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  • Type is something we consume

    我們以龐大的數量

  • in enormous quantities.

    消耗著印刷文字

  • In much of the world,

    在世界上絕大多數地方

  • it's completely inescapable.

    這是完全無可避免的

  • But few consumers are concerned to know

    但是很少有消費者會在意

  • where a particular typeface came from

    如果事實上 字體的創造

  • or when or who designed it,

    有人類力量參與其中

  • if, indeed, there was any human agency involved

    如果它不是從軟體環境裡自動生成

  • in its creation, if it didn't just sort of materialize

    那麼某一特定的字體從何而來

  • out of the software ether.

    或者何時由何人設計

  • But I do have to be concerned with those things.

    但我必須關心這類問題

  • It's my job.

    因為這是我的工作

  • I'm one of the tiny handful of people

    我和另外少數人

  • who gets badly bent out of shape

    會因為T和E之間的間距問題

  • by the bad spacing of the T and the E

    而怒不可遏

  • that you see there.

    正如你們所見

  • I've got to take that slide off.

    我得換掉那張幻燈片

  • I can't stand it. Nor can Chris.

    因為我無法忍受 克理斯也是

  • There. Good.

    這樣 總算好了

  • So my talk is about the connection

    所以我的演講是關於

  • between technology and design of type.

    技術與印刷文字之間的聯繫

  • The technology has changed

    自從我開始工作以來

  • a number of times since I started work:

    技術經歷了幾次變革:

  • photo, digital, desktop, screen, web.

    相片 數位 桌面 螢幕 網頁

  • I've had to survive those changes and try

    我必須在這些變革中求得生存

  • to understand their implications for what I do

    並且試圖理解這對我的設計工作

  • for design.

    意味著什麼

  • This slide is about the effect of tools on form.

    這張是關於工具對形態的影響

  • The two letters, the two K's,

    這兩個字母 兩個K

  • the one on your left, my right, is modern,

    你們左手邊 我的右手邊的 是現代設計

  • made on a computer.

    在電腦上完成的

  • All straight lines are dead straight.

    所有的直線都絕對筆直

  • The curves have that kind of mathematical smoothness

    這些曲線根據貝塞爾曲線公式

  • that thezier formula imposes.

    都有種精準的平滑度

  • On the right, ancient Gothic,

    右邊是古代哥德字母

  • cut in the resistant material of steel by hand.

    是用耐久的鋼材質手工切割的

  • None of the straight lines are actually straight.

    沒有一條絕對的直線

  • The curves are kind of subtle.

    曲線也相對微妙

  • It has that spark of life from the human hand

    它有種來自人類手工的生命力

  • that the machine or the program

    這是機器或電腦程式

  • can never capture.

    永遠也無法捕捉的

  • What a contrast.

    多麼強烈的對比

  • Well, I tell a lie.

    好吧 其實我撒謊了

  • A lie at TED. I'm really sorry.

    在TED上撒謊 真是很抱歉

  • Both of these were made on a computer,

    這兩種字體都是在電腦上製作的

  • same software, samezier curves,

    同樣的軟體 同樣是貝塞爾公式

  • same font format.

    同樣的字體格式

  • The one on your left

    你們左邊這個

  • was made by Zuzana Licko at Emigre,

    是由 Emigre 的 Zuzana Licko 所創作的

  • and I did the other one.

    右邊這個是我製作的

  • The tool is the same, yet the letters are different.

    工具是一樣的 而字體卻不一樣

  • The letters are different

    這些字體的不同

  • because the designers are different.

    是由於設計者的不同

  • That's all. Zuzana wanted hers to look like that.

    僅此而已 Zuzana 想要那樣的字體

  • I wanted mine to look like that. End of story.

    而我想要這樣的字體 就是這樣

  • Type is very adaptable.

    印刷文字的適應性很強

  • Unlike a fine art, such as sculpture or architecture,

    不像藝術品 如雕塑或建築

  • type hides its methods.

    印刷文字隱藏了手法

  • I think of myself as an industrial designer.

    我把自己看作是工業設計者

  • The thing I design is manufactured,

    我設計的東西要投入生產

  • and it has a function:

    而且具有功能:

  • to be read, to convey meaning.

    滿足人們閱讀與表達的需要

  • But there is a bit more to it than that.

    但字體的設計不止於此

  • There's the sort of aesthetic element.

    其中還有美學元素

  • What makes these two letters different

    通過不同設計者的不同解讀

  • from different interpretations by different designers?

    這兩種字體為何變得不同?

  • What gives the work of some designers

    是什麼賦予了某些設計師的作品

  • sort of characteristic personal style,

    一種特有的個人風格

  • as you might find in the work of a fashion designer,

    就像你在時裝設計 汽車設計等作品中

  • an automobile designer, whatever?

    所能發現的那樣?

  • There have been some cases, I admit,

    我承認 作為一名設計師

  • where I as a designer

    曾經有些時候

  • did feel the influence of technology.

    我的確感受到技術的影響力

  • This is from the mid-'60s,

    這是從60年代中期開始

  • the change from metal type to photo,

    金屬鑄排變成照相排版

  • hot to cold.

    “熱排”變成“冷排”

  • This brought some benefits

    這帶來一些好處

  • but also one particular drawback:

    但同時也有一個弊端:

  • a spacing system that only provided

    文字間距系統

  • 18 discrete units for letters

    只提供18個獨立的單位

  • to be accommodated on.

    來讓我們調試字母

  • I was asked at this time to design

    這時 有人讓我設計

  • a series of condensed sans serif types

    一系列的壓縮無襯線字體

  • with as many different variants as possible

    要有盡可能多的變體

  • within this 18-unit box.

    但都限於這18個單位

  • Quickly looking at the arithmetic,

    做了簡單的算數後

  • I realized I could only actually make three

    我發現我其實只能製作

  • of related design. Here you see them.

    三個有關設計 如大家所見

  • In Helvetica Compressed, Extra Compressed,

    Helvetica字體的壓縮版 超壓縮版

  • and Ultra Compressed, this rigid 18-unit system

    和終極壓縮版 這種嚴格的18單位的系統

  • really boxed me in.

    著實限制了我的發揮

  • It kind of determined the proportions

    它一定程度上決定了

  • of the design.

    設計的比例

  • Here are the typefaces, at least the lower cases.

    這是這三種字體的小寫體

  • So do you look at these and say,

    看著這些 你會不會說:

  • "Poor Matthew, he had to submit to a problem,

    可憐的馬修 他不得不屈服於一個問題

  • and by God it shows in the results."

    上帝可鑒 結果就是這樣

  • I hope not.

    我不希望這樣

  • If I were doing this same job today,

    如果這個任務放到今天

  • instead of having 18 spacing units,

    我會用1000個單位

  • I would have 1,000.

    而不是18個

  • Clearly I could make more variants,

    很明顯 我就能做更多變體

  • but would these three members of the family be better?

    但是這三種字體會變得更好嗎?

  • It's hard to say without actually doing it,

    若沒有著手去做 則很難說

  • but they would not be better in the proportion

    但我能告訴你 在1000/18的比例下

  • of 1,000 to 18, I can tell you that.

    他們絕不會變得更好

  • My instinct tells you that any improvement

    我的直覺告訴你們 任何的改善

  • would be rather slight, because they were designed

    都會微乎其微 因為它們在設計之初

  • as functions of the system they were designed to fit,

    就被限於一個必須去適應的系統

  • and as I said, type is very adaptable.

    而我剛才說過 印刷文字的適應性很高

  • It does hide its methods.

    印刷字的確隱藏了其手法

  • All industrial designers work within constraints.

    所有的工業設計師都在制約內工作

  • This is not fine art.

    這不是藝術

  • The question is, does a constraint

    問題是 制約會不會

  • force a compromise?

    強加某種折衷?

  • By accepting a constraint,

    接受一種制約的同時

  • are you working to a lower standard?

    你是否降低了工作標準?

  • I don't believe so, and I've always been encouraged

    我不這樣認為

  • by something that Charles Eames said.

    查爾斯·伊姆斯的話 一直鼓勵著我

  • He said he was conscious of working

    他說 他明白自己的工作

  • within constraints,

    受到一些制約

  • but not of making compromises.

    但從不會降低工作品質

  • The distinction between a constraint

    制約和折衷

  • and a compromise is obviously very subtle,

    之間的區別很微妙

  • but it's very central to my attitude to work.

    但卻是我工作態度的核心

  • Remember this reading experience?

    還記得這種閱讀體驗嗎?

  • The phone book. I'll hold the slide

    電話簿 這張幻燈片會停一會

  • so you can enjoy the nostalgia.

    讓你們享受懷舊的愉悅

  • This is from the mid-'70s early trials

    這是70年代中期,

  • of Bell Centennial typeface I designed

    我設計的 Bell Centennial 字體

  • for the U.S. phone books,

    在美國電話簿上的早期試驗

  • and it was my first experience of digital type,

    這是我對數碼印刷字的初次體驗

  • and quite a baptism.

    如思想洗禮一般

  • Designed for the phone books, as I said,

    我說過 這是為電話簿設計的

  • to be printed at tiny size on newsprint

    要以微小字型大小印在新聞用紙上

  • on very high-speed rotary presses

    用高速的輪轉印刷機

  • with ink that was kerosene and lampblack.

    和煤油煤煙制的墨水

  • This is not a hospitable environment

    這種工作環境對一個排印設計者來說

  • for a typographic designer.

    並不舒適

  • So the challenge for me was to design type

    所以對我的挑戰就是

  • that performed as well as possible

    設計的字體在這種惡劣的生產環境中

  • in these very adverse production conditions.

    能盡可能地表現出色

  • As I say, we were in the infancy of digital type.

    如我所說 我們還處於數碼排印的初期

  • I had to draw every character by hand

    我必須在方格紙上

  • on quadrille graph paper --

    動手畫出每個字

  • there were four weights of Bell Centennial

    ——Bell Centennial 字體有四種粗細——

  • pixel by pixel, then encode them raster line by raster line

    一個像素一個像素地畫 然後給每個光柵線編碼

  • for the keyboard.

    使它們適用於鍵盤

  • It took two years, but I learned a lot.

    我花了兩年時間 但學到了很多

  • These letters look as though they've been chewed

    這些字母看起來像是被

  • by the dog or something or other,

    狗或其他什麼咬了一樣

  • but the missing pixels at the intersections

    但是在筆劃的交叉點

  • of strokes or in the crotches

    之所以有些像素缺失

  • are the result of my studying the effects

    是因為我瞭解了墨水

  • of ink spread on cheap paper

    在廉價紙上會是什麼效果

  • and reacting, revising the font accordingly.

    於是對字型做了相應修改

  • These strange artifacts are designed to compensate

    設計這些奇怪的人造字型是為了抵消

  • for the undesirable effects of scale

    測量和生產過程所帶來的

  • and production process.

    不理想的效果

  • At the outset, AT&T had wanted

    一開始 AT&T 想要

  • to set the phone books in Helvetica,

    在電話簿裡應用 Helvetica 字體

  • but as my friend Erik Spiekermann said

    但是正如我的朋友艾瑞克·史皮克曼

  • in the Helvetica movie, if you've seen that,

    在《Helvetica》這部紀錄片理所說 如果大家看過的話

  • the letters in Helvetica were designed to be

    Helvetica 字體的設計是為了

  • as similar to one another as possible.

    讓所有字母都盡可能相似

  • This is not the recipe for legibility at small size.

    這並不是為了提高小號字的可讀性

  • It looks very elegant up on a slide.

    在幻燈片上看相當優美

  • I had to disambiguate these forms

    我必須在 Bell Centennial 字體中

  • of the figures as much as possible in Bell Centennial

    盡可能的區分每一個數字的樣式

  • by sort of opening the shapes up, as you can see

    這是通過將這種樣式的形狀打開

  • in the bottom part of that slide.

    如最後一行這樣

  • So now we're on to the mid-'80s,

    這時已經快到80年代中期

  • the early days of digital outline fonts,

    這是數碼輪廓字體和向量技術

  • vector technology.

    發展的早期

  • There was an issue at that time

    當時有一個問題

  • with the size of the fonts,

    是關於字型的大小

  • the amount of data that was required to find

    以及在電腦裡尋找和儲存一種字型

  • and store a font in computer memory.

    所需要的數據量

  • It limited the number of fonts you could get

    這限制了你能一次從排版系統中

  • on your typesetting system at any one time.

    得到的字型的數量

  • I did an analysis of the data,

    我對這些數據進行了分析

  • and found that a typical serif face

    發現 你們左手邊

  • you see on the left

    這種典型的襯線體

  • needed nearly twice as much data

    需要的數據量幾乎是

  • as a sans serif in the middle

    中間的無襯線體的兩倍

  • because of all the points required

    這是因為做出優雅的襯線弧度

  • to define the elegantly curved serif brackets.

    所需要的那些點

  • The numbers at the bottom of the slide, by the way,

    順便說一句 幻燈片底部的數字

  • they represent the amount of data

    它們表示了儲存各種字體

  • needed to store each of the fonts.

    所需要的數據量

  • So the sans serif, in the middle,

    所以位於中間的無襯線體

  • sans the serifs, was much more economical,

    去掉了襯線 則變得更省數據

  • 81 to 151.

    由原來的151變成81

  • "Aha," I thought. "The engineers have a problem.

    我想:啊哈 工程師們遇到了問題

  • Designer to the rescue."

    我們設計師來解決

  • I made a serif type, you can see it on the right,

    我便製作了一種襯線體 就是你們右邊這個

  • without curved serifs.

    去掉了彎曲的襯線

  • I made them polygonal, out of straight line segments,

    我把它們變成了多邊形 由許多線段組成

  • chamfered brackets.

    且對襯線彎曲處進行了斜切

  • And look, as economical in data as a sans serif.

    看 結果跟無襯線體一樣節省數據

  • We call it Charter, on the right.

    右邊這種 我們叫它 Charter 字體

  • So I went to the head of engineering

    所以我帶著這些數據

  • with my numbers, and I said proudly,

    去找工程部主管 驕傲地說:

  • "I have solved your problem."

    我解決了你的問題

  • "Oh," he said. "What problem?"

    他說:哦 什麼問題?

  • And I said, "Well, you know, the problem

    我說:你知道的 就是

  • of the huge data you require for serif fonts and so on."

    襯線體的數據量要求過大之類的

  • "Oh," he said. "We solved that problem last week.

    他說:我們上禮拜已經解決了

  • We wrote a compaction routine that reduces

    我們寫了一個壓縮例程

  • the size of all fonts by an order of magnitude.

    將所有字型的大小減小一個數量級

  • You can have as many fonts on your system

    現在你想在系統裡有多少字型

  • as you like."

    就能有多少

  • "Well, thank you for letting me know," I said.

    我說:好吧 謝謝你讓我知道

  • Foiled again.

    再次受挫

  • I was left with a design solution

    我手裡的這個設計方案

  • for a nonexistent technical problem.

    卻是為了一個不存在的技術問題

  • But here is where the story sort of gets interesting for me.

    但就在這裡 我突然來了興致

  • I didn't just throw my design away

    我並沒有一氣之下

  • in a fit of pique.

    扔掉我的設計

  • I persevered.

    我還要繼續

  • What had started as a technical exercise

    一開始的一個技術性操作

  • became an aesthetic exercise, really.

    現在卻成了一個美學課題

  • In other words, I had come to like this typeface.

    也就是說 我開始喜歡這個字體了

  • Forget its origins. Screw that.

    別想一開始為什麼了 管他呢

  • I liked the design for its own sake.

    我就是喜歡這個字體本身

  • The simplified forms of Charter

    Charter 的這種簡化形式

  • gave it a sort of plain-spoken quality

    給了它一種簡單明了的特質

  • and unfussy spareness

    和不做作的留白

  • that sort of pleased me.

    這讓我很高興

  • You know, at times of technical innovation,

    要知道 在技術革新的年代

  • designers want to be influenced

    設計者想要被

  • by what's in the air.

    未知的想法所影響

  • We want to respond. We want to be pushed

    我們想回應未知 想推進自己

  • into exploring something new.

    探索未知的世界

  • So Charter is a sort of parable for me, really.

    所以 Charter 是我給自己上的一課

  • In the end, there was no hard and fast causal link

    最終 技術和 Charter 的設計之間

  • between the technology and the design of Charter.

    並沒有確切的因果聯繫

  • I had really misunderstood the technology.

    我當時誤解了那些技術

  • The technology did suggest something to me,

    技術的確給了我一點啟發

  • but it did not force my hand,

    但並沒有迫使我做什麼

  • and I think this happens very often.

    而且我認為這時常發生

  • You know, engineers are very smart,

    大家知道 工程師都很聰明

  • and despite occasional frustrations

    除了偶爾因為自己不夠聰明