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  • Is there a border we will never cross?

    會不會某個疆界是我們永遠無法跨越的?

  • Are there places we will never reach, no matter how hard we try?

    會不會有個我們用盡全力都到不了的地方?

  • Turns out there are.

    沒錯....是有的

  • Even with science fiction technology, we are trapped in our pocket of the Universe.

    就算借助科幻小說的科技,我們仍會困在這片宇宙的"口袋"中

  • How can that be? And, how far can we go?

    為什麼會這樣? 那麼我們可以走多遠?

  • We live in a quiet arm of the Milky Way; A spiral galaxy of average size,

    我們位於銀河系,這普通大小的螺旋星系其中一條旋臂上

  • about 100,000 light years across

    它的直徑大概是十萬光年

  • consisting of billions of stars, gas clouds, dark matter, black holes, neutron stars,

    由數以億計的恆星、星雲、暗物質、黑洞、中子星

  • and planets, with a supermassive black hole in the galactic centre.

    和各種行星,以及中心的超質量黑洞所組成

  • >From afar, our galaxy seems dense, but in reality, it consists, mostly, of empty space.

    自遠處看銀河是緊密的,但實際上銀河系大部分是空無一物的

  • With our current technology, sending a human to the closest star, would take thousands of years.

    以目前的科技,送人類到最近的恆星需要耗費幾十萬年

  • So, our galaxy is pretty big.

    由此可知,銀河系非常大 (看看窗外)

  • The Milky Way is not alone, though.

    不過銀河系並非孤獨的

  • Along with the Andromeda galaxy, and more than fifty dwarf galaxies,

    銀河系和旁邊的仙女座(Andromeda)星系以及五十幾個矮星系

  • it's a part of "The Local Group";

    ...組成了"本星系群"

  • a region of space about ten million light years in diameter.

    橫跨大約一千萬光年寬

  • It is one of the hundreds of galaxy groups in the "Laniakea Supercluster",

    她也是 "拉尼亞凱亞超星系團" 所屬的上百個星系群之一

  • which, itself is only one of millions of superclusters,

    而 拉尼亞凱亞 也只是組成"可觀測宇宙"中數百萬個超星系團的其中之一

  • that make up the observable universe.

    而 拉尼亞凱亞 也只是組成"可觀測宇宙"中數百萬個超星系團的其中之一

  • Now, let's assume, for a moment, that we have a glorious future;

    現在,我們大膽的假設,人類的未來是輝煌的

  • humanity becomes a type three civilisation,

    人類成功地進入III型文明期

  • does not get wiped out by aliens,

    沒有被外星人滅絕,且發展出符合當今物理認知的星際旅行

  • and develops interstellar travel based on our current understanding of physics.

    沒有被外星人滅絕,且發展出符合當今物理認知的星際旅行

  • In this best case scenario, how far could we possibly go?

    憑著最先進的未來,我們能探索到多遠?

  • Well; the local group.

    嗯.....只有在"本星系群"

  • It's the biggest structure that humanity will ever be a part of.

    那是人類所能抵達的最遠疆界,

  • While it's certainly huge, the local group accounts for only 0.00000000001 % of

    本星系群雖然很大,但也只佔了可觀測宇宙中的 0.00000000001 %

  • the observable universe.

    本星系群雖然很大,但也只佔了可觀測宇宙中的 0.00000000001 %

  • Let this number sink in for a moment.

    讓這個數字"沉澱"在心中一會兒

  • We are limited to a hundred billionth of a percent of the observable universe.

    我們被侷限於0.00000000001 %可觀測宇宙的大小

  • The simple fact that there is actually a limit for us, and that there is

    這個簡單的數字解釋了人類探索範圍的極限

  • so much universe that we will never be able to touch, is kind of frightening.

    而我們知道絕對無法接觸到剩下的0.99999999999%,讓人覺得有點驚恐

  • Why can't we go further?

    那為什麼我們不能再繼續探索?

  • Well, it all has to do with the nature of nothing.

    Well....這全都牽扯到"空無一物"的本質

  • Nothing, or empty space, isn't empty but has energy intrinsic to itself;

    真空,並非真的真空,它有著本質的固有能量

  • so-called "quantum fluctuations".

    我們稱為"量子漲落"

  • On the smaller scale, there is constant action, particles and antiparticles

    以微觀角度看,真空中有著不斷的碰撞。虛擬粒子和自身的反粒子

  • appearing and annihilating themselves.

    ...不斷的瞬間產生並消滅彼此

  • You can imagine this quantum vacuum as a bubbling part:

    你可以把量子真空想像成泡泡

  • with denser, and less dense regions.

    有著較稠密的區塊,也有著較稀疏的區塊

  • Now, let's go back 13.8 billion years when the fabric of space

    現在,回到138億年前,那時的宇宙由虛無所組成

  • consisted of nothing at all.

    現在,回到138億年前,那時的空間由虛無所組成

  • Right after the big bang, in an event known as cosmic inflation, the observable universe

    就在"大霹靂"後,藉由宇宙暴漲

  • expanded from the size of a marble to trillions of kilometres, in fractions of a second.

    可觀測宇宙在極短的時間內從彈珠膨脹到數兆公里大

  • This sudden stretching of the universe was so fast and extreme,

    這種"宇宙暴漲"既快又極端,極端到所有的量子漲落也一同擴大

  • that all those quantum fluctuations were stretched as well,

    這種"宇宙暴漲"既快又極端,極端到所有的量子漲落也一同擴大

  • and subatomic distances became galactic distances,

    從次原子的距離漲成宇宙等級的距離

  • with dense and less dense regions.

    有著較稠密的區塊,也有著較稀疏的區塊

  • After inflation, gravity began to pull everything back together.

    在宇宙暴漲後,重力開始互相作用

  • At the largest scale, the expansion was too quick and powerful

    由巨觀角度,這種暴漲過於快速和強大,以至於重力無法抵抗

  • to overcome but in smaller scales, gravity emerged victorious.

    但在微觀的角度,重力卻能夠有效率的作用

  • So, over time, the denser regions, or pockets, of the universe,

    所以在經過很久之後,較稠密的區塊演變成一群群的星系,

  • grew into groups of galaxies, like the one we live in today.

    就像我們的本星系群一樣,由重力的牽引而形成

  • Only stuff inside our pocketThe Local Groupis bound to us gravitationally.

    在這宇宙的口袋中,也就是本星系群,因為重力而聚集起來

  • But wait, what is the problem then?

    但等等,那問題點是?(另外一個是馬菲星系群)

  • Why can't we travel from our pocket, to the next one?

    為什麼我們沒辦法從本星系群旅行到另外一個星系群?

  • Here, dark energy makes everything complicated.

    暗能量讓一切都變得複雜啦~

  • About six billion years ago, dark energy took over.

    大約在六十億年前,暗能量自物質中接手(詳見2016/5科學人)

  • It's basically an invisible force or effect, that causes,

    暗能量,是一種難以察覺的能量或交互作用,而能造成宇宙加速膨脹

  • and speeds up the expansion of the universe.

    暗能量,是一種難以察覺的能量或交互作用,而能造成宇宙加速膨脹

  • We don't know why, or what dark energy is, but we can observe its effect clearly.

    我們不了解為什麼,或什麼是暗能量,但我們能夠清楚地觀測到它的影響

  • In the early universe, there were larger, cold spots around the local group,

    在早期宇宙,有著較大的冷斑點在本星系群周圍

  • that grew into clusters with thousands of galaxies.

    最後形成內含有數以千計的星系的星系團

  • We are surrounded by a lot of stuff, but none of those structures and galaxies

    雖然我們周圍有許多星系團,但在本星系群外的結構或星系無法造成可觀的重力作用

  • outside of the local group are gravitationally bound to us.

    雖然我們周圍有許多星系團,但在本星系群外的結構或星系無法造成可觀的重力作用

  • So the more the universe expands, the larger the distance between

    所以只要宇宙膨脹,星系團間的距離會隨著時間變得越來越遠

  • us and other gravitational pockets becomes.

    所以只要宇宙膨脹,星系團間的距離會隨著時間變得越來越遠

  • Over time, dark energy will push the rest of the universe away from us,

    暗能量會把剩下的宇宙推離我們

  • causing all the other clusters, galaxies, and groups to eventually become unreachable.

    使得其他的星團、星系和星系群最終變得太遠而無法抵達

  • The next galaxy group is already millions of light years away,

    最近的星系群已經距離我們有數百萬光年遠

  • but all of them are moving away from us, at speeds we can't, ever, hope to match.

    但其餘的星系群會以我們永遠無法達到的速度往外遠離

  • We could leave the local group, and then fly through intergalactic space,

    雖然我們能飛出本星系群,再航進星系際空間的黑暗之中

  • into the darkness, but we would never arrive anywhere.

    但我們永遠不能抵達任何地方

  • While we will become more and more stranded, the local group will become more tightly bound,

    就在我們變得孤獨的時候,本星系群會越來越緊密

  • and merge together to form one giant elliptical galaxy, with the unoriginal name "Milkdromeda"

    然後在接下來的數十億年裡合併成一個巨大的橢圓星系,有著一個衍生的名字"Milkdromeda"

  • in a few billion years.

    然後在接下來的數十億年裡合併成一個巨大的橢圓星系,有著一個衍生的名字"Milkdromeda"

  • But it becomes even more depressing:

    但接下來則更令人哀傷

  • at some point, the galaxies outside the local group, will be so far away,

    在未來,本星系群外的所有宇宙發散的光線(或電磁波),變得太遠

  • that they will be too faint to detect, and the few photons that do make it to us,

    而過於微弱到難以偵測。就算發散出來的光子能夠抵達,也會因為紅移到波長過長,以至於無法觀測

  • will be shifted to such long wavelengths, that they will be undetectable.

    而過於微弱到難以偵測。就算發散出來的光子能夠抵達,也會因為紅移到波長過長,以至於無法觀測

  • Once this happens, no information outside of the local group will be able to reach us.

    到了那個時間點,沒有任何資訊會從本星系群外被探知

  • The universe will recede from view.

    宇宙會褪去她的光采

  • It will appear to be dark and empty in all directions, forever.

    所有方向都會變得黑暗且虛無,直到永遠。

  • A being born in the far future in Milkdromeda,

    將來Milkdromeda星系的智慧生物

  • will think there is nothing but its own galaxy in the entire universe.

    會認為宇宙除了他們之外空無一物

  • When they look far into empty space, they will only see more emptiness and darkness;

    如果他們看著虛無的宇宙,他們只會看到更多的虛無和黑暗

  • they won't be able to see the cosmic background radiation,

    他們不會觀測到宇宙背景輻射

  • and they won't be able to learn about the Big Bang.

    也沒辦法了解"大霹靂"

  • They will have no way of knowing what we know today;

    他們將永遠無法得知我們現在所了解的宇宙、

  • the nature of the expanding universe, where it began, and how it will end.

    宇宙膨脹的本質、宇宙從哪開始?如何結束的?...他們都無從了解

  • They will think the universe is static and eternal.

    他們會認為宇宙是靜止且永恆的

  • Milkdromeda will be an island in the darkness, slowly getting darker and darker.

    Milkdromeda會變成黑暗中的一座島嶼,慢慢的變得越來越黯淡

  • But still, with its trillions of stars, the local group is certainly

    雖然如此,Milkdromeda還是有著上兆的恆星。本星系群對人類來說絕對是夠大的

  • large enough for humanity.

    雖然如此,Milkdromeda還是有著上兆的恆星。本星系群對人類來說絕對是夠大的

  • After all, we still haven't figured out how to leave our solar system,

    畢竟,我們尚未找到離開太陽系的方法

  • and we have billions of years to explore our galaxy.

    而且我們還有數十億年的時間供人類探索這個星系

  • We have the incredible luck to exist at the perfect moment in time to see,

    我們非常幸運,活在觀賞宇宙的完美時間點

  • not only our future but also our most distant past.

    看到的不只有我們的未來,更能夠看到最遙遠的過去

  • As isolated and remote as the local group is, we can perceive the entire universe,

    在這個孤立又偏遠的本星系群中,我們有幸

  • grand and spectacular as it is right now.

    能看到整個宇宙的宏偉與磅礡,如同今夜璀璨的星空

  • This video was sponsored by SquareSpace.com/nutshell

    這部影片由SquareSpace.com/nutshell所贊助(翻譯好累)

  • Do you feel isolated in a humongous universe?

    你~會覺得孤單~覺得冷嗎?(在這宇宙中)

  • Why not set up a website or blog and share your thoughts with other

    為什麼不設立個網站或部落格,分享你的想法和理念給其他人勒?~~

  • humanoids around you?

    為什麼不設立個網站或部落格,分享你的想法和理念給其他人勒?~~

  • Squarespace lets you do that with easy-to-understand tools

    Squarespace能讓你不用任何設計的知識和簡單的工具設立你的網站

  • very quickly and without any knowledge of web design.

    Squarespace能讓你不用任何設計的知識和簡單的工具設立你的網站

  • You can also use the code "NUTSHELL" to save 10 % and support Kurzgesagt

    你可以用NUTSHELL的代碼省下10%的費用同時支持到Kurzgesagt

  • in making more videoes about our place in the universe.

    你可以用NUTSHELL的代碼省下10%的費用同時支持到Kurzgesagt

  • Thanks so much for the help with the video to Ethan Siegel.

    非常感謝Ethan Siegel 協助製作這部影片

  • Follow his astronomy blog here.

    這裡有Ethan Siegel 他關於宇宙的部落格

  • You can support us directly at Patreon or get Kurzgesagt merch here.

    你可以用Patreon或購買Kurzgesagt的商品直接地幫助Kurzgesagt,那非常有效

  • It really helps.

    你可以用Patreon或購買Kurzgesagt的商品直接地幫助Kurzgesagt,那非常有效

  • It is awesome that you watched this far, so we have made a playlist for you about more universe stuff.

    超棒的啦~你看了那麼多,所以我們做了一個清單有關於更多宇宙的內容

  • Subtitles made by Sebastian Winkelmann

    呼....終於翻完了(translated by R.H.)v 感謝你的觀看~首次翻譯,若有謬誤還請多加指教[email protected]

  • Subtitles by the Amara.org community

    呼....終於翻完了(translated by R.H.)v 感謝你的觀看~首次翻譯,若有謬誤還請多加指教[email protected]

Is there a border we will never cross?

會不會某個疆界是我們永遠無法跨越的?

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 宇宙 星系 觀測 能量 重力 膨脹

我們能走多遠?人類的極限。 (How Far Can We Go? Limits of Humanity.)

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    mommy 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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