need for theatre,

    你唯一需要的是

  • is an actor in a space and somebody watching.

    一個演員和觀眾

  • It could just be one other person, but an actor with an audience, that's it.

    只要有這兩個人就夠了

  • The actor performs a drama,

    演員演出戲劇

  • the fact of it being witnessed by an audience,

    有一名觀眾目睹他的演出

  • that relationship is theatre."

    戲劇的關係就成立了。”

  • And he said, "If we're interested in making theatre powerful,

    他還說”如果我們對把舞台劇劇 變得更加震撼感興趣

  • we should focus our efforts on that relationship

    我們就該聚焦在他們之中的關係

  • and on making it the best it can be."

    和把它做到最好。”

  • And he said, "We should never add anything to it, unless it improves it.

    他還說:”我們永不應該增加別的因素 除非能讓他更好。

  • If it's a distraction, get rid of it."

    如果它讓你分心,就應該把它剔除。“

  • Well, you see, the parallel with education to me is absolutely exact.

    對我來說,跟教育同行的東西相當明確

  • In education, in the end, what we're talking about

    在教育裡最終的目的

  • is the relationship between teachers and students,

    就是師生之間的關係

  • between somebody learning and somebody helping.

    是一個學習者與幫助人之間的互動

  • Sometimes it's self-help, of course.

    當然,很多時候是指自學

  • But it's that relationship that matters and over time what's happened

    這樣的師生關係是重要的,但隨著時間

  • is that relationship has become obscured

    這樣的關係在很多方面

  • and encrusted and obliterated in some respects

    都被變得模糊,被蒙蔽、抹煞

  • by every type of distraction, national policy sometimes,

    因為各種分心的東西,像國家政策

  • by testing regimes where they don't contribute to the process,

    在過程中毫無貢獻的考試制度

  • by bargaining rights, by subject loyalties, by building codes.

    爭權,忠於科目和建立法規

  • It's like an old painting that's disappeared

    它像是一幅在一層一層的油漆

  • under layers and layers of varnish.

    底下已消失的畫作

  • And I find it interesting, people can talk all day

    我發現很有趣的是人們整天談論教育

  • about education, but never mention learning.

    卻從來不提到學習

  • And therefore, what I'm arguing is that the education revolution

    所以我要說的是教育改革

  • has to be based on a radical commitment

    要建基在基本的承詻

  • to improving learning, however that happens.

    是去改善學習

  • It's not about curricula in themselves, it's about the quality of that.

    這不是關於課程內容而是它的品質

  • And you can have all kinds of things going on in education, around it,

    我們有相當多跟教育有關的事要做

  • but unless learning is deepened and improved,

    但除非我們改善和加深學習

  • and that means making it personal,

    這表示讓教育個人化

  • then nothing really else matters very much.

    不然,其他的都不重要了

  • So, it leads me to suggest some core principles

    所以這讓我想介紹一些核心重點

  • for taking the revolution forward.

    來帶動這一場改革

  • The first is that education has to be personalised.

    第一個就是把教育個人化

  • Every student has their own story,

    每一個學生都有自己的故事

  • every student has their own menu of interests and of talents.

    每個學生都有自己的專長和興趣

  • It has to be about them.

    教育有關他們的

  • It has to be about improving the motivation and opportunity

    我們需要增加教師發揮創意

  • for creativity of teachers.

    的動機和機會

  • Teaching is an art form. It's not just a delivery system.

    教學是一種藝術 不只是傳遞知識的系統

  • Great teachers are people who know how to mediate their material,

    一個好的教師知道如何將它的教材

  • in a way that really does inspire the imaginations

    啓發想像力

  • and ignite the creativity of their students.

    和點燃學生的創造力

  • Secondly, education has to be customised.

    第二,教育應該是度身訂造的

  • Wherever students learn, that is the education system for them.

    學生在哪裡,教育系統就從哪裡開始

  • It's not the committee rooms of our parliament buildings,

    它不在國會大樓的會議室

  • it's not the board rooms of our examinations boards.

    或由考試委員會的會議室

  • Education happens in the schools or learning communities that students attend

    教育是學生就讀的學校或學習群體

  • and that for them is the system.

    那是每個學生專屬的教育體制

  • So, customising education to those students, to this place,

    所以要為學生們度身打造學習系統

  • these needs, this community, is absolutely critical.

    社區是非常重要的

  • And the other key principle to me is diversity.

    另一個主要因素是多元

  • Our current drive towards standardisation offends the principle of diversity

    現在的制式化違反了尊重多元的原則

  • on which human life depends and flourishes.

    那是我們人類生命所依靠和得以繁茂的

  • If you're a parent or a sibling

    如果你是一位家長或兄弟姐妹

  • and you have a couple of children or a couple of siblings,

    你有好幾個孩子或兄弟姐妹

  • I'll make you a bet.

    我跟你打賭

  • If you have two or more children or siblings, I bet you

    如果你有兩個或者更多的孩子 或兄弟姊妹, 我保證

  • that they are completely different from each other, aren't they?

    他們個個截然不同, 對吧?

  • I mean, you would never confuse them, would you?

    我的意思是,你肯定不會將他們搞混, 對吧?

  • "Which one are you? I'm constantly mudding you up."

    “哪一個是你?我一直把你們搞混”

  • And the reason is that human life is inherently diverse,

    因為人類本來就有差異,

  • and we need to celebrate that in our school systems.

    我們的教育體制應該歌頌這樣的差異

  • Instead, too often, we subscribe to a rather bland menu of conformity.

    相反的, 我們經常對乏味無奇 過於制治化的教育表示贊同

  • And the final principle here is about partnership.

    最後一個元素是夥伴關係

  • Education isn't just what happens in formal school buildings,

    教育不該只出現在學校教室裡

  • it should involve great institutions, like the Southbank Centre,

    它也應該發生在其他場地 像南岸藝術中心

  • like the Roundhouse, like our great museums,

    Roundhouse 劇場,大英博物館

  • our great science institutions.

    還有我們偉大的科學院

  • It should be a genuine partnership with the community more generally.

    它應該更廣泛的和社區合作