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  • In ancient Greece, violent internal conflict between bordering neighbors

    古希臘時期,城邦之間的暴力衝突不斷

  • and war with foreign invaders was a way of life

    與外來侵略者間的戰爭更是家常便飯

  • and Greeks were considered premier warriors

    而希臘人被視為一流戰士

  • Most Greek city-states surrounded themselves with massive defensive walls

    大多希臘城都被大規模城牆圍住

  • for added protection

    以加強防禦保護

  • Sparta in its prime was a different story

    斯巴達強盛期時則非如此

  • finding walls unnecessary

    他們發現根本沒必要築牆

  • when it had an army of the most feared warriors in the ancient world

    因為擁有古代最令人畏懼的戰士

  • So what was Sparta doing differently than everyone else

    斯巴達到底做了什麼與眾不同的事

  • to produce such fierce soldiers?

    才能造就如此驍勇善戰的戰士呢?

  • To answer that question, we turn to the written accounts of that time

    要回答這個問題,先看看當時文字記載

  • There are no surviving written accounts from Spartans themselves

    斯巴達本身並未保存任何文獻

  • as it was forbidden for Spartans to keep records

    因為斯巴達人自己嚴禁保存記錄

  • so we have to rely on those of non-Spartan ancient historians

    必須仰賴非斯巴達的古歷史學家

  • like Herodotus, Thucydides, and Plutarch

    像希羅多德、修昔底德,和普魯塔克

  • These stories may be embellished

    這些故事可能被美化了

  • and depict Sparta at the apex of its power,

    且描述斯巴達在巔峰時期的狀況

  • so take them with a grain of salt

    所以只要聽聽就好

  • For Spartans, the purpose for their existence was simple:

    對斯巴達人而言,他們存在的目的很單純:

  • to serve Sparta

    就是效力斯巴達

  • On the day of their birth

    在出生那天

  • elder Spartan leaders examined every newborn

    年長斯巴達領導會檢查每個新生兒

  • The strong healthy babies were considered capable of fulfilling this purpose

    強魄健體的嬰兒被認為足以滿足此目的

  • and the others may have been left on Mount Taygetus to die

    其他的則可能被留在台吉都斯山上等死

  • Every Spartan, boy or girl, was expected to be physically strong mentally sharp and emotionally resilient.

    每個斯巴達人,無論男女,都被期待成為身強體壯、腦筋敏銳、情感收放自如的人。

  • And it was their absolute duty to defend and promote Sparta at all costs

    不惜代價捍衛和推廣斯巴達,是他們的絕對義務

  • So in the first years of their lives

    因此出生後的前幾年

  • children were raised to understand that their loyalty belonged first to Sparta

    孩子們被教養成必須先效忠斯巴達

  • and then to family

    而後才是家庭

  • This mindset probably made it easier for the Spartan boys

    這種心態對斯巴達男孩來說比較容易

  • who upon turning seven, were sent to the agoge

    在滿七歲時,被送去接受斯巴達教育

  • a place with one main purpose:

    那地方的主要目的是:

  • to turn a boy into a Spartan warrior

    讓男孩蛻變成為斯巴達戰士

  • through thirteen years of relentless, harsh, and often brutal training.

    是經由十三年冷酷、嚴厲,且通常是殘暴的訓練

  • The Spartans prized physical perfection above all else

    斯巴達人視完美體態勝過一切

  • and so the students spent a great deal of their time learning how to fight

    因此學生耗費大量時間學習如何戰鬥

  • To ensure resilience in battle

    為確保在戰鬥中的韌性

  • boys were encouraged to fight among themselves

    男孩們被鼓勵相互戰鬥

  • and bullying, unlike today, was acceptable

    與今日不同的是,霸凌是被允許的

  • In order to better prepare the boys for the conditions of war

    為強化男孩們的備戰狀態

  • the boys were poorly fed

    他們飲食很差

  • sometimes even going days without eating

    有時甚至好幾天沒有進食

  • They also were given little in the way of clothing

    他們也不得穿太多

  • so that they could learn to deal with different temperatures

    因為他們得適應不同的溫度

  • Spartan boys were encouraged to steal in order to survive

    斯巴達男孩還被鼓勵為生存而偷竊

  • but if they were caught

    但如果被抓到

  • they would be disciplined

    就必須受罰

  • not because they stole, but because they were caught in the act

    處罰他們並非因為偷竊,而是因為他們被逮

  • During the annual contest of endurance

    年度耐力競賽期間

  • in a religious ritual known as the diamastigosis,

    眾所皆知的鞭笞宗教儀式上

  • teenage boys were whipped in front of an altar at the Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia

    青少年男孩在亞底米女神聖殿祭壇前被鞭打

  • It was common for boys to die on the altar of the goddess

    男孩死在女神祭壇前是常見的事

  • Fortunately, not everything was as brutal as that

    所幸,並非一切都如此殘酷

  • Young Spartans were also taught how to read

    斯巴達年輕人也學習閱讀

  • write

    書寫

  • and dance

    和舞蹈

  • which taught them graceful control of their movements

    舞蹈讓他們學會優美地控制動作

  • and helped them in combat

    同時有助於戰鬥

  • While the responsibilities for the girls of Sparta were different

    斯巴達女孩的責任雖然不同

  • the high standards of excellence

    但高標準的要求

  • and expectation to serve Sparta with their lives remained the same

    及期望她們以生命伺奉斯巴達的原則不變

  • Spartan girls lived at home with their mothers as they attended school

    上學期間,斯巴達女孩跟母親同住

  • Their curriculum included the arts

    她們的課程包括藝術

  • music

    音樂

  • dance

    舞蹈

  • reading

    閱讀

  • and writing

    和寫作

  • And to stay in peak physical condition, they learned a variety of sports

    而為了保持身體顛峰狀況,她們學習各種競技術

  • such as discus

    比如鐵餅

  • javelin

    標槍

  • and horseback riding

    和騎馬

  • In Sparta, it was believed that only strong and capable women

    在斯巴達,普遍認為只有強壯有能力的女性

  • could bear children that would one day become strong and capable warriors

    才能孕育孩子,使其他日成為勇猛能幹的戰士

  • To all Spartans, men and women

    對所有斯巴達人來說,不論男女

  • perhaps the most important lesson from Spartan school

    也許在斯巴達學校學到最重要的事情

  • was allegiance to Sparta

    就是效忠斯巴達

  • To die for their city-state was seen as the completion of one's duty to Sparta

    為國犧牲被視為個人盡到了對斯巴達的責任

  • Upon their death

    在死後

  • only men who died in battle and women who died in childbirth

    只有死於戰鬥的男人與死於分娩的婦女

  • were given tombstones

    才能獲得墓碑

  • In the eyes of their countrymen, both died so that Sparta could live

    在同胞眼中,因為他們的犧牲,斯巴達才得以生存

In ancient Greece, violent internal conflict between bordering neighbors

古希臘時期,城邦之間的暴力衝突不斷

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 斯巴達 戰士 男孩 舞蹈 目的

【TED-Ed】這是斯巴達!原來古代的戰爭是這樣 (This is Sparta: Fierce warriors of the ancient world - Craig Zimmer)

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    韓澐 發佈於 2016 年 08 月 03 日
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