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  • Where does bread get its fluffiness?

    麵包如何變得鬆軟?

  • Swiss cheese its holes?

    瑞士起司為什麼有孔洞?

  • And what makes vinegar so sour?

    什麼讓醋變得這麼酸?

  • These foods may taste completely different,

    這些食物嚐起來可能完全不同

  • but all of these phenomena come from tiny organisms chowing down on sugar

    但是所有的現象 都來自微生物分解糖分

  • and belching up some culinary byproducts.

    並且釋放一些食物的副產品

  • Let's start with yeast.

    讓我們從酵母開始

  • Yeast are single-celled fungi used to make bread, beer, and wine,

    酵母是一種單細胞真菌 用於製作麵包、啤酒、葡萄酒

  • among other products.

    以及其他產品

  • Yeast break down carbohydrates, like sugar,

    酵母分解碳水化合物,像是糖

  • to get energy and the molecules they need to function.

    以獲得它們運作時所需的能量和分子

  • They have two different ways to do this:

    它們有兩種不同方法進行

  • the oxygen-dependent, or aerobic, pathway,

    一種是倚靠氧氣的方法,或「有氧」途徑

  • and the oxygen-independent, anaerobic pathway,

    以及不倚靠氧氣的方法,或「厭氧」途徑

  • which is also called fermentation.

    後者也稱為發酵(fermentation)

  • When you bake bread, yeast can use both pathways,

    當烤麵包時,酵母能使用這兩種途徑

  • but they normally prefer to start with the anaerobic process of fermentation.

    但是通常會從厭氧途徑發酵開始

  • In this process, ethanol is produced in addition to CO2.

    在這個過程,除了二氧化碳以外 還會產生出乙醇(酒精)

  • No, bread isn't alcoholic.

    不對,麵包沒有酒精

  • Small amounts of alcohol that are secreted evaporate during baking.

    因為少量的酒精 在烘烤時就悄悄地蒸發了

  • In the aerobic, or oxygen-dependent pathway,

    在有氧,或是依靠氧氣的途徑

  • the yeast consume some of the sugar

    酵母消耗部份的糖

  • and produce carbon dioxide gas, or CO2, and water.

    產生出碳酸氣,或二氧化碳和水

  • In both processes, the CO2 accumulates and creates tiny bubbles.

    這兩種過程中 二氧化碳都會積聚產生小泡泡

  • These bubbles get trapped by gluten and create a sponge-like structure

    這些氣泡就會被麵糰封包 產生海綿狀結構

  • that gives the bread its soft texture.

    使麵包變得質地鬆軟

  • Wine also relies on yeast.

    葡萄酒也需要酵母

  • But a wine-making set-up keeps the oxygen levels low

    但是釀酒的裝置維持在低氧狀態

  • so that yeast consume sugar using fermentation,

    導致酵母消耗糖分進行發酵

  • the anaerobic pathway.

    採用厭氧途徑

  • The process often starts with wild yeasts already hanging out on the grapes.

    這過程一開始是用 早已存在葡萄外皮的野生酵母

  • But to get consistent results,

    但是為了使品質一致

  • most winemakers also add carefully selected strains of yeast

    大部分釀酒師也會添加 精心挑選的酵母菌種

  • that can tolerate high levels of alcohol.

    能夠承受高酒精度的酵母

  • The yeast consume the sugar in the grape juice,

    酵母消耗葡萄汁中的糖分

  • and as the sugar level drops,

    隨著糖分降低

  • the alcohol level rises.

    酒精度就升高

  • This doesn't necessarily mean that sweeter wines have less alcohol.

    這未必就意謂著 較甜的酒其酒精度就較低

  • Different types of grapes start with different amounts of sugar,

    不同品種的葡萄原本就有不同含糖量

  • and sugar can also be added.

    而且糖也能夠額外添加

  • What happens to the carbon dioxide?

    那麼二氧化碳呢?

  • It just bubbles away through a vent.

    二氧化碳會從排氣口排出

  • In carbonated alcoholic beverages, like champagne and beer,

    在碳酸酒精飲料中,像是香檳或啤酒

  • sealed containers are used in primary or secondary fermentation

    在首次和二次發酵會使用密閉容器

  • to keep the carbon dioxide in the bottle.

    以保留二氧化碳在容器內

  • Wine also introduces us to our second type of food-producing microorganism:

    葡萄酒也讓我們認識 第二種製作食物的微生物:

  • bacteria.

    細菌

  • A special strain of bacteria

    一種特殊菌種

  • turns a tart compound in grape juice into softer tasting ones

    將葡萄汁液中的酸性物質 變得口感溫和

  • that are responsible for some of the flavors in red wines and chardonnays.

    這就是紅酒及霞多麗白酒 主要的風味來源

  • Another type of bacteria, called acetic acid bacteria,

    另一種細菌稱為「醋酸菌」

  • isn't so desirable in wine,

    在酒中並不討喜

  • but they have their function, too.

    但是它仍然有功用

  • If there's oxygen around,

    如果環境中有氧氣

  • these bacteria convert the ethanol in wine into, well, acetic acid.

    這個細菌會轉化酒中的 乙醇(酒精)變成乙酸(醋酸)

  • Let this process continue and you'll eventually get vinegar.

    讓這過程持續最終得到的就是醋

  • Bacteria are the key for cheese, too.

    細菌對於起司也是關鍵要素

  • To make cheese, milk is inoculated with bacteria.

    要製作起司,牛奶要注入細菌

  • The bacteria gobble up the lactose, a kind of sugar,

    細菌會消耗掉所有的乳糖,一種糖分

  • and produce lactic acid, along with many other chemicals.

    產生乳酸,和許多其他化學物質

  • As the milk gets more and more acidic,

    隨著牛奶越來越酸

  • its proteins start to aggregate and curdle.

    蛋白質會開始聚集和凝固

  • That's why spoiled milk is clumpy.

    這就是為什麼變質的牛奶會結塊

  • Cheesemakers usually add an enzyme called rennet,

    起司製造者通常 加入一種酶,稱作凝乳酶

  • naturally found inside of cows, goats, and some other mammals

    - 原來存在於 牛、羊或一些哺乳動物體內 -

  • to help this process along.

    幫助這個過程的進行

  • Eventually, those little curdles turn into bigger curds,

    最後,這些小凝塊會凝結成大凝塊

  • which are pressed to squeeze out the water,

    然後把水分壓出來

  • and create a firm cheese.

    製作成紮實的起司

  • Different strains of bacteria make different kinds of cheese.

    不同品種的細菌製作不同的起司

  • For example, a species of bacteria that emits carbon dioxide

    舉例來說,一種會釋放二氧化碳的菌種

  • is what gives swiss cheese its characteristic holes.

    使瑞士起司產生特有的孔洞

  • Some cheeses, brie and camembert, use another kind of microorganism, too:

    有些起司,布里乾酪和卡門貝爾 也使用其他種的微生物:

  • mold.

    霉菌

  • So your kitchen functions as a sort of biotechnology lab

    所以你的廚房就像是一種生物實驗室

  • manned by microorganisms that culture your cuisine.

    由微生物培養出美味食物

  • Yogurt, soy sauce, sour cream, sauerkraut,

    優格、醬油、酸奶油、酸菜

  • kefir, kimchi, kombucha, cheddar, challah, pita, and naan.

    克菲爾、韓式泡菜、康普茶、巧達起司、 哈拉麵包、皮塔餅和印度烤餅

  • But maybe not all at the same dinner.

    但可能不會在一餐內同時享用吧!

Where does bread get its fluffiness?

麵包如何變得鬆軟?

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 酵母 起司 二氧化碳 糖分 途徑

【TED-Ed】做出美味食物的有益菌--Erez Garty (【TED-Ed】The beneficial bacteria that make delicious food - Erez Garty)

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    黃于珍 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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