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  • When we talk about corruption,

    當我們談到貪腐

  • there are typical types of individuals that spring to mind.

    有幾種典型的人物會出現在我們腦海

  • There's the former Soviet megalomaniacs.

    例如前蘇聯狂人

  • Saparmurat Niyazov, he was one of them.

    薩帕爾穆拉特•尼亞佐夫(Saparmurat Niyazov) 就是其中之一

  • Until his death in 2006,

    直到 2006 年過世前

  • he was the all-powerful leader of Turkmenistan,

    他是土庫曼最有權力的領導人

  • a Central Asian country rich in natural gas.

    土庫曼位於中亞,這個國家富含天然氣

  • Now, he really loved to issue presidential decrees.

    他很愛發佈總統詔令

  • And one renamed the months of the year

    其中之一是把月份名稱改掉

  • including after himself and his mother.

    甚至以他自己和他母親的名字取代

  • He spent millions of dollars

    他花了數百萬元

  • creating a bizarre personality cult,

    建立了奇異的個人崇拜

  • and his crowning glory was the building

    而他引以為豪的是給自己塑了

  • of a 40-foot-high gold-plated statue of himself

    一座四十呎高的鍍金雕像

  • which stood proudly in the capital's central square

    這雕像傲氣地聳立在首都的中央廣場上

  • and rotated to follow the sun.

    並隨著太陽而轉動

  • He was a slightly unusual guy.

    這傢伙有點異常

  • And then there's that cliché,

    而現在要提到的算是老生常談

  • the African dictator or minister or official.

    可以稱他為非洲的獨裁者、部長或是官員

  • There's Teodorín Obiang.

    特奧多羅•奧比昂 (Teodorín Obiang)

  • So his daddy is president for life of Equatorial Guinea,

    他的父親當了一輩子的赤道幾內亞總統

  • a West African nation that has exported

    這個西非國家從 1990 年代起

  • billions of dollars of oil since the 1990s

    出口了價值數十億元的原油

  • and yet has a truly appalling human rights record.

    但卻存在著驚世駭俗的迫害人權的記錄

  • The vast majority of its people

    這國家裡絕大多數的人民

  • are living in really miserable poverty

    都活在極度悲慘的貧困之中

  • despite an income per capita that's on a par

    但國家的人均收入

  • with that of Portugal.

    卻和葡萄牙差不多

  • So Obiang junior, well, he buys himself

    這位奧比昂二世

  • a $30 million mansion in Malibu, California.

    在加州馬利布給自己 買了棟三千萬美金的豪宅

  • I've been up to its front gates.

    我曾經站在那豪宅前門

  • I can tell you it's a magnificent spread.

    可說觸目所及極盡豪奢

  • He bought an €18 million art collection

    他買了價值一千八百萬歐元的藝術收藏

  • that used to belong to fashion designer Yves Saint Laurent,

    這些收藏以前是屬於 時尚設計師伊夫•聖羅蘭 (YSL)

  • a stack of fabulous sports cars,

    還有各式各樣的高級跑車

  • some costing a million dollars apiece --

    有些要價一百萬美金一台

  • oh, and a Gulfstream jet, too.

    喔,當然他也有一架灣流噴射機

  • Now get this:

    但你要知道

  • Until recently, he was earning an official monthly salary

    直到現在,他的官方月薪

  • of less than 7,000 dollars.

    還不到 7,000 美金

  • And there's Dan Etete.

    再來我們談到丹•埃泰特(Dan Etete)

  • Well, he was the former oil minister of Nigeria

    他是奈及利亞前石油部長

  • under President Abacha,

    隸屬於總統阿巴察 (Abacha)

  • and it just so happens he's a convicted money launderer too.

    他同樣被認定是洗黑錢的人物

  • We've spent a great deal of time

    我們已經花了很多的時間

  • investigating a $1 billion --

    針對十億美元進行追查

  • that's right, a $1 billion

    沒錯,是十億美元

  • oil deal that he was involved with,

    這是在石油交易中他所牽涉的金額

  • and what we found was pretty shocking,

    而調查結果讓我們非常震驚

  • but more about that later.

    這我們晚點再來談

  • So it's easy to think that corruption happens

    所以我們可以輕易的推論

  • somewhere over there,

    貪腐在遙遠的那邊發生著

  • carried out by a bunch of greedy despots

    被一些貪婪的獨裁者

  • and individuals up to no good in countries

    以及對國家沒有益處的個人所把持

  • that we, personally, may know very little about

    於此,對我們個人而言,似乎是少有所知

  • and feel really unconnected to

    且覺得沒什麼關聯

  • and unaffected by what might be going on.

    好像對我們的生活也沒什麼影響

  • But does it just happen over there?

    但這些事情真的只會發生在別的地方嗎?

  • Well, at 22, I was very lucky.

    在我 22 歲時,我很幸運

  • My first job out of university

    我畢業後的第一份工作

  • was investigating the illegal trade in African ivory.

    就是調查非洲象牙的非法交易

  • And that's how my relationship with corruption really began.

    那正是我和貪腐產生關聯的開始

  • In 1993, with two friends who were colleagues,

    1993 年,我和兩個朋友,也是同事

  • Simon Taylor and Patrick Alley,

    Simon Taylor 和 Patrick Alley

  • we set up an organization called Global Witness.

    我們成立了一個名為"全球見證" (Global Witness) 的組織

  • Our first campaign was investigating the role

    我們的第一個行動就是調查非法伐木

  • of illegal logging in funding the war in Cambodia.

    在柬埔寨戰爭資金裡所扮演的角色

  • So a few years later, and it's now 1997,

    過了幾年, 1997 年

  • and I'm in Angola undercover investigating blood diamonds.

    我在安哥拉秘密調查血鑽石的議題

  • Perhaps you saw the film,

    也許你看過這部好萊塢電影

  • the Hollywood film "Blood Diamond,"

    "血鑽石" (Blood Diamond)

  • the one with Leonardo DiCaprio.

    李奧納多·狄卡皮歐 主演的

  • Well, some of that sprang from our work.

    部分劇情是根據我們的調查而來

  • Luanda, it was full of land mine victims

    在盧安達,到處都是地雷的受害者

  • who were struggling to survive on the streets

    他們在街上掙扎著求生存

  • and war orphans living in sewers under the streets,

    戰爭孤兒在街邊的陰溝裡生活

  • and a tiny, very wealthy elite

    而人數極少的闊綽菁英

  • who gossiped about shopping trips to Brazil and Portugal.

    談論的盡是去巴西和葡萄牙的血拼之旅

  • And it was a slightly crazy place.

    那真是個有點瘋狂的地方

  • So I'm sitting in a hot and very stuffy hotel room

    當我坐在相當悶熱的旅館房間時

  • feeling just totally overwhelmed.

    覺得自己快撐不下去了

  • But it wasn't about blood diamonds.

    但不是因為血鑽石的緣故

  • Because I'd been speaking to lots of people there

    是因為我對許多當地人進行演說

  • who, well, they talked about a different problem:

    而他們談到了另一個不同的問題是:

  • that of a massive web of corruption on a global scale

    在這種全球層級的大規模貪腐網絡中

  • and millions of oil dollars going missing.

    與石油相關的數百萬美金可以消失

  • And for what was then a very small organization

    而像我們這麼小的組織

  • of just a few people,

    不過才幾個成員

  • trying to even begin to think how we might tackle that

    卻想要試著逮到那些人

  • was an enormous challenge.

    無異是個巨大的挑戰

  • And in the years that I've been,

    而在這些年裡

  • and we've all been campaigning and investigating,

    從我們所有的行動和追查中

  • I've repeatedly seen that what makes corruption

    我不斷的看到,是什麼

  • on a global, massive scale possible,

    讓貪腐得以在全球級的規模中發生

  • well it isn't just greed or the misuse of power

    要知道這不僅僅是貪婪或是濫用權力

  • or that nebulous phrase "weak governance."

    或用含混不清的 "無能治理" 可以解釋

  • I mean, yes, it's all of those,

    我的意思是,沒錯,這些全都是原因

  • but corruption, it's made possible by the actions

    但貪腐能發生

  • of global facilitators.

    是因為全球級主事者的行為

  • So let's go back to some of those people I talked about earlier.

    所以回到之前我提過的那些人

  • Now, they're all people we've investigated,

    他們都是我們調查過的人

  • and they're all people who couldn't do what they do alone.

    他們都不可能只靠自己就做出那些事情來

  • Take Obiang junior. Well, he didn't end up

    就以奧比昂二世來說

  • with high-end art and luxury houses without help.

    如果沒人幫忙,他不可能 擁有那些高級藝術品和豪宅

  • He did business with global banks.

    他和世界級的銀行打交道

  • A bank in Paris held accounts of companies controlled by him,

    他在巴黎一家銀行 為自己掌控的公司開設帳戶

  • one of which was used to buy the art,

    其中一個帳戶就是用來買藝術品

  • and American banks, well, they funneled

    而美國的銀行

  • 73 million dollars into the States,

    則讓七千三百萬美金流入美國

  • some of which was used to buy that California mansion.

    這筆資金一部分去買了加州的豪宅

  • And he didn't do all of this in his own name either.

    當然他也沒用自己的名義去做這些事

  • He used shell companies.

    他利用一些空殼公司

  • He used one to buy the property, and another,

    其中一家空殼公司買不動產

  • which was in somebody else's name,

    而另一個也是在別人名下的空殼公司

  • to pay the huge bills it cost to run the place.

    則支付維持這個物業的龐大費用

  • And then there's Dan Etete.

    再來看 丹•埃泰特

  • Well, when he was oil minister,

    當他是石油部長的時候

  • he awarded an oil block now worth over a billion dollars

    把一處價值超過十億美金 的油區贈與一間公司

  • to a company that, guess what, yeah,

    你可以猜猜是怎麼回事

  • he was the hidden owner of.

    他自己就是那公司的幕後老闆

  • Now, it was then much later traded on

    現在要講到的是最近的交易

  • with the kind assistance of the Nigerian government --

    在奈及利亞政府大方的幫忙下

  • now I have to be careful what I say here

    我對於現在要說出的話得要非常小心

  • to subsidiaries of Shell and the Italian Eni,

    和 Shell 和 義大利 Eni 的子公司合作

  • two of the biggest oil companies around.

    這是兩家最大的石油公司

  • So the reality is, is that the engine of corruption,

    所以事實上,這是否才是貪腐的動力

  • well, it exists far beyond the shores of countries

    這問題不光發生在那些海外國家

  • like Equatorial Guinea or Nigeria or Turkmenistan.

    例如:赤道幾內亞、奈及利亞或土庫曼

  • This engine, well, it's driven

    驅動的動力

  • by our international banking system,

    來自國際銀行組織

  • by the problem of anonymous shell companies,

    來自這些匿名的空殼公司

  • and by the secrecy that we have afforded

    也來自我們賦予這些大型的石油

  • big oil, gas and mining operations,

    天然氣和礦產開採行動隱匿的權利

  • and, most of all, by the failure of our politicians

    而最重要的,是來自政客的失職

  • to back up their rhetoric and do something

    無能實現他們的花言巧語

  • really meaningful and systemic to tackle this stuff.

    做些真正有意義的事 且有系統的抓出這些爛帳

  • Now let's take the banks first.

    現在我們先談銀行問題

  • Well, it's not going to come as any surprise

    當我告訴你們銀行收黑錢時

  • for me to tell you that banks accept dirty money,

    我想你們不會覺得驚訝

  • but they prioritize their profits in other destructive ways too.

    但他們的獲利卻也造成破壞

  • For example, in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    以馬來西亞的砂勞越為例

  • Now this region, it has just five percent

    現在這個區域只剩下 5% 的森林未經開發

  • of its forests left intact. Five percent.

    只剩下 5% 而已

  • So how did that happen?

    這是怎麼一回事?

  • Well, because an elite and its facilitators

    就因為一個所謂菁英和主事者們

  • have been making millions of dollars

    多年來

  • from supporting logging on an industrial scale

    藉由支援企業規模的大量伐木

  • for many years.

    賺進了數百萬美元

  • So we sent an undercover investigator in

    所以我們派出一個秘密調查員

  • to secretly film meetings with members of the ruling elite,

    錄下管理階層的的會議過程

  • and the resulting footage, well, it made some people very angry,

    這段影片讓某些人非常生氣

  • and you can see that on YouTube,

    你可以在 YouTube 上找到這影片

  • but it proved what we had long suspected,

    但這證實了我們長久以來的懷疑

  • because it showed how the state's chief minister,

    因為影片中顯示出這個州長

  • despite his later denials,

    儘管他後來否認了

  • used his control over land and forest licenses

    他利用掌控土地和森林許可證的職權

  • to enrich himself and his family.

    讓他自己和家族獲利

  • And HSBC, well, we know that HSBC bankrolled

    同時還有匯豐銀行 (HSBC)

  • the region's largest logging companies

    就我們所知,匯豐資助 當地幾家最大的伐木公司

  • that were responsible for some of that destruction

    對於這些發生在砂勞越 和其他地方的破壞行為

  • in Sarawak and elsewhere.

    他們也要負一部分責任

  • The bank violated its own sustainability policies in the process,

    匯豐在這過程中違反了他們永續經營的方針

  • but it earned around 130 million dollars.

    但從中賺了大約一億三千萬美金

  • Now shortly after our exposé,

    當我們揭露這個事實之後不久

  • very shortly after our exposé earlier this year,

    在今年稍早前揭露之後不久

  • the bank announced a policy review on this.

    匯豐宣布要以公司政策標準重審相關事宜

  • And is this progress? Maybe,

    這算是進步嗎? 也許是

  • but we're going to be keeping a very close eye

    但我們還是會持續的關注

  • on that case.

    這個議題

  • And then there's the problem of anonymous shell companies.

    再來是匿名空殼公司的問題

  • Well, we've all heard about what they are, I think,

    我想我們都聽過這樣的公司

  • and we all know they're used quite a bit

    也知道有些人、有些公司

  • by people and companies who are trying to avoid

    經常利用空殼公司

  • paying their proper dues to society,

    來規避他們對社會應盡的責任

  • also known as taxes.

    也就是納稅

  • But what doesn't usually come to light

    但我們通常不知道的

  • is how shell companies are used to steal

    空殼公司可以用來竊取數字龐大的金錢

  • huge sums of money, transformational sums of money,

    把大筆大筆的金錢

  • from poor countries.

    從貧困的國家中洗白轉出

  • In virtually every case of corruption that we've investigated,

    在每個我們追查的貪腐事件中

  • shell companies have appeared,

    都出現了空殼公司

  • and sometimes it's been impossible to find out

    有時真的無法查出

  • who is really involved in the deal.

    到底有哪些人牽涉其中

  • A recent study by the World Bank

    最近世界銀行有份研究中指出

  • looked at 200 cases of corruption.

    檢視 200 件貪腐案件後

  • It found that over 70 percent of those cases

    發現其中有 70% 的案例

  • had used anonymous shell companies,

    就是使用匿名的空殼公司

  • totaling almost 56 billion dollars.

    牽涉的金額幾乎高達五百六十億美金

  • Now many of these companies were in America

    現在有許多空殼公司設在美國

  • or the United Kingdom,

    或者是英國

  • its overseas territories and Crown dependencies,

    在境外領土或是英國皇家屬地

  • and so it's not just an offshore problem,

    所以這不是與我們無關的境外問題

  • it's an on-shore one too.

    這已經發生在我們境內

  • You see, shell companies, they're central

    要知道,這些空殼公司是秘密交易的核心

  • to the secret deals which may benefit wealthy elites

    也許少數富有的菁英份子 可以從中得到好處

  • rather than ordinary citizens.

    但一般平民是無從獲益的

  • One striking recent case that we've investigated

    最近我們調查了一個引人注目的案件

  • is how the government in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    調查目標是剛果政府

  • sold off a series of valuable, state-owned mining assets

    如何把一系列極有價值的公家礦區賣出

  • to shell companies in the British Virgin Islands.

    賣給一間在英屬維京群島註冊的空殼公司

  • So we spoke to sources in country,

    於是我們找了剛果的線人

  • trawled through company documents and other information

    搜查了所有公司文件和其他資訊

  • trying to piece together a really true picture of the deal.

    試著拼湊出這個交易的真實面貌

  • And we were alarmed to find that these shell companies

    而後我們警覺到

  • had quickly flipped many of the assets on

    這些空殼公司將資產快速地轉賣給

  • for huge profits to major international mining companies

    設立於倫敦的大型國際採礦公司

  • listed in London.

    賺進了高額的利潤

  • Now, the Africa Progress Panel, led by Kofi Annan,

    科菲•安南(Kofi Annan) 領導的非洲發展小組 (Africa Progress Panel)

  • they've calculated that Congo may have lost

    已經估算出剛果在這些交易中的損失

  • more than 1.3 billion dollars from these deals.

    已經高於十三億美金

  • That's almost twice

    這金額

  • the country's annual health and education budget combined.

    幾乎是剛果整年度健康和教育預算總合的兩倍

  • And will the people of Congo, will they ever get their money back?

    而剛果人民有可能拿回他們的錢嗎?

  • Well, the answer to that question,

    這問題的答案

  • and who was really involved and what really happened,

    和誰真正牽涉其中、以及事件的真相

  • well that's going to probably remain locked away

    都可能永不見天日

  • in the secretive company registries of the British Virgin Islands

    如果我們不針對這些註冊在英屬維京群島

  • and elsewhere unless we all do something about it.

    或其他地方的空殼公司採取行動的話

  • And how about the oil, gas and mining companies?

    至於那些石油、天然氣和礦產公司呢?

  • Okay, maybe it's a bit of a cliché to talk about them.

    好吧,這是有點老生常談

  • Corruption in that sector, no surprise.

    在這些產業發生貪腐並不意外

  • There's corruption everywhere, so why focus on that sector?

    到處都有貪腐,為什麼要特別關注這些產業?

  • Well, because there's a lot at stake.

    這是因為其中牽涉的利益太大

  • In 2011, natural resource exports

    2011 年,在非洲、亞洲和拉丁美洲

  • outweighed aid flows by almost 19 to one

    天然資源的輸出和援助資金的比例相差甚鉅

  • in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Nineteen to one.

    大約是 19:1

  • Now that's a hell of a lot of schools and universities

    這意味許多的學校、大學

  • and hospitals and business startups,

    醫院和企業創業的營運

  • many of which haven't materialized and never will

    都無法實現,也可能永遠沒有機會實現

  • because some of that money has simply been stolen away.

    因為相關經費已經被竊取

  • Now let's go back to the oil and mining companies,

    現在回來談石油和採礦公司

  • and let's go back to Dan Etete and that $1 billion deal.

    回到 丹•埃泰特 和他十億美金的交易

  • And now forgive me, I'm going to read the next bit

    現在請原諒我將要照著小抄唸

  • because it's a very live issue, and our lawyers

    因為這是非常即時的現場演說

  • have been through this in some detail

    我們的律師查閱過一些相關條文

  • and they want me to get it right.

    所以他們希望我不要有任何口誤

  • Now, on the surface, the deal appeared straightforward.

    現在,表面上這些交易看來都很單純

  • Subsidiaries of Shell and Eni

    Shell 和 Eni 的子公司

  • paid the Nigerian government for the block.

    付錢向奈及利亞政府買那個區塊

  • The Nigerian government transferred

    奈及利亞政府把收到的每一分錢

  • precisely the same amount, to the very dollar,

    完全一樣的數字,都轉出去

  • to an account earmarked for a shell company

    轉給一個指定給空殼公司的帳號

  • whose hidden owner was Etete.

    空殼公司背後的老闆是 Etete