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  • Teachers always have their favorite students. But when does this favoritism turn into bias?


  • Hi guys, Lissette here for DNews. Teachers are an important part of our learning and development.

    嗨,我是 DNews 的 Lissette。在我們的學習和發展過程中,老師佔了很重要的角色

  • I still remember every single one of my elementary school teachers -


  • the ones I thought were good as well as the ones I thought were not so good. But what did they think of me?


  • Or you? How did that affect our learning?


  • Well, a recent study, published in the Journal Economics of Education Review.

    Journal Economics of Education Review 發表了一篇近期的研究

  • Looked at data from thousands of students across the US and their teachers to see where race and gender fall into the equation.


  • In the study, different teachers were asked to rate the same 10th grade student

    在這項研究中,不同的老師被問到對相同的 10 年級生(即高一生)做評價

  • and predict his or her highest level of educational attainment.


  • The researchers found that predictions varied based on the gender and race of both the student and teacher.


  • In general, the expectations of black teachers for black students were 30 to 40 percent higher than those held by non-black teachers.

    一般來說,黑人老師對黑人學生的期望,比起非黑人老師的話,高了 30 到 40 個百分點

  • In other words, they believed black students


  • would do far better. To illustrate, 37 percent of black teachers, when asked about a black student,


  • let’s call her Samantha, thought she would obtain a four year college degree.

    我們就姑且叫她 Samantha,認為她能拿到四年的大學學歷

  • In contrast, only 28% of white teachers thought she would do so. Now if she were a Samuel instead,

    相反地,只有百分之二十八的白人老師這麼認為。現在,如果「她」變成了「他」— Samuel

  • this effect would be even greater. White male teachers, in particular,


  • have very low expectations of black boys. They don’t believe theyll do as well.


  • The problem isthat what teachers believe has a serious impact on student outcomes.


  • We know from this and other studies that expectations matter. In this particular study,


  • the researchers found black students who had a non-black teacher in a specific subject in 10th grade


  • were less likely to pursue that subject later in their schooling. But it’s more than just subject


  • area preferences. It influences how well students do in school and to some degree


  • the quality of their education.


  • In the infamous Pygmalion In The Classroom study from the 1960s, researchers Rosenthal and Jacobson conducted an experiment with elementary children in public school.

    1960年代,低劣的《教室中的比馬龍》一書研究中,研究員 Rosenthal和 Jacobson 對公立學校的小學生做了一項實驗

  • At the beginning of the school year, the researchers gave all students an IQ test as a baseline.


  • They then told teachers, erroneously, that a certain subset of those students would


  • show anintellectual growth spurtover the course of that year. This was a lie.


  • In fact, the students were chosen at random. But, that suggestion to teachers had a measurable


  • effect: by the end of the year, the students who were labeled as growth spurt students


  • actually did perform better than the rest of their classmates. On average,


  • they gained 3.8 IQ points more.

    他們的智商比其他人多了 3.8 分

  • And, these differences were even greater for younger children. Looking at first grade students only,


  • the difference was 15.4 IQ points. This suggests that there is a sort of self-fulfilling prophecy happening.

    智商之間的差距是 15.4 分。這意謂著「自我實現預言」正在發生中

  • Teachers who believe their students will do well are more likely to act


  • in ways that will lead to that happening. Since the 60s, other studies have dug in to


  • try to figure out what exactly teachers might be doing that leads to this bias. And, it looks like


  • it could be things like - giving children they believe are smart more time to answer questions when called on,


  • giving them more challenging questions, or recommending them


  • for gifted and talented programs.


  • Teacher expectations are powerful. So much so, that today, we largely consider it unethical


  • to label students the way we did in the Pygmalion study. It wouldn’t be right to knowingly put some students at a disadvantage.


  • Which is why labels like race and gender are so


  • tricky in a classroom. These labels don’t require a researcher: Teachers can automatically


  • and involuntarily apply them to students. So, it's especially important to grapple with


  • and examine the expectations attached to them.


  • For a deeper dive into race itself -


  • what it really is and what it means, check out this episode on The Science of Racism.

    什麼是種族,以及它的意思是什麼,請看 The Science of Racism 裡的這部影片

  • In terms of biology, race doesn't exist. And let's not to say race isn't real. Though it's important to understand that race is a cultural construct, like human created this, and has nothing to do with our biology.


  • Do you have an experience where you felt your teacher was biased against you? Or maybe


  • favored you in some way? Share your thoughts in the comments and remember


  • to subscribe so you never miss an episode of DNews. Thanks for watching.

    訂閱我們的頻道,才不會錯過新的 DNews 影片。謝謝收看

Teachers always have their favorite students. But when does this favoritism turn into bias?


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【人權教育】老師會不會無意間有種族歧視呢? (Are Teachers Unintentionally Racist?)

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    羅紹桀 發佈於 2016 年 06 月 14 日