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  • On first glance, this painting might not seem terribly special,

    第一眼看到的時候,這幅畫或許不夠令人驚艷

  • but it's actually one of the most analyzed paintings in the history of art.

    但其實這幅畫,是藝術史上最常被研究分析的作品之一

  • It's called "Las Meninas," or "The Maids of Honor,"

    這幅畫是《Las Meninas》或《宮女》(註:另譯為《侍女》)

  • painted by Diego Velázquez in 1656,

    迪亞哥.委拉斯奎茲在1656年所創作

  • and it depicts a scene in the life of the Spanish Royal Court.

    畫中描繪西班牙皇室的生活情景

  • A well-dressed child princess refuses a glass of water from a handmaid,

    精心打扮的小公主,婉拒侍女遞給她的水

  • while a dwarf teases a dog.

    一位侏儒正在戲弄小狗

  • A second dwarf stands next to them,

    而另一位侏儒就站在旁邊

  • while the artist himself pauses at his canvas.

    畫家在自己的畫布前定格

  • Two more people whisper in the background,

    兩個人在後面說著悄悄話

  • while a third appears to be exiting the room,

    還有第三個人,看起來正要離開房間

  • and why wouldn't he when there seems to be so little going on?

    他為什麼看起來意興闌珊的樣子還不離去?

  • Even the dog looks bored.

    甚至連小狗都一臉無聊的樣子

  • But look more closely.

    再仔細看

  • The two people reflected in the blurry mirror at the back,

    有兩個人的身影,被映入後方一面模糊的鏡子裡

  • easily missed at first glance,

    看第一眼很容易忽略了的身影

  • are none other than King Philip IV and Queen Mariana,

    不是別人,正是國王菲利浦四世和皇后瑪麗安娜

  • seemingly changing the scene from a simple depiction of court life

    這麼一來,這幅畫就從單純的皇家生活描繪

  • to that of a royal portrait.

    變成了皇室成員肖像畫

  • And with this piece of information,

    而透過這則訊息

  • we can begin to understand far more about the painting

    我們可以開始深入了解這幅畫

  • and why it has captivated viewers for centuries.

    並了解這幅畫為何令觀眾著迷,長達好幾世紀

  • First, there's the historical context.

    第一,是因為其中的歷史背景

  • When "Las Meninas" was painted at the end of Philip's reign,

    《宮女》創作時,菲利浦國王的政權已到末期

  • the Spanish Empire was in a period of decline,

    西班牙帝國 (註:西班牙哈布斯堡王朝) 正在衰落

  • having suffered defeat in The Thirty Years War,

    於「三十年戰爭」中挫敗

  • as well as economic and political difficulties.

    經濟和政治上的處境都十分艱難

  • The King himself had also suffered misfortune,

    而在此同時,國王也正遭遇不幸

  • losing both his first wife and his only heir to the throne before remarrying.

    他再婚前,同時失去了第一任妻子和唯一能繼承王位的子嗣

  • But the painting obscures their struggle to provide food for their household.

    畫中隱約透露出王室勉強維持生計的訊息

  • Even the monarch's advanced age is concealed through the blurring of the mirror.

    甚至王朝已到暮年的事實,都隱藏在模糊的鏡中

  • What we do see in the geometric center of the canvas,

    我們在畫布的幾何中心看到

  • brightly illuminated by the light from the window,

    被窗外光線照亮的

  • is the Infanta Margarita Teresa,

    是瑪格麗特.德蕾莎公主

  • the King's only living legitimate child at the time.

    國王當時唯一還活著的合法繼承子女

  • Her glowing and healthy appearance

    她光彩和健康的外表形象

  • is an idealized view of the struggling empire's future.

    是艱困的帝國,最理想的未來形象

  • However, the Infanta is not the only center of the painting.

    然而,公主並不是這幅畫的唯一中心

  • Through the clever use of perspective,

    由於靈巧的透視法運用

  • as well as painting the work life-sized, on a 10.5 x 9 foot canvas,

    以及10.5×9英尺畫布上的真人尺寸繪畫

  • Velázquez blurs the boundary between art and reality,

    委拉斯奎茲模糊了「藝術」和「真實」之間的界線

  • creating the sense of a three-dimensional picture that we can walk into.

    創造出立體的空間感,彷彿我們能走入畫中

  • The line between the ceiling and the wall converges to the open door,

    天花板和牆面的消點,就在這扇打開的門上

  • further creating the perception

    更塑造了一種認知

  • of the painting as a physical space seen from the viewer's perspective.

    藉由觀眾的(透視)消點方向,創造出畫和真實世界的相對空間感

  • In this sense, the audience and the real world are the focus,

    這樣一來,觀眾和真實世界,就是畫中世界所凝視的對象

  • underlined by the three figures looking straight at the viewer.

    畫中三個人物直視著觀眾,更強調了這層關係

  • But there is still another focal point.

    但這幅畫還有另一個焦點

  • The line formed by the light fixtures leads to the center of the back wall

    燈具的方向,把消點指向後面這道牆中間

  • to the mirror reflecting the royal couple.

    反射了王室伉儷的鏡子上

  • And its positioning relative to the viewer

    相對於觀眾的位置

  • has led to radically different interpretations of the entire work.

    鏡子表現了這幅作品另一個截然不同的解讀方向

  • The mirror could be reflecting the King and Queen posing for their portrait,

    鏡子的反射,可能是國王和皇后正擺出肖像畫中的姿勢

  • or is it reflecting the canvas?

    或鏡子可能反射了畫布?

  • And what do we make of the fact that Velázquez never painted the royal portrait implied here?

    那我們能從「委拉斯奎茲從未畫過王室伉儷肖像」這件事實中,得到什麼暗示?

  • Could the painting actually be depicting its own creation instead?

    可能畫布上,其實是畫家正在創作這幅作品?

  • With the incorporation of the mirror into his work,

    因為在畫中安排了這面鏡子

  • Velázquez elevated the art of painting from its perception as a simple craft

    委拉斯奎茲將繪畫藝術,從一般認知中的單純工藝

  • to an intellectual endeavor.

    提升為智慧成就

  • With its three competing center points,

    由於這三個衝突的焦點

  • "Las Meninas" captures the contrast between the ideal,

    《宮女》掌握了理想、

  • the real,

    真實、

  • and the reflected worlds,

    和反射世界,三者之間的對照

  • maintaining an unresolved tension between them

    維持了彼此之間懸而未決的緊張局勢

  • to tell a more complex story than any mirror can provide.

    訴說著比所有鏡子所能映照出來的,都還要複雜的故事

On first glance, this painting might not seem terribly special,

第一眼看到的時候,這幅畫或許不夠令人驚艷

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 畫布 鏡子 國王 王室 觀眾

【TED-Ed】《宮女》這幅畫有什麼神奇魅力? (Why is this painting so captivating? - James Earle and Christina Bozsik)

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    YSI 發佈於 2016 年 03 月 30 日
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