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  • What would you say if we told you that humanity is currently making

    如果告訴你知道目前人類正在通力合作

  • a collaborative effort to engineer the perfect superbug?

    製造完美的超級細菌? 你會怎麼想?

  • A bug that could kill hundreds of millions of people?

    這種超級細菌可能造成數以百萬計的人死亡

  • Well, it is happening right now.

    嗯,這是現正在發生的事情。

  • We are in the process of creating a superbacterium.

    我們正在經歷創造超級細菌的過程中

  • Bacteria are among the oldest living things on this planet.

    細菌是在這個星球上最古老的生命體

  • The smallest thing we still consider life, they are masters of survival

    是目前我們認為最小的生命體, 他們同樣是生存大師

  • and can be found everywhere.

    而且隨處可見。

  • Most bacteria are harmless to us.

    大多數細菌對我們是無害的

  • Your body hosts trillions of them, and they help you to survive.

    我們的身體正茲養著無數能夠幫助我們生存的細菌

  • But others can invade your body, spread quickly, and kill you.

    但有些細菌也能侵入你的身體, 迅速蔓延,最終宰了你

  • Millions of people used to die as a result of bacterial infections.

    細菌感染曾經造成數以百萬計的人們死亡

  • Until we developed a superweaponantibiotics.

    直到我們開發了超級武器 - 抗生素

  • Together with vaccinations, antibiotics revolutionized medicine

    抗生素與疫苗是近代的革命性藥物

  • and saved millions of lives.

    拯救了數百萬計的生命。

  • Antibiotics kill the vast majority of susceptible bacteria fairly quickly,

    抗生素能夠快速殺死絕大多數"敏感"的細菌

  • leaving only a small group of survivors

    殘留下的一小群倖存者

  • that our immune system then deals with easily.

    我們的免疫系統也能輕鬆的處理掉

  • How do antibiotics do this?

    如何抗生素做到這一點?

  • Imagine a bacterium as a very complex machine

    想像一下, 一個細菌如同一台非常複雜的機器

  • with thousands of complex processes going on that keep it alive and active.

    具有複雜的處理程序, 讓細菌能夠生存並活動

  • Antibiotics disrupt this complex machinery,

    而抗生素能破壞這種複雜的機制,

  • for example, by interfering with its metabolism,

    例如,某些抗生素能通過干擾細菌的代謝過程

  • slowing down their growth significantly, so they are less of a threat.

    使其減緩生長,進而減少細菌的威脅

  • Other antibiotics attack DNA and prevent it from being replicated,

    或是藉由攻擊DNA的複製機轉,

  • which stops bacteria from multiplying, ultimately killing them.

    進而使細菌無法分裂,最終殺死他們

  • Or by simply ripping the outer layer of the bacteria to shreds,

    或是簡單的撕碎細菌的細胞膜,

  • so that their insides spill out and they die quickly.

    進而造成細菌內容物流出,最後快速死亡

  • All of this without bothering body cells.

    而這些機制都不會影響到人體細胞

  • But now, evolution is making things more complicated.

    但現在,生命的進化 讓事情變得更加複雜。

  • By pure random chance, a small minority of the bacteria invading your body

    某些隨機入侵你的身體的細菌

  • might have evolved a way to protect themselves.

    可能已經進化出抗藥性的機轉

  • For example, by intercepting the antibiotics

    例如,通過攔截和改變抗生素分子

  • and changing the molecule so it becomes harmless.

    轉變成為無害的物質

  • Or by investing energy in pumps that eject the antibiotics

    或在"投資"些能量在幫浦上

  • before they can do damage.

    以便在抗生素造成傷害之前排出體內

  • A few immune bacteria are not that big a deal,

    少數具有抗藥性細菌沒什麼大不了

  • because the immune system can take care of them.

    因為免疫系統能好好的料理他們

  • But if they escape, they might spread their immunity.

    但如果他們落跑了, 他們就有可能散播其抗藥性

  • How can bacteria spread immunity?

    細菌是如何散播抗藥性的?

  • First of all, bacteria have two kinds of DNA:

    首先,細菌有兩種 DNA:

  • the chromosome and small free-floating parts called plasmids.

    染色體 和可自由漂移的質體(plasmids)。

  • They can hug each other and exchange those plasmids

    細菌能藉由擁抱對方, 交換這些質粒

  • to exchange useful abilities.

    進而得到有用的能力

  • This way, immunity can be spread quickly through a population.

    這樣,抗藥性可 通過細菌族群迅速蔓延。

  • Or, in a process called transformation, bacteria can harvest dead bacteria

    或在被稱為形質轉換(transformation)的過程中,

  • and collect DNA pieces.

    細菌藉由獲得死菌並收集DNA片段。

  • This even works between different bacteria species

    甚至在不同種類的細菌也能作用

  • and can lead to superbugs, bacteria that are immune to multiple antibiotics.

    最終產生了具有多重抗藥性的超級細菌

  • A variety of superbugs already exist in the world.

    目前已經有許多種超級細菌存在於世界上

  • Especially hospitals are the perfect breeding grounds for them.

    特別是醫院是他們完美的生長溫床

  • Humans have short memories.

    群眾只有短期記憶。

  • The horrors of the pre-antibiotic era have been forgotten.

    抗生素發明前的恐怖時代 早就已經被人遺忘。

  • Today, we treat this powerful medicine as a commodity

    今天,我們把這個強大的藥物作為商品

  • instead of as the game-changing achievement of science that it is.

    而不是一項改變所有規則 的重大科學成就

  • This has led to a strange disconnect:

    這樣也導至一項奇怪的對比:

  • hundreds of millions of people still don’t have access

    在發展中國家,成千上萬人

  • to antibiotics in developing countries,

    還無法使用抗生素

  • while in other parts of the world antibiotics are prescribed too freely

    而同時,在世界的其他地方 抗生素卻取得簡單

  • and taken without care.

    並過度濫用

  • Antibiotics should be a last-resort drug,

    抗生素應做為一種"最終手段"的藥物,

  • not something you take because your cold is annoying.

    而不是僅因為感冒很煩人就亂吃 (感冒多為病毒引起)

  • Another serious problem is antibiotic use in meat production.

    而另一個嚴重的問題是 抗生素在肉類生產的濫用

  • At any particular point in time, humanity holds

    在今日,任何特定的時間點裡,

  • between 20 and 30 billion animals as livestock.

    人類圈養了二十到三十億隻動物牲畜

  • To make meat cheaper, many animals are held in horrible conditions,

    為了使肉更便宜,許多動物 在不良的環境下飼養,

  • in very tight spaces, and in unhygienic conditions,

    在極狹小的空間, 與不衛生的條件下,

  • the perfect breeding ground for disease.

    是滋生疾病完美的溫床

  • So many animals are given antibiotics to kill as many bacteria as possible

    因此,抗生素使用在動物身上, 只為了盡可能殺死更多的細菌

  • and prevent them from getting sick.

    並防止細菌致病

  • Because a cheeseburger has to cost a dollar.

    就只因為一個漢堡就值一美元

  • Unsurprisingly, as a result of this system,

    在這樣的狀況下所造成的結果就是

  • we have created more and more bacteria

    我們已經"創造"出 越來越多的

  • that are resistant to antibiotics.

    具有抗藥性的細菌

  • To counteract this, we use different antibiotics

    為了解決這個問題,我們 同時使用不同的抗生素

  • and we have another secret weapon: there are specific antibiotics

    此外,我們還有一個秘密武器: 特效抗生素

  • that are used to wipe out bacteria that have developed resistance.

    是用來消滅已具有抗藥性的細菌

  • There are strict rules for using these to avoid the creation of a superbacterium.

    為避免細菌再次產生抗藥性 使用這些抗生素有嚴格的限制

  • Or so we thought.

    我們是這麼想的...

  • In late 2015, scary news arrived from China.

    在2015年末, 中國傳來了一則可怕的新聞

  • Resistance against Colistin, a last-ditch antibiotic,

    克痢黴素(Colistin) 抗生素的最後防線

  • had been discovered.

    抗藥性細菌已經被發現

  • Colistin is an old drug and was rarely used, because it can damage the liver.

    克痢黴素是一種舊藥, 因為會損害肝臟很少使用

  • So there was little resistance against it, which made it a great

    也由於細菌對它幾乎沒有抵抗力,

  • antibiotic of last resort for certain complex infections that occur in hospitals

    使得它成為在醫院發生的複雜感染 不得不使用的抗生素

  • to fight bacteria that have become immune to a whole bunch of other drugs.

    用來對抗已經具有多重抗藥性的細菌

  • Bacteria resistance to Colistin is very, very bad news.

    細菌能夠抵抗痢黴素 是件非常非常壞的消息。

  • It might destroy a last line of defense and lead to a whole lot of dead people.

    它可能會摧毀抗生素的最後防禦線 並導致大量民眾死亡

  • How could this happen?

    這是怎麼發生的呢?

  • Millions of animals in Chinese pig farms have been given Colistin for years.

    在中國的養殖場,數以百萬計的豬隻 已經使用克痢黴素多年。

  • Resistant bacteria developed, spreading first from animal to animal,

    抗藥生的細菌不斷發展,傳播 首先從動物到動物,

  • and then to humans without being noticed.

    然後,在沒有注意的情況下 傳播到人類身上

  • On an average day, there are over 100,000 flights on Earth,

    在地球上, 平均每天有超過10萬飛機航班,

  • kind of connecting every human on the planet.

    像是把整個星球上的人類連結在了一起

  • By creating the modern world, we have also built the infrastructure

    在我們創建現代世界過程中, 我們同時也製造了

  • for a dangerous pandemic.

    疾病大流行的良好傳播途徑

  • Still, we don’t need to panic just yet.

    儘管如此,我們仍不需要恐慌

  • Bacteria evolve, humans do research, new antibiotics are developed

    細菌即使在進化, 但人類致力於開發新型抗生素

  • as old ones become obsolete, technology is advancing every day.

    雖然舊的過抗生素不敷使用, 但人類技術每天都在進步

  • The problem is real and serious, but the fight is far from over.

    問題是真實而嚴峻的, 但這場戰爭還遠遠沒有結束。

  • If humanity plays its cards right, superbugs might turn out to be

    如果人類打出一副好牌 超級細菌也可能變成

  • not very super after all.

    不是那麼的...超級

  • This video was made possible by viewer support on Patreon.com

    譯者:LHW0415

  • and a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

  • If you want to support us to make more videos,

  • you can buy a Kurzgesagt poster or a mug or donate on Patreon.

  • Thank you so much for your help!

  • Subtitles by the Amara.org community

What would you say if we told you that humanity is currently making

如果告訴你知道目前人類正在通力合作

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B2 中高級 中文 英國腔 細菌 抗生素 抗藥性 使用 動物 人類

抗生素啟示錄解讀 (The Antibiotic Apocalypse Explained)

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    mommy 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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