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  • Teachers always have their favorite students. But when does this favoritism turn into bias?

    老師總有他們自己喜愛的學生,但這個偏愛何時轉變成偏見呢?

  • Hi guys, Lissette here for DNews. Teachers are an important part of our learning and development.

    嗨,我是 DNews 的 Lissette。在我們的學習和發展過程中,老師佔了很重要的角色

  • I still remember every single one of my elementary school teachers -

    我依然記得我的每一位小學老師—

  • the ones I thought were good as well as the ones I thought were not so good. But what did they think of me?

    印象中我認為好的,以及不好的老師。但他們對我是什麼看法呢?

  • Or you? How did that affect our learning?

    又或者對你是什麼看法?而那又是如何影響到我們的學習呢?

  • Well, a recent study, published in the Journal Economics of Education Review.

    Journal Economics of Education Review 發表了一篇近期的研究

  • Looked at data from thousands of students across the US and their teachers to see where race and gender fall into the equation.

    從美國數千名學生和他們的老師做出來的數據,來看種族和性別在這研究上扮演何種角色

  • In the study, different teachers were asked to rate the same 10th grade student

    在這項研究中,不同的老師被問到對相同的 10 年級生(即高一生)做評價

  • and predict his or her highest level of educational attainment.

    並預測他/她可能獲得的最高教育學位

  • The researchers found that predictions varied based on the gender and race of both the student and teacher.

    研究者發現,根據學生和老師兩者的性別和種族下去做的預測,結果多變

  • In general, the expectations of black teachers for black students were 30 to 40 percent higher than those held by non-black teachers.

    一般來說,黑人老師對黑人學生的期望,比起非黑人老師的話,高了 30 到 40 個百分點

  • In other words, they believed black students

    換句話說,他們相信黑人學生

  • would do far better. To illustrate, 37 percent of black teachers, when asked about a black student,

    能夠做得更好。用圖解說明,百分之三十七的黑人老師,當被問到關於一位黑人學生時,

  • let’s call her Samantha, thought she would obtain a four year college degree.

    我們就姑且叫她 Samantha,認為她能拿到四年的大學學歷

  • In contrast, only 28% of white teachers thought she would do so. Now if she were a Samuel instead,

    相反地,只有百分之二十八的白人老師這麼認為。現在,如果「她」變成了「他」— Samuel

  • this effect would be even greater. White male teachers, in particular,

    那兩者間的百分比差距則更大。尤其是白人男性老師

  • have very low expectations of black boys. They don’t believe theyll do as well.

    對黑人男學生有著非常低的期望,他們不相信黑人男學生能有好的作為

  • The problem isthat what teachers believe has a serious impact on student outcomes.

    問題在於,老師所相信的,對學生的未來成就有很大的影響

  • We know from this and other studies that expectations matter. In this particular study,

    我們從這項研究和其他研究得知,期望是很重要的。在這項特殊研究中

  • the researchers found black students who had a non-black teacher in a specific subject in 10th grade

    研究員發現黑人學生在高一時,若有一門特定科目不是由黑人老師教導的話

  • were less likely to pursue that subject later in their schooling. But it’s more than just subject

    他們之後不太可能會再去學習那一門科目。但「教師期望」不僅僅在講學科

  • area preferences. It influences how well students do in school and to some degree

    領域的偏好,它影響到學生在校的表現,以及某個程度上

  • the quality of their education.

    學生接受的教育品質

  • In the infamous Pygmalion In The Classroom study from the 1960s, researchers Rosenthal and Jacobson conducted an experiment with elementary children in public school.

    1960年代,低劣的《教室中的比馬龍》一書研究中,研究員 Rosenthal和 Jacobson 對公立學校的小學生做了一項實驗

  • At the beginning of the school year, the researchers gave all students an IQ test as a baseline.

    在學年的一開始,研究員先讓所有的學生做了智商測驗

  • They then told teachers, erroneously, that a certain subset of those students would

    然後他們故意錯誤地跟老師說,這些學生當中有一部分

  • show anintellectual growth spurtover the course of that year. This was a lie.

    在這一年期間,會出現「智能成長陡增」的現象。這當然是謊話

  • In fact, the students were chosen at random. But, that suggestion to teachers had a measurable

    事實上,學生都是隨機選出來的。但是,他們說的話,對老師產生了很大的

  • effect: by the end of the year, the students who were labeled as growth spurt students

    效應:學年結束時,那些被貼上「智能成長陡增」標籤的學生們

  • actually did perform better than the rest of their classmates. On average,

    確實比其他同學的表現更好。平均來看

  • they gained 3.8 IQ points more.

    他們的智商比其他人多了 3.8 分

  • And, these differences were even greater for younger children. Looking at first grade students only,

    這些智商差距在年幼的學生之間更明顯,只單看一年級學生的話

  • the difference was 15.4 IQ points. This suggests that there is a sort of self-fulfilling prophecy happening.

    智商之間的差距是 15.4 分。這意謂著「自我實現預言」正在發生中

  • Teachers who believe their students will do well are more likely to act

    老師相信他們的學生能做得很好,便很有可能會付諸行動

  • in ways that will lead to that happening. Since the 60s, other studies have dug in to

    使其期望成真。自六十年代起,其他的研究也深入探討

  • try to figure out what exactly teachers might be doing that leads to this bias. And, it looks like

    試圖弄清楚老師到底可能會做什麼,而演變成偏見。而他們所發現的情況

  • it could be things like - giving children they believe are smart more time to answer questions when called on,

    大概像是—當叫到他們認為是聰明的學生時,給那些學生更多的時間來回答問題

  • giving them more challenging questions, or recommending them

    給他們更多有挑戰性的問題;或是推薦給他們

  • for gifted and talented programs.

    資優方案

  • Teacher expectations are powerful. So much so, that today, we largely consider it unethical

    教師的期望帶有很大的力量。這股力量強大到,今日,我們基本上認為這是不道德的

  • to label students the way we did in the Pygmalion study. It wouldn’t be right to knowingly put some students at a disadvantage.

    就像在比馬龍研究中,給學生貼上標籤。故意地把某些學生處於劣勢是不對的行為

  • Which is why labels like race and gender are so

    這也是為何標籤像是種族和性別

  • tricky in a classroom. These labels don’t require a researcher: Teachers can automatically

    在課堂上是很棘手的。這些標籤不需要研究員:老師會自動地

  • and involuntarily apply them to students. So, it's especially important to grapple with

    不由自主地將學生貼上標籤。所以,盡力了解

  • and examine the expectations attached to them.

    和審查附加在標籤上的期望顯得尤其重要

  • For a deeper dive into race itself -

    想知道更深入的種族議題—

  • what it really is and what it means, check out this episode on The Science of Racism.

    什麼是種族,以及它的意思是什麼,請看 The Science of Racism 裡的這部影片

  • In terms of biology, race doesn't exist. And let's not to say race isn't real. Though it's important to understand that race is a cultural construct, like human created this, and has nothing to do with our biology.

    以生物角度來看,種族不存在,但也不要下定論說種族不是真的,還是要知道,種族不過是文化下的產物,由人類創造出的術語罷了,和生理一點關係都沒有

  • Do you have an experience where you felt your teacher was biased against you? Or maybe

    你有過任何你認為老師對你有偏見的經驗嗎?或者也許

  • favored you in some way? Share your thoughts in the comments and remember

    在某方面特別偏愛你?在留言區分享你的想法,並記得

  • to subscribe so you never miss an episode of DNews. Thanks for watching.

    訂閱我們的頻道,才不會錯過新的 DNews 影片。謝謝收看

Teachers always have their favorite students. But when does this favoritism turn into bias?

老師總有他們自己喜愛的學生,但這個偏愛何時轉變成偏見呢?

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 學生 老師 黑人 種族 期望 標籤

【人權教育】老師會不會無意間有種族歧視呢? (Are Teachers Unintentionally Racist?)

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    羅紹桀   發佈於 2016 年 06 月 14 日
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