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  • Thank you Mark.

  • Ladies and gentlemen,

  • you will probably wonder why I, as a development economist,

  • am here today to talk about treating trauma.

  • It's because I've come to see that trauma is

  • not only a huge global problem of truly epidemic proportions

  • but traumas also have a devastating impact

  • on human development, economic development,

  • and even on the possibility of peace.

  • Given the importance of trauma worldwide,

  • it's actually rather surprising to see the invisibility,

  • it's almost like the problem is hidden.

  • In fact, most traumas worldwide remain unrecognized,

  • undiagnosed, and therefore untreated.

  • That's particularly true for the developing countries.

  • I'm here today to make a plea,

  • to make available treatment services

  • to the hundreds of millions of people worldwide who are in need,

  • and to do so not in small doses,

  • but rather as a quantum jump.

  • I believe that that is now possible for the first time in history,

  • with a new treatment called EMDR,

  • for Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing.

  • Ladies and gentlemen,

  • I have this picture on my desk at home,

  • to remind me of the human face of trauma.

  • Look at this man's eyes, look at the anguish,

  • the vulnerability, the hopelessness.

  • I first came to realize the importance of trauma,

  • when I was UNICEF representative in Bangladesh in the 1990s.

  • And I was pondering

  • the development challenges of the country,

  • its grinding poverty, their regularly recurring natural disasters;

  • they've just gone through a punishing war of liberation.

  • I could not believe that anyone in that country

  • had actually been able to escape being traumatized

  • because the signs and the sources of trauma

  • were everywhere to be seen.

  • So I was wondering what can we do about a problem at such a large scale.

  • The answer came to me rather unexpectedly.

  • I was taking a brief sabbatical in San Francisco,

  • I was in a book store,

  • and inexplicably, my hand reached out

  • to a book with the title EMDR.

  • I'd never heard of EMDR, I didn't know why my hand was doing this.

  • Nonetheless, I sat down on the floor, began to read,

  • and about an hour later when I reemerged,

  • I realized that I had just read

  • about a treatment facility,

  • a treatment modality, that was rapidly scalable,

  • and that was very effective in treating people

  • in a very short period of time.

  • So that was exactly the kind of treatment

  • that we could very well use in Bangladesh.

  • So I called the author, Dr. Francine Shapiro

  • - who also is the developer of EMDR -

  • I asked for an appointment, and the next day, I was in her home

  • negotiating a contract for EMDR trainers to come to Bangladesh

  • and to begin to treat the many people there.

  • The training would be given

  • to the 54 Bangladeshi psychologists and psychiatrists in that country.

  • So that way I learned first hand

  • about the amazing, almost magical effectiveness of EMDR.

  • Most of you probably have heard or know someone,

  • who has been traumatized,

  • perhaps even suffer from PTSD, post traumatic stress disorders.

  • In fact, statistically speaking,

  • there should be a good number of you here in this audience

  • who actually have suffered PTSD yourself.

  • The PTSD symptoms include three sets: the first is the hyper-arousal,

  • that means you can't sleep, you can't concentrate very well.

  • There is also easily being angered, or getting into a panic,

  • or even feeling intense feelings of hatred.

  • Then there is the reliving of the traumatic event,

  • and that comes in nightmares,

  • invasive, intrusive flashbacks.

  • And thirdly, there is the avoidance and numbing,

  • you avoid any situation that reminds you of the traumatic event.

  • You avoid certain relationships.

  • And there is also the growing

  • distrust of anyone around you,

  • your isolation, the hopelessness,

  • and that can go all the way to outright depression.

  • So, from these symptoms,

  • you can see that PTSD is a very severe and disabling illness

  • that has very serious consequences

  • for both the ability to learn,

  • the creativity of people,

  • the productivity, and the general well being.

  • There is also new evidence to show

  • that if people have suffered even a minor trauma

  • there are heightened chances there

  • that you would get ill with substance abuse,

  • with cardiac conditions, and even with cancer.

  • There's a saying that says "Violence begets violence."

  • What we don't often realize is

  • that the trauma is the 'trait d'union' between violence and violence.

  • Because, if somebody gets traumatized

  • as a result of violence,

  • then that person is at a heightened risk

  • of himself or herself become a perpetrator of violence.

  • That's actually quite a scary understanding.

  • If PTSD is left untreated,

  • then it will last a life time.

  • Ladies and gentlemen,

  • we don't have a very good statistics worldwide,

  • about trauma and PTSD.

  • But if we look at the number of people

  • who are exposed to traumatic circumstances and events,

  • we may be able to get an order of magnitude.

  • For example, take a look at these numbers here.

  • They're all taken from authoritative sources.

  • 1.5 billion people worldwide live

  • in situations of political and criminal violence.

  • That includes the Syrias and the Congos, and Somalias, and all the other countries.

  • Then 42 million people worldwide

  • are either refugees or internally displaced people,

  • and displacement itself is a big risk factor for trauma.

  • Some 200 million people have been exposed to natural disasters in 2011 alone.

  • And so, this becoming an annual feature

  • with the global climate change

  • more and more people getting traumatized.

  • Then some 1.3 billion people are living in absolute poverty.

  • I don't think that we can imagine [more] traumatizing circumstances

  • in which these people live their day to day life.

  • And then get this,

  • one in every three women worldwide

  • actually suffer during their lifetime

  • from sexual, physical or emotional abuse.

  • These are staggering numbers you will agree.

  • Most of these traumas are called Big "T" traumas

  • because they are the results of extreme events.

  • They are the results of loud emergency, if you could say,

  • But there are also the small "t" traumas.

  • And they are well known to all of us,

  • they are caused by everyday traumatizing events,

  • usually we call them normal events,

  • but they are accidents, they are bullying,

  • they are child abuse, divorce and many other circumstances like that.

  • These are silent emergencies

  • but they affect literally millions and millions of people at any given time.

  • If you add big "T" trauma and small "t" trauma together,

  • you end up with a staggering global burden of trauma.

  • Now, let me hasten to say

  • that not all traumatic experiences also lead to PTSD.

  • Thankfully, humans are, by and large, remarkably resilient

  • and usually, after traumatic experience

  • get better all by themselves without any medical or psychological help.

  • If we took

  • the PTSD prevalence, life time prevalence of the United States,

  • which is between 7 and 8%,

  • and we apply that number to the world as a whole,

  • we would end up with at least 500 million cases of PTSD.

  • That's like the total population of the European Union.

  • And the question could be asked: "Is this problem not too big to tackle?"

  • I think a mere 30 years ago,

  • I would have said, yeah, this can't be done.

  • We didn't have the means, we didn't have the technology at that time.

  • But today I think, with EMDR, we actually have a good chance.

  • In a way, I believe that, you know,

  • this is not rocket science to begin to deal with this problem,

  • even at that very large scale.

  • How does EMDR work?

  • EMDR resolves the emotional distress,

  • but the precise mechanism is probably

  • a good topic for the next TED talk.

  • Meanwhile, let me just say

  • that the psycho-neuro physiological processes

  • that lead to the healing are set in motion by bilateral stimulation

  • and that is usually rapid eye movement, from left to right.

  • It seems as simple and magical as that.

  • As soon as that process has happened,

  • the trauma memory is healed

  • and all the symptoms of PTSD disappear.

  • And they disappear for good. They won't come back.

  • And all of this can be done in a matter of few sessions.

  • This is why the World Health Organization

  • recently gave official recognition to EMDR

  • as one-evidence based and scientifically validated

  • treatment modality for trauma.

  • We now have the possibilities of rapidly scaling up

  • with this new treatment called EMDR.

  • EMDR can treat in a matter of hours and days,

  • as opposed to the conventional therapy

  • that took weeks, months, and sometimes years of therapy.

  • It can also be administered to groups of people not just individuals.

  • It is more easily accepted, because unlike the conventional treatment,

  • you don't have to talk about your trauma,

  • people who have been traumatized don't want to talk about their trauma.

  • And then there's a possibility of using paraprofessionals

  • to provide services of psychological first aid,

  • thereby relieving the psychologists and psychiatrists

  • from the more mundane kind of work.

  • So based on my profession as a development economist,

  • I'm convinced that it is now possible

  • to begin to scale up these trauma services.

  • Ladies and gentlemen,

  • you will agree with me

  • that this woman and all the millions of people

  • who have been traumatized like her,

  • at least deserve their peace of mind.

  • They deserve actually much more,

  • they deserve to get back their laughter and their self confidence,

  • and be able to make a contribution to society again,

  • and be part of their community.

  • What would the world look like

  • if we were able to systematically heal all the traumas?

  • I believe that that world would be a lot less violent

  • because we would finally begin to interrupt the insidious,

  • interpersonal and inter-generational transmission of violence and abuse.

  • So, that world, I believe, would be

  • a lot more peaceful, and also a lot more prosperous.

  • I believe that that world is within reach.

  • I am convinced

  • that EMDR has the power and the potential

  • to help treat and heal

  • the humanity's wounded memories.

  • Do you think that that will happen?

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

Thank you Mark.

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【TEDx】治癒創傷,療癒人性 (Healing Trauma, Healing Humanity: Rolf Carriere at TEDxGroningen)

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    Eddie Wu 發佈於 2016 年 03 月 25 日
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