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  • Every day, a sea of decisions stretches before us.

    每天,無數的抉擇攤在我們面前。

  • Some are small and unimportant, but others have a larger impact on our lives.

    有些是芝麻小事,但有些對我們的人生會有較大影響。

  • For example, which politician should I vote for?

    例如:我該投票給那位政治家?

  • Should I try the latest diet craze?

    我該試試最新的熱門飲食法嗎?

  • Or will email make me a millionaire?

    或電子郵件會讓我成為百萬富翁嗎?

  • We're bombarded with so many decisions that it's impossible to make a perfect choice every time.

    我們不斷受到那麼多抉擇的轟炸,致使無法每次都作出最適當的選擇。

  • But there are many ways to improve our chances, and one particularly effective technique is critical thinking.

    但仍有許多方法可提高做出正確選擇的機率,其中一個非常有效的技巧就是「批判性思考」。

  • This is a way of approaching a question that allows us to carefully deconstruct a situation,

    這種處理問題的方法讓我們能仔細地解析狀況,

  • reveal its hidden issues, such as bias and manipulation, and make the best decision.

    揭露其潛藏的問題,譬如說偏見或是操弄,並讓我們做出最佳的選擇。

  • If the critical part sounds negative that's because in a way it is.

    如果「批判性」感覺很負面, 那是因為從某方面來看它的確是如此。

  • Rather than choosing an answer because it feels right,

    不同於因為「感覺對」而選擇那個答案,

  • a person who uses critical thinking subjects all available options to scrutiny and skepticism.

    運用批判性思考的人,會考量所有可行的選項, 而後加以詳察與質疑。

  • Using the tools at their disposal, they'll eliminate everything but the most useful and reliable information.

    運用這可掌握的工具,可去蕪存菁, 只留下最有用的及可信的資訊。

  • There are many different ways of approaching critical thinking.

    要做到批判性思考有許多的方式。

  • But here's one five-step process that may help you solve any number of problems.

    但以下五個步驟可協助你解決不少的問題。

  • One: formulate your question.

    一、有系統地提出問題。

  • In other words, know what you're looking for.

    也就是說,知道你在尋找什麼。

  • This isn't always as straightforward as it sounds.

    這並不總是像聽到的那麼簡單。

  • For example, if you're deciding whether to try out the newest diet craze,

    例如,如果你正在決定要不要嘗試最新的熱門飲食法,

  • your reasons for doing so may be obscured by other factors like claims that you'll see results in just two weeks.

    你想嘗試的理由可能被其他因素模糊焦點,比方說它宣稱在兩週之內就可看到成效。

  • But if you approach the situation with a clear view of what you're actually trying to accomplish by dieting,

    假如遇到這種狀況時,你清楚地知道你想透過這個飲食方式想達到什麼目的,

  • whether that's weight loss, better nutrition, or having more energy,

    不管是不是減重、較好的營養、或是更精力更充沛,

  • that'll equip you to sift through this information critically, find what you're looking for,

    你便具備審慎地篩選資訊的能力、找到你所需要的資料,

  • and decide whether the new fad really suits your needs.

    然後決定這個新時尚是否真的吻合你的需求。

  • Two: gather your information.

    二、收集資訊。

  • There's lots of it out there, so having a clear idea of your question will help you determine what's relevant.

    現在隨處都有許多資訊,所以清楚了解你的問題才能有助於決定哪些是相關資料。

  • If you're trying to decide on a diet to improve your nutrition, you may ask an expert for their advice, or seek other people's testimonies.

    如果你在決定提高營養攝取的飲食方式,你可以請教專家的建議或是尋求他人的見解。

  • Information gathering helps you weigh different options, moving you closer to a decision that meets your goal.

    匯集資訊可以協助你衡量不同的選擇,讓你更貼近符合你目標的決定。

  • Three: apply the information.

    三、應用資訊。

  • Something you do by asking critical questions.

    藉由問些關鍵的問題來進行這一步。

  • Facing a decision, ask yourself, "What concepts are at work?"

    面對選擇時,問自己: 「什麼樣的概念比較有效?」

  • "What assumptions exist?"

    「會有哪些假設?」

  • "Is my interpretation of the information logically sound?"

    「我對這些資訊的理解合不合理?」

  • For example, in an email that promises you millions,

    例如,一封郵件承諾給你上百萬元,

  • you should consider, "What is shaping my approach to this situation?"

    你需要細想:「有哪些因素決定我對此做出判斷?」

  • "Do I assume the sender is telling the truth?"

    「我認為寄件人說的是實話嗎?」

  • "Based on the evidence, is it logical to assume I'll win any money?"

    「根據現有的證據,『我會得到錢』這事合理嗎?」

  • Four: consider the implications.

    四、考慮所帶來的影響。

  • Imagine it's election time, and you've selected a political candidate based on their promise to make it cheaper for drivers to fill up on gas.

    想像現在是競選時期,根據他們的政治承諾, 你已選定一位候選人,他保證汽車駕駛人加油會更便宜。

  • At first glance, that seems great.

    乍看之下,太棒了!

  • But what about the long-term environmental effects?

    但長期對環境影響會怎樣?

  • If gasoline use is less restricted by cost, this could also cause a huge surge in air pollution, an unintended consequence that's important to think about.

    如果因油價降低使汽油使用量增加,這會導致空氣汚染急速加重,而這非預期的後果則需要慎重考慮。

  • Five: explore other points of view.

    五、研究其他的觀點。

  • Ask yourself why so many people are drawn to the policies of the opposing political candidate.

    問問自己,為何那麼多人支持反對黨候選人的政策。

  • Even if you disagree with everything that candidate says,

    雖然你對那位候選人的各種說詞都不贊同,

  • exploring the full spectrum of viewpoints might explain why some policies that don't seem valid to you appeal to others.

    但探討他各方面的觀點,也許能解釋為何其他人會認同你不認同的政見。

  • This will allow you to explore alternatives, evaluate your own choices, and ultimately help you make more informed decisions.

    這讓你去研究其他的選擇,同時也能評估你自己的,最後協助你做出更合理的決定。

  • This five-step process is just one tool, and it certainly won't eradicate difficult decisions from our lives.

    這五個步驟只是個工具,它當然無法完全免除生活中困難的決定。

  • But it can help us increase the number of positive choices we make.

    但它可以提高我們做出正確選擇的機率。

  • Critical thinking can give us the tools to sift through a sea of information and find what we're looking for.

    批判性思考讓我們有能力在瀚浩如海的資訊中搜尋,找到我們所需要的。

  • And if enough of us use it, it has the power to make the world a more reasonable place.

    如果夠多人懂得運用它,它的力量便能讓世界變得更加理性。

Every day, a sea of decisions stretches before us.

每天,無數的抉擇攤在我們面前。

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 批判性 資訊 選擇 決定 思考

必備技能:5 大技巧讓你擁有「批判性思考」的能力 (5 tips to improve your critical thinking - Samantha Agoos)

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    jacl 發佈於 2019 年 04 月 02 日
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