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  • Sophie: Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English. I'm Sophie.

    蘇菲:哈囉,歡迎收看6分鐘英文。我是蘇菲

  • Neil: And I'm Neil. Here's your coffee, Sophie.

    尼爾:我是尼爾。蘇菲,這是你的咖啡

  • Sophie: Neil, remember that staff meeting we had yesterday?

    蘇菲:尼爾,還記得我們昨天開的員工會議嗎?

  • Why did you agree to having decaf coffee in the kitchen when I know you don't like it... and neither do I!

    我知道你不喜歡無咖啡因咖啡,那為什麼你還贊成廚房供應?我也不喜歡耶!

  • Neil: I know. It's just that the boss said that decaffeinated coffee

    尼爾:我知道。因為老闆說無咖啡因咖啡

  • that's coffee with the caffeine removedwas a good idea, healthier, you know.

    也就是沒有咖啡因的咖啡 ─ 很不錯,比較健康嘛。

  • And then everyone else agreed.

    然後其他人也都同意了

  • And I... I don't know... I just felt uncomfortable disagreeing with everyone.

    我不曉得...我只是覺得反對大家的話會讓我很不自在

  • Sophie: Well, it's interesting you should say that, Neil.

    蘇菲:你講到很有趣的一點了,尼爾

  • Groupthink is the subject of today's show.

    今天的節目主題是團體迷思

  • Groupthink refers to the type of bad decisions we make when we are in a group.

    團體迷思指的是在團體中做出壞決策的現象

  • Decisions that are contrary toor againstwhat we really think.

    那些決定和我們的真正想法背道而馳

  • A psychology experiment conducted in the 1950s showed that a lot of people do exactly that

    一項在1950年代做的心理實驗指出,很多人真的就像這樣

  • they submit to the will of the group.

    屈服於團體的意志下

  • Neil: But before we hear more about this, now would be a good time for today's quiz question.

    尼爾:但在我們更深入探討之前,現在正適合丟出今日的問題

  • And I get to ask you, Sophie!

    而這次換我考你囉,蘇菲!

  • Sophie: OK. What is it?

    蘇菲:好的。是什麼問題呢?

  • Neil: In which story by Hans Christian Andersen does a young boy dare to tell the truth

    尼爾:漢斯˙安徒生的哪個童話,講述了一個年輕小男孩在大家指鹿為馬時

  • when everyone else goes along with an obvious lie?

    勇於說出真相?

  • Is it... a) The Red Shoes b) The Snow Queen

    是... a) 紅鞋 b) 冰雪女王

  • Or c) The Emperor's New Clothes

    還是 c) 國王的新衣

  • Sophie: OK... I think it's c) The Emperor's New Clothes.

    蘇菲:我想是 c) 國王的新衣

  • Neil: Well, we'll find out later on in the show if that's right or not.

    尼爾:好,我們晚點會在節目中看看你答對了沒

  • Now, the psychologist Solomon Asch is well known for his conformity experiments from the 1950s.

    心理學家所羅門·阿希在1950年代時進行的從眾實驗廣為人知

  • Can you tell us what "conformity" means please, Sophie?

    你能告訴我們什麼叫做「從眾」嗎,蘇菲?

  • Sophie: Conformity means behaviour that is the same as the way most other people behave.

    蘇菲:從眾指的是與他人做出相同行為

  • Asch's main finding was that group pressure can change a person's opinion, of even obvious facts.

    阿希在實驗中主要發現團體壓力可以扭轉個人想法,甚至是顯而易見的事實

  • Neil: And what did this Asch test involve?

    尼爾:這場阿希實驗的主要內容為何?

  • Sophie: 123 male participants were shown a card with a line on it, followed by another card with three lines on it.

    蘇菲:他們向123位男性受試者秀出畫有直線的卡片,以及另一張有著三條直線的卡片

  • The participants were then asked to say which line matched the line on the first card in length.

    受試者接著被要求說出哪條線與第一張卡片上的直線等長

  • The right answer was plain to see, but the participants felt pressurized into saying the wrong answer.

    正確答案顯而易見,但受試者卻在倍感壓力之下選了錯誤答案

  • Neil: Why would they do that?

    尼爾:為什麼?

  • Sophie: Because the majority of people taking part in the experiment had been told to give the wrong answer.

    蘇菲:因為他們安排多數人要講出錯誤答案

  • Let's hear Professor Nick Chater's explanation.

    我們來聽聽尼克·切特教授如何解釋

  • He works at the Warwick Business School here in the UK.

    他任教於英國華威商學院

  • Nick Chater: By the time it comes to you a whole list of people have said something plainly wrong

    尼克·切特:當你知道大多數人都說了明顯錯誤的答案時

  • and you are either going to have to fold and say,

    你要不就是屈服並說

  • "well, I just agree with them" or you're going to rather uncomfortably say, "well, I think it's one actually".

    「嗯,我只是同意他們說的」,要不就是難受的說出「嗯,其實我覺得第一個才是對的」

  • And most people, most of the time, tend to fold.

    而大多數人,大部分時間,會傾向屈服

  • Neil: Professor Nick Chater. He uses the word fold, which means you give up.

    尼爾:尼克·切特教授用了一個字 fold,意思就是放棄

  • But, Sophie, if people are uncomfortable about supporting the wrong answer,

    但蘇菲,如果人們認為贊同錯誤答案,或是一些他們不予置信的事物

  • or something they don't believe in, why do they do it?

    令他們感到難受,那他們又何苦這麼做?

  • Sophie: Because even though we feel uncomfortable going along with

    蘇菲:因為即使我們覺得附和或

  • or agreeing withsomething we don't believe,

    同意一些我們不相信的事物會使我們感到難受

  • we're even more uncomfortable about disagreeing with the group.

    反對整個團體反而會讓我們更加不自在

  • Neil: Well, I didn't realize that people were such sheep. I have a will of steel, Sophie.

    尼爾:我無法理解為何人們這麼懦弱。像我可是有鋼鐵般的意志呢,蘇菲

  • Sophie: Is that right? So, your will of steelor strong determination

    蘇菲:是這樣嗎?所以,我想你鋼鐵般強大的決心

  • somehow melted away in the staff meeting yesterday, I suppose?

    在昨天的員工會議上是不是完全熔解啦?

  • Neil: Oh well... of course... yes...

    尼爾:嗯... 是啦... 這個...

  • Sophie: Let's move on and consider briefly how social media encourages groupthink.

    蘇菲:換個話題,我們來大致想想社群媒體是如何助長團體迷思的

  • Neil: Yes, there's a real danger with something like, for example, the Twitterthe social networking service.

    尼爾:像是推特這類的社群服務網站真的是個危機

  • Because when an opinion on Twitter starts to "trend", it can take on a momentum of its own,

    因為當推特上的一項個人意見成為趨勢時,勢頭便會如雪球般越滾越大

  • and people adopt it simply because it's popular, not because they really believe it.

    人們會因為流行而輕易接受它,並不是因為他們真的相信

  • Sophie: And momentum means a force that keeps something going once it has started.

    蘇菲:而 momentum 的意思是當某事/物開始後讓它持續進行的力量

  • Let's hear from journalist and author, Jon Ronson. He has an interesting opinion about this.

    現在讓我們來聽喬恩·朗森的說明。他對今天的主題有很有趣的見解

  • Jon Ronson: One of the ironies here is that on social media we all like to see ourselves as nonconformists

    喬恩·朗森:「在這裡,諷刺的是,我們在社群媒體上總以非盲從者自居,

  • but when we all get together in a group

    但當我們處在團體中

  • what we're doing is using our individual nonconformity to create a more conformist world.

    我們會用個人的不盲從打造出一個更加盲從的世界

  • So if somebody steps out of line, all us nonconformists, in this frightened conformist way, tear them apart.

    所以當有人越界時,所有非盲從者,會轉向可怕的盲從模式,抨擊他們

  • It's like we're defining the boundaries of normality by tearing apart the people on the outside.

    這就像是我們藉由屏除外人來定義正常的界線。」

  • Sophie: Jon Ronson. Are you a nonconformist then, Neil

    蘇菲:感謝喬恩·朗森。尼爾,那你是個不盲從

  • someone who thinks and behaves differently from other people?

    想法和行為都與眾不同的人嗎?

  • Neil: I'm not the type that Jon Ronson is describing

    尼爾:我不是喬恩·朗森說的那種

  • one who joins up with other so-called nonconformists to bully people with different views.

    會和其他所謂的非盲從者一起霸凌持不同意見者的人

  • Now remember I asked you earlier: In which story by Hans Christian Andersen

    現在,還記得我先前問的問題嗎?漢斯·安徒生的哪個童話

  • does a young boy dare to tell the truth when everyone else goes along with an obvious lie?

    講述了一個年輕小男孩在大家指鹿為馬時勇於說出真相?

  • Is it... a) The Red Shoes, b) The Snow Queen

    是... a) 紅鞋 b)冰雪女王

  • Or c) The Emperor's New Clothes?

    還是 c) 國王的新衣?

  • Sophie: I guessed c) The Emperor's New Clothes.

    蘇菲:我猜 c) 國王的新衣

  • Neil: And you were right, Sophie!

    尼爾:答對了,蘇菲!

  • The Emperor's New Clothes is a story by Hans Christian Andersen about two weavers

    國王的新衣是漢斯·安徒生筆下的故事,講述的是兩位裁縫師

  • who promise an emperor a new suit of clothes that is invisible to those who are stupid or incompetent.

    答應國王要做給他一件傻子和不稱職的人都看不到的新衣服

  • No one dares to say that he doesn't see any suit of clothes until a child cries out,

    沒人敢說他們看的到衣服,直到一名小孩大叫

  • "But he isn't wearing anything at all!"

    「他明明什麼都沒穿啊!」

  • Sophie: It's a great storyand a lesson to us all. Now can we hear the words we learned today please?

    蘇菲:這真是個好故事 ─ 對人們而言也是一堂教訓。現在我們可以來聽今天學到什麼單字了嗎?

  • Neil: They are:

    尼爾:它們是:

  • decaffeinated

    無咖啡因的

  • groupthink

    團體迷思

  • contrary to

    與... 相反

  • conformity

    從眾;順從

  • fold

    屈服;放棄

  • going along with

    服從;贊同

  • will of steel

    鋼鐵般的意志

  • momentum

    動力;勢頭

  • nonconformist

    非墨守成規者;非盲從者

  • Sophie: Well, that's the end of today's 6 Minute English. Don't forget to join us again soon!

    蘇菲:今天的6分鐘英文到此結束。別忘了再次收看哦!

  • Both: Bye.

    一起:掰掰!

Sophie: Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English. I'm Sophie.

蘇菲:哈囉,歡迎收看6分鐘英文。我是蘇菲

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 多益 蘇菲 尼爾 團體 國王 喬恩

BBC 6 Minute English April 14, 2016 - Do you think for yourself?

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    Adam Huang 發佈於 2016 年 04 月 16 日
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