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  • Sophie: Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English. I'm Sophie.

    蘇菲:你好,歡迎來到6分鐘英語。我'我是蘇菲。

  • Neil: Watashi-wa Ni-ru.

    尼爾:和日如。

  • Sophie: What did you say?

    蘇菲,你說什麼?你說什麼?

  • Neil: Watashi-wa Ni-ru. "I'm Neil." It's Japanese, Sophie.

    Watashi-wa Ni-ru."我'是Neil."是日語,Sophie。

  • Sophie: Very good, Neil! So your Japanese language lessons are going well, then?

    蘇菲,很好,尼爾!很好,尼爾!那麼你的日語課進展順利嗎?

  • Neil: They are indeed. And did you know, Sophie,

    的確如此。你知道嗎,蘇菲。

  • that scientists believe learning a second language can boost brainpower?

    科學家認為學習第二語言可以提高腦力?

  • Bilingualismor speaking two languages equally wellis a form of brain training.

    雙語--或者說同樣講好兩種語言--是一種大腦訓練的形式。

  • Sophie: Brain training is where you're learning ways to increase your memory or intelligence.

    蘇菲腦力訓練是你'學習的方法 增加你的記憶力或智力。

  • That's great Neil, but you're not exactly... bilingual... are you?

    那很好,尼爾,但你並不完全是... 雙語,是嗎?

  • Neil: Uh... not yet. No.

    呃...還沒有

  • Sophie: Well, brain training is the subject of today's show.

    蘇菲好了,大腦訓練是今天的主題'的節目。

  • And ways to train your brain might be doing a crossword puzzle, playing chess, or studying a new language!

    而訓練大腦的方法可能是做填字遊戲,下棋,或者學習一門新的語言!

  • Now I have a question for you, Neil.

    現在我有個問題要問你,尼爾。

  • Neil: I hope my brain is up to the challenge.

    尼爾:我希望我的大腦能夠接受挑戰。

  • Sophie: I'm sure it is. Can you tell me:

    蘇菲 Sophie. - I'm sure it is:I'm sure it is.你能告訴我嗎。

  • How many neuronsor nerve cellsare there in the typical human brain?

    典型的人類大腦中有多少神經元或神經細胞?

  • Is it ... a) 8.6 billion b) 86 billion or c) 860 billion

    是......a)86億 b)860億還是c)8600億?

  • Neil: Hmm. I'm going to say a) 8.6 billion.

    尼爾:嗯。我'要說a)86億。

  • Sophie: Well, we'll find out later on in the show whether you got the answer right or not.

    蘇菲。 好吧,我們將在稍後的節目中發現你是否得到了正確的答案。好了,我們'會發現在稍後的節目中,你是否得到了正確的答案。

  • But now let's listen to neuropsychologist Dr Catherine Loveday

    但現在讓我們來聽聽神經心理學家凱瑟琳-洛夫戴博士的意見。

  • talking about why being bilingual may protect your brain from damage if you have a stroke.

    談到為什麼雙語可以保護你的大腦免受損害,如果你有一箇中風。

  • Dr Catherine Loveday: I think the theory behind why bilingualism might be a protective factor is that

    凱瑟琳-拉維代博士。我認為,為什麼雙語可能是一個保護性因素的理論是:

  • (it) involves a lot of switchings – a lot of attentional changeslots of switching.

    (它)涉及到很多的切換--很多的注意力變化--很多的切換。

  • And that seems to exercise the sort of executive parts of our brain.

    而這似乎可以鍛鍊我們大腦的那種執行部分。

  • Those parts of the brain are kind of stronger and fitter when it comes to resisting

    大腦的那些部位在抵抗力方面算是比較強壯和健壯的了

  • some kind of damage from the stroke.

    中風造成的某種傷害。

  • Neil: A stroke is a serious illness that occurs when blood flow to an area of the brain is cut off.

    尼爾:中風是一種嚴重的疾病,當腦部某個區域的血流被切斷時就會發生。

  • And executive functions are the mental skills involved in doing things like problem solving and planning.

    而執行功能是指做問題解決和計劃等事情的心理技能。

  • Sophie: So when a bilingual speaker switchesor changesfrom one language to another

    蘇菲或者說從一種語言轉換到另一種語言的時候

  • this exercises the executive parts of their brain, making it stronger and fitter.

    這可以鍛鍊他們大腦的執行部分,使其更強壯、更健康。

  • And because the brain is stronger, it's able to resistor preventdamage caused by a stroke.

    而且因為大腦更強大,它'能夠抵抗--或防止--中風造成的損害。

  • Neil: But many of us aren't bilingual are we?

    尼爾:但我們很多人都不是'雙語的,是嗎?

  • So our brains aren't going to be protected against strokes.

    所以我們的大腦不會被保護起來,防止中風。

  • Sophie: Don't worry, Neil. There are other things you can do to exercise your brain.

    蘇菲別擔心,尼爾。你還可以做其他事情來鍛鍊你的大腦。

  • If you're right handed, doing tasks like brushing your teeth with your left hand

    如果你是右手,用左手做刷牙這樣的工作。

  • will stimulate your brain

    會刺激你的大腦

  • or getting dressed in the dark with your eyes shut.

    或在黑暗中閉著眼睛穿衣服。

  • Or simply memorizing a list of words, for example your shopping list.

    或者只是簡單地記住一個單詞列表,比如你的購物清單。

  • Neil: Doing things with the wrong hand sounds hard.

    尼爾:用錯誤的手做事情,聽起來很難。

  • But the shopping list thing sounds easier...

    但購物清單的事情聽起來更容易... ...

  • OK. Let's see... pizza, doughnuts, crisps, bottle of coke, chocolate cake...

    好吧,讓我想想...讓我們看看... 披薩,甜甜圈,薯片,一瓶可樂,巧克力蛋糕... ...

  • Sophie: That's not a very healthy list, Neil!

    蘇菲這不是一個非常健康的名單,尼爾!

  • A good diet is also important in keeping your brain fit and healthy.

    良好的飲食習慣對保持大腦健康也很重要。

  • Neil: Maybe I should cut down on the chocolate cake then?

    也許我應該減少巧克力蛋糕的用量?

  • Sophie: Actually, that's one thing you could leave on the list.

    蘇菲其實,這是一件事 你可以留在名單上。

  • According to research, chocolate may enhanceor improvecognitive performance,

    根據研究,巧克力可能會增強--或改善--認知能力。

  • and that is your ability to acquire and utilize knowledge.

    而這就是你獲取和利用知識的能力。

  • Now let's listen to Dr Loveday talking about building up our cognitive reserve.

    現在讓我們來聽聽洛夫戴博士說說如何建立我們的認知儲備。

  • This is the idea of building up extra abilities

    這就是積累額外能力的想法

  • to help protect the brain against declining memory or thinking.

    以幫助保護大腦免受記憶力或思維力下降的影響。

  • Dr Catherine Loveday: Continually just stimulating the brainthings like learning a language,

    凱瑟琳-洛夫戴博士。就像學習一門語言一樣。

  • learning music,

    學習音樂;

  • just educating yourself, seems to continue to build up that cognitive reserve.

    只是教育自己,似乎還能繼續建立起這種認知儲備。

  • So even if people take up languages or take up other things later in life it will give

    所以,即使人們在以後的生活中學習語言或從事其他事情,也會給人們帶來

  • them a degree of protection.

    對他們進行一定程度的保護。

  • Neil: Stimulate means to make something become more active.

    尼爾:刺激的意思是讓某物變得更加活躍。

  • Hmm. Not sure I'm continually stimulating my brain. What do you think, Sophie?

    嗯。不確定我是否在不斷地刺激我的大腦。你覺得呢,蘇菲?

  • Sophie: With all our stimulating discussions, Neil,

    蘇菲我們所有的討論都很刺激,尼爾。

  • I'm sure we're both building up our cognitive reserve.

    我'肯定我們都在建立自己的認知儲備。

  • And there are your Japanese lessons too.

    還有你的日語課。

  • Neil: Well, so I am doing well as far as my cognitive reserve goes.

    尼爾:嗯,所以就我的認知儲備而言,我做得很好。

  • Sophie you've put my mind at rest.

    蘇菲你讓我放心了。

  • Sophie: And if you put someone's mind at rest you stop them worrying.

    蘇菲如果你把一個人的心在休息 你停止他們擔心。

  • Well, don't get too relaxed Neilyour brain needs constant stimulation, remember?

    好了,別太放鬆了尼爾--你的大腦需要不斷的刺激,記得嗎?

  • Neil: Hmm. I think I might just lie down after the show with a box of chocolates and today's crossword...

    嗯,我想我可能會在節目結束後躺下,拿著一盒巧克力和今天的填字遊戲...我想我可能會在節目結束後躺下,拿著一盒巧克力和今天的填字遊戲... ...

  • or maybe I'll memorize another shopping list... this time in Japanese.

    或者,也許我會記住另一個購物清單......這次用日語。

  • Sophie: OK. I think it's time to hear the answer to today's quiz question.

    蘇菲好了,我想是時候聽聽今天的測驗題的答案了。我想是時候聽聽今天的測驗題的答案了'。

  • I asked: How many neurons are there in the typical human brain?

    我問:一般人的大腦有多少個神經元?

  • Is it ... a) 8.6 billion b) 86 billion or c) 860 billion?

    是......a)86億b)860億還是c)8600億?

  • Neil: And I said a) 8.6 billion.

    尼爾:我說的是a)86億。

  • Sophie: I thought you were feeling clever today, Neil.

    蘇菲我還以為你今天很聰明呢 內爾

  • I'm afraid that's the wrong answer. It's b) 86 billion.

    我'恐怕是錯誤的答案。是'b)860億。

  • But do you know how scientists calculated that number?

    但你知道科學家是如何計算出這個數字的嗎?

  • Neil: Uh... did they have a guess, Sophie?

    呃......他們猜到了嗎,蘇菲?

  • Sophie: No, not exactly. Apparently, the easiest way is to count how many neurons there are

    蘇菲不,不完全是。顯然,最簡單的方法是數一數有多少神經元。

  • in one part of the brain and then multiply that for the rest of the brain's volume.

    在大腦的一個部分,然後乘以大腦的其餘部分'的體積。

  • Neil: Well, that's a lot of brain cells. OK, can we hear the words we learned today?

    尼爾:嗯,那是很多腦細胞。好了,我們能聽到今天學到的單詞嗎?

  • Sophie: They are:

    蘇菲他們是。

  • bilingualism

    雙語

  • brain training

    腦力訓練

  • neurons

    神經元

  • stroke

    撫摸

  • executive functions

    執行職能

  • switches

    開關

  • resist

    抵抗

  • enhance

    增強

  • cognitive reserve

    認知力

  • stimulate

    刺激

  • put someone's mind at rest

    安心

  • Neil: Well, that's the end of today's 6 Minute English. Don't forget to join us again soon!

    尼爾:好了,今天的'6分鐘英語到此結束。不要忘記很快再加入我們的行列!

  • Both: Bye.

    都:再見。

Sophie: Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English. I'm Sophie.

蘇菲:你好,歡迎來到6分鐘英語。我'我是蘇菲。

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BBC 6 Minute English April 07, 2016 - Brain training

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    Adam Huang 發佈於 2016 年 04 月 12 日
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