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  • In the early 1980s, roughly fifty different companies owned 90% of American media. By

    1980年初,五十間公司擁有美國九成的媒體

  • 1992, that number had dropped to less than two dozen, and in recent years, that same

    到了1992年,只剩下少於兩打的公司掌握這些媒體資源

  • 90% has fallen to just Six major conglomerates. Although various mergers and layers of external

    到了近幾年,掌握百分之九十媒體資源的企業剩下六家,雖然基於各種整併

  • control make this an inexact number. Most of theBig Sixhold interests in film

    與外部組織的控制,六大巨頭的說法可能不是完全準確。六巨頭掌握了電影

  • production, cable and broadcast television, news, sports, music, and online streaming.

    有線與廣播電視、新聞、運動、音樂和線上串流媒體的股權

  • So, who exactly controls the media?

    所以,我們的媒體實際上是誰把持著呢?

  • As of 2015, the largest media company in the world by revenue is Comcast. According to

    截至2015年止,就營業收入而言世界最大的媒體公司是康卡斯特

  • the SEC, in 2014, they reportedly made nearly $69 billion dollars. Like the other conglomerates,

    根據美國證券交易委員會,康卡斯特在2014年賺進將近690億元,如同其他媒體巨頭

  • Comcast owns nearly every step in media production and distribution. In fact, Comcast is the

    康卡斯特的股權包括了幾乎所有媒體層級的製作與傳播,事實上

  • single largest cable provider on earth. Content is created through subsidiaries like NBCUniversal,

    康卡斯特是世界最大的有線電視服務提供商,同時也透過如NBC環球等子公司產製節目內容

  • which is then broadcast over TV and the Internet through Xfinity. Comcast is also a major internet

    並藉由Xfinity的電視和網路串流服務來播送, 康卡斯特同時也是主要的互聯網服務提供商

  • service provider, covering more than half of all US broadband customers. Even online

    擁有一半以上的美國寬頻客戶

  • streaming giant, Hulu, is jointly owned by three of the Big Six.

    就連網路串聯媒體巨人Hulu也由六大媒體巨頭其中三大共同擁有

  • The next largest conglomerate is The Walt Disney Company, with reportedly roughly $48

    第二大媒體巨頭則是2014年賺進410億元的華特迪士尼公司

  • billion dollars in revenue. Disney has holdings in theme parks, movie studios, and diverse

    迪士尼擁有主題公園、電影製片廠和許多電視聯播網

  • television networks, such as ABC, A&E and ESPN. They also own a number of legacy companies

    例如ABC、 A&E 和ESPN, 他們也擁有許多傳統的公司

  • like Pixar, Marvel Entertainment, and Lucasfilms of the Star Wars franchise.

    例如皮克斯動畫工作室、漫威娛樂和星際大戰系列電影的盧卡斯影業

  • The third of theBig Sixis 21st Century Fox, which emerged in 2013 as a spin off of

    第三大媒體巨頭則是二十一世紀福斯,此公司於2013年從Rupert Murdoch的新聞集團獨立出來

  • Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation. Today, Fox makes about $32 billion dollars a year,

    如今二十一世紀福斯每年賺進320億美元

  • and is predominantly focused on film and television, including Fox News Channel, which made nearly

    福斯主要致力於電影和電視產業,包括在2014年

  • 800 million dollars in ad revenue in 2014.

    賺進近八億美金廣告收入的福斯新聞頻道

  • The last independent conglomerate is Time Warner, with revenues of about $27 billion

    最後一大獨立集團則是年收入270億的時代華納有線電視

  • dollars. In the 1990s they were the largest media company in the world. But an unsuccessful

    在1990年代他們曾是世界上最大的媒體公司,但在2002年

  • merger with AOL at the peak of the dot-com bubble made them lose nearly $100 billion

    他們在互聯網泡沫的高峰期與美國在線整併失敗損失了近千億美元

  • dollars in 2002. Since then, AOL and Time Inc, as well as Time Warner’s entire cable

    在那之後,美國在線、時代公司和時代華納的有線電視部門

  • division have become separate companies. Because they are now unrelated, Time Warner and Time

    成為三個個別的公司。又因為如今他們已經不再有整併關係

  • Warner Cable are the fourth and fifth largest media companies in the world, according to

    時代華納和時代華納有線電視根據富比士,依序為第四與第五大媒體巨頭

  • Finally, the last two are CBS and Viacom. In 2013 they reported about $14 to $15 billion

    最後兩大巨頭為CBS電視網和維亞康姆,兩者分別於2013年賺進140億與150億

  • dollars in revenue each. They used to be a single company controlled by National Amusements,

    他們曾是受控於全美娛樂公司連鎖影院的兩間獨立公司

  • a movie theater chain. Today, although they are individually held, National Amusements

    如今他們的股權各自被全美娛樂公司掌握

  • owners have enough stock in both to effectively dictate control. So, in a way, there aren’t

    全美娛樂的擁有者擁有兩者足夠的股票而對其有具效力的控制權,所以某種程度上來說

  • even six conglomerates, but five! Or maybe there are seven?

    他們並不算第六大媒體巨頭,而是第五大,或第七大

  • Some, including former Time Warner’s former vice chairman Ted Turner, have said media

    有些人,包括時代華納的前副董事長Ted Turner表示

  • conglomerates have become oligopolies, and that they stifle innovation. But others point

    媒體巨頭已經形成寡頭壟斷,進而扼殺創意。但其他人則指出

  • out that they also can provide a greater global reach for smaller and newer companies.

    媒體巨頭可提供小公司或新創公司更大的全球影響力

  • In fact, I work for one of those newer companies, Fusion, which is partially owned by ABC-Disney.

    事實上,我就任職於其中一個迪士尼ABC電視集團旗下的新創公司Fusion

  • Check out my mini-documentary about independent citizen journalists in Brazil challenging

    不妨看看一部我有關巴西獨立公民記者挑戰里約員警暴力的微紀錄片

  • Rio’s police brutality. Don’t forget to like and subscribe to TestTube News, and make

    別忘了按讚並訂閱 TestTube News

  • sure to check out my channel Timcast. Thanks for watching and see ya next time!

    並看看我的頻道Timcast,感謝大家收看,下次再見~

In the early 1980s, roughly fifty different companies owned 90% of American media. By

1980年初,五十間公司擁有美國九成的媒體

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誰擁有媒體? (Who Owns The Media?)

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    羅紹桀 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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