Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • Way before the first selfie, the ancient Greeks and Romans had a myth about someone a little too obsessed with his own image.

    早在自拍誕生前,古希臘羅馬流傳著一個神話故事,關於一個有點過於著迷於自己模樣的人

  • In one telling,

    有一種說法是

  • Narcissus was a handsome guy wandering the world in search of someone to love.

    那西瑟斯是一個英俊的小伙子, 他為了尋找自己的愛人而環遊世界

  • After rejecting a nymph named Echo,

    在拒絕了森林女神艾寇的示愛之後

  • he caught a glimpse of his own reflection in a river,

    他瞥見了自己在河裡的倒影

  • and fell in love with it.

    進而愛上了它

  • Unable to tear himself away,

    那希瑟斯無法自拔地深陷於自己的美貌,

  • Narcissus drowned.

    最終溺死在河裡

  • A flower marked the spot of where he died, and we call that flower the Narcissus.

    一朵花在他死去的地方冒了出來,那朵花因此得名「那西瑟斯」(水仙花)

  • The myth captures the basic idea of narcissism,

    這個神話體現了自戀的核心概念

  • elevated and sometimes detrimental self-involvement.

    自戀是被高估且有時有害的自我陶醉。

  • But it's not just a personality type that shows up in advice columns.

    但這不只是一種會出現在諮詢專欄裡的個性

  • It's actually a set of traits classified and studied by psychologists.

    而是心理學家分類及研究的一組的特質

  • The psychological definition of narcissism is an inflated, grandiose self-image.

    自戀在心理學上的定義是一種誇大和膨脹的自我形象

  • To varying degrees, narcissists think they're better looking,

    在不同程度上,自戀者可能認為他們長得比較好看

  • smarter,

    比較聰明

  • and more important than other people,

    而且比別人更重要

  • and that they deserve special treatment.

    他們認為自己值得得到特殊的待遇

  • Psychologists recognize two forms of narcissism as a personality trait:

    心理學家認定兩種形式的自戀人格特質:

  • grandiose and vulnerable narcissism.

    浮誇型自戀和脆弱型自戀

  • There's also narcissistic personality disorder,

    另外還有所謂的自戀型人格障礙

  • a more extreme form, which we'll return to shortly.

    它是一種更加極端的形式, 我們待會再回到談談這個人格障礙

  • Grandiose narcissism is the most familiar kind,

    浮誇型自戀最常見

  • characterized by extroversion,

    它的特點是外向

  • dominance,

    強勢

  • and attention seeking.

    和渴望關注

  • Grandiose narcissists pursue attention and power,

    浮誇型自戀的人追求關注和權力

  • sometimes as politicians,

    有時候是政客

  • celebrities,

    名人

  • or cultural leaders.

    或者文化領袖

  • Of course, not everyone who pursues these positions of power is narcissistic.

    當然,不是每個追求這些權力地位的人都自戀

  • Many do it for very positive reasons,

    很多人是出於非常正面的理由

  • like reaching their full potential,

    比如說,為了施展自己全部的才能

  • or helping make people's lives better.

    或者是為了幫助人們生活得更好

  • But narcissistic individuals seek power

    但是自戀的人尋求權力

  • for the status and attention that goes with it.

    是為了伴隨而來的的地位與矚目

  • Meanwhile, vulnerable narcissists can be quiet and reserved.

    然而,脆弱型的自戀者卻是文靜且矜持的

  • They have a strong sense of entitlement,

    他們對權利非常敏感

  • but are easily threatened or slighted.

    但是往往容易覺得受到威脅和輕視

  • In either case, the dark side of narcissism shows up over the long term.

    不管哪一種案例,自戀的陰暗面往往會經過很長一段時間之後才顯現出來

  • Narcissists tend to act selfishly,

    自戀者容易有自私的舉動

  • so narcissistic leaders may make risky or unethical decisions,

    所以,自戀的領導人可能會做有風險且不道德的決策

  • and narcissistic partners may be dishonest or unfaithful.

    自戀的伴侶可能會不誠實或不忠誠

  • When their rosy view of themselves is challenged,

    當他們自我感覺良好的幻覺被挑戰的時候

  • they can become resentful and aggressive.

    他們可能會變得憤憤不平和具有攻擊性

  • It's like a disease where the sufferers feel pretty good,

    它就像是一種病,患者自我感覺良好

  • but the people around them suffer.

    但是身邊的其他人可都遭殃了

  • Taken to the extreme,

    回到前面提到的那個極端的自戀形式

  • this behavior is classified as a psychological disorder

    這種行為被界定為 一種心理障礙

  • called narcissistic personality disorder.

    即「自戀型人格障礙」

  • It affects one to two percent of the population,

    人口中1%-2%的人 會有這種障礙

  • more commonly men.

    而且多為男性

  • It is also a diagnosis reserved for adults.

    它是一種僅針對成年人進行診斷的病症

  • Young people, especially children, can be very self-centered,

    因為年輕人,尤其是小孩, 可能非常自我中心

  • but this might just be a normal part of development.

    但這可能只是成長過程中出現的正常現象

  • The fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual

    美國精神病學會第五版的 《精神疾病診斷與統計手冊》中

  • describes several traits associated with narcissistic personality disorder.

    描述了自戀型人格障礙的多種表現

  • They include a grandiose view of oneself,

    其中包括自視甚高

  • problems with empathy,

    難有同理心

  • a sense of entitlement,

    具特權意識

  • and a need for admiration or attention.

    和需要被崇拜和關注

  • What makes these traits a true personality disorder

    使得這些特質成為真正的人格障礙的原因

  • is that they take over people's lives and cause significant problems.

    是他們主導別人的生活並且造成嚴重的麻煩

  • Imagine that instead of caring for your spouse or children,

    試想,若你不去關心愛護你的伴侶和孩子

  • you used them as a source of attention or admiration.

    反而利用他們作為一種獲取關注或崇拜的來源

  • Or imagine that instead of seeking

    或是對於試圖幫助你的人

  • constructive feedback about your performance,

    你不去尋求有建設性的回饋

  • you instead told everyone who tried to help you

    反而指責他們說的話

  • that they were wrong.

    都是是錯的

  • So what causes narcissism?

    那麼,是什麼導致了自戀呢?

  • Twin studies show a strong genetic component,

    根據雙生子研究, 自戀和基因有關

  • although we don't know which genes are involved.

    雖然我們還無法知道 究竟是些什麼基因參與其中

  • But environment matters, too.

    不過,外在環境的影響是不容忽視的

  • Parents who put their child on a pedestal

    如果父母把孩子 捧得很高

  • can foster grandiose narcissism.

    可能助長他們變成浮誇型自戀者

  • And cold, controlling parents can contribute to vulnerable narcissism.

    而冷酷、控制欲強的父母可能養出脆弱型的自戀小孩

  • Narcissism also seems to be higher

    自戀似乎也在重視個人主義

  • in cultures that value individuality and self-promotion.

    和自我鼓吹的文化中更常見

  • In the United States, for example,

    以美國為例

  • narcissism as a personality trait has been rising since the 1970s,

    從1970年代以來, 自戀人格特徵不斷在增加中

  • when the communal focus of the 60s

    當1960年代對於公共事務的關切

  • gave way to the self-esteem movement

    被自尊主義運動取代了

  • and a rise in materialism.

    也促成了物質主義的盛行

  • More recently, social media has multiplied the possibilities for self-promotion,

    最近,社交媒體迅速增加自我鼓吹地可能性

  • though it's worth noting

    值得注意的是

  • that there's no clear evidence that social media causes narcissism.

    目前並沒有明確地證據顯示社交媒體導致了自戀

  • Rather, it provides narcissists a means to seek social status and attention.

    應該說,它為自戀者提供了一種去尋求社會地位和關注的管道

  • So can narcissists improve on those negative traits?

    那麼,自戀者可不可能修正這些缺點呢?

  • Yes!

    可以!

  • Anything that promotes honest reflection on their own behavior

    任何可以幫助他們客觀審視自己行為

  • and caring for others,

    和關愛他人的事情

  • like psychotherapy or practicing compassion towards others, can be helpful.

    像心理療法或者增強同情心的訓練, 都是有益的

  • The difficulty is it can be challenging

    真正的挑戰是

  • for people with narcissistic personality disorder

    對那些自戀型人格障礙的人來說

  • to keep working at self-betterment.

    努力不懈地自我完善太困難了

  • For a narcissist, self-reflection is hard from an unflattering angle.

    對於一個自戀者而言, 從不討喜的角度進行自我反省是困難的

Way before the first selfie, the ancient Greeks and Romans had a myth about someone a little too obsessed with his own image.

早在自拍誕生前,古希臘羅馬流傳著一個神話故事,關於一個有點過於著迷於自己模樣的人

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 自戀 人格 障礙 地位 尋求

【TED-Ed】從心理學的角度來聊聊「自戀」這回事 (The psychology of narcissism - W. Keith Campbell)

  • 37823 3396
    Frank 發佈於 2016 年 05 月 26 日
影片單字