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  • In the aftermath of a terrorist attack, were always left asking the question: how could

    恐怖事件發生後,我們總有疑問

  • anyone do this to another person? While nothing can excuse their actions, maybe psychology

    「怎麼有人做得出這種事?」雖然恐怖行為沒有藉口可推託

  • can help us understand the mind of a terrorist.

    但心理學或許能解釋恐怖份子在想什麼

  • Hello everyone, I’m Julian and this is DNews. Terrorists are defined as a non-state group

    大家好我是Julian,您正收看DNews,恐怖份子由非國家團體組成

  • that uses violence against non-combatants for political gain. Their goal is to instill fear,

    為達政治目的,對平民使用暴力,他們的目標是製造恐怖

  • and they achieve it by targeting innocent people where they feel safe. This brutality

    手法是針對自覺安全的平民進行攻擊

  • is hard for us to comprehend, so some may reason that a terrorist must be mentally unstable

    這種暴行令人費解,因此許多人推論恐怖份子多多少少

  • in some way.

    都有些心理問題

  • According to psychologist John Horgan, who has written multiple books on the subject

    心理學家John Horgan已經出版數本恐怖主義相關著作

  • of terrorism, psychologists have been trying for over 40 years to identify the personality

    他表示,心理學界已經花了40年研究恐怖份子的人格疾患

  • disorder that defines a terrorist. Are they psychotic? Are they anti-social? Is there

    他們是否精神異常?是否有反社會人格?

  • one defining characteristic that unites them?

    有沒有關鍵的共同人格特徵?

  • Unsatisfyingly, there is no one archetype that every terrorist neatly conforms to. There

    然而恐怖份子並沒有完全共通的典型性格模式

  • are risk factors and common threads though. Recruits are often motivated to join terrorist

    但的確有特徵和脈絡可循,成員加入恐怖團體的動機

  • groups because they feel alienated or disenfranchised, or they think they're the victims of a social

    往往是因為疏離感和被剝奪感,或自覺受到社會不公平對待

  • injustice. They may be frustrated by other methods of political change, want to take

    他們也許對其他改革政治的方法感到失望

  • immediate action, and don’t have a problem with violence against the state.

    渴望立即行動,並且不反對使用暴力反抗國家

  • Psychologist Steve Taylor from Leeds Beckett University in the UK writes that it’s often

    英國利茲貝克特大學心理學家Steve Taylor曾寫過

  • adolescent men who are drawn to this life, because theyre at a point when they are

    加入恐怖團體的多是青少年,因為他們

  • looking for a sense of belonging and purpose. Once in the group, they develop anus

    正在尋求歸屬感與人生目標,一旦加入團體

  • vsthemmentality that makes it easy to switch off empathy to the victims of their

    他們便產生「我群與他群」的心理,由此切斷對受害者的同情心

  • attacks. To them the deaths they cause are more akin to destroying an object than ending

    對恐怖份子而言,殺人就如同摧毀物品,而非終結性命

  • a life. Strangely though, sometimes they draw arbitrary lines. Horgan interviewed a former

    但奇怪的是,有時他們的行為又無法預測,Horgan曾訪談數人

  • Irish Republican Army bombing instructor who left the group after the IRA murdered a pregnant

    包括前愛爾蘭共和軍(IRA)炸彈教練,他在IRA謀殺一名懷孕軍官後退出團體

  • officer. Other people Horgan spoke to became disillusioned when their group robbed a bank.

    其他還有因團體搶銀行而感到幻滅的前恐怖份子

  • To them the killing was acceptable, but theft was not.

    對他們而言,殺人可以;偷竊不行。

  • Sometimes though, recruits are just bored and looking for adventure, or theyre worried

    但有時候恐怖份子作亂,只是因為無聊想尋刺激

  • about not leaving a lasting legacy. People with little going for them in their former

    或是想名留青史。過往無甚作為的人

  • lives are more likely to support the actions of a group rather than form opinions as an

    更傾向於支持團體行動,反而不會有個人意見或提出異議

  • individual and voice dissent. This groupthink can lead to further radicalization of all

    這樣的團體思維可能導致全體成員更加激進

  • the members. Wanting to support and look out for each other also becomes another motivation

    其他殺人動機還有成員間的相互支持與照應

  • for killing. Dr. Clark R. McCauley, director for the Solomon Asch Center for Study of Ethnopolitical

    布林茅爾學院 所羅門艾許族裔政治衝突中心主任

  • Conflict at Bryn Mawr College, points out, modern militaries use the same techniques

    Clark R. McCauley博士指出,現代軍隊也運用相同的技巧

  • by stripping soldiers of individuality and placing the goals of the group first. Terrorists

    剝奪士兵的個人思維,讓他們以團隊目標為首要任務

  • who do disagree with the group will feel pressure to remain silent, because they fear the consequences

    不認同團體的恐怖份子會因壓力而保持沈默

  • of voicing dissent. Horgan points out they don’t have the option to really leave either,

    因為他們害怕提出異議的後果,Horgan表示他們也無法選擇退出

  • as state governments will offer little sympathy for deserters.

    因為政府並不會同情前恐怖份子

  • It’s tempting to boil down terrorists to one trait or other. The so-called "Islamic

    我們時常想用一個特徵來總結什麼是恐怖份子

  • State," or ISIS, is a group that’s stated goal is to create an Islamic state,

    「伊斯蘭國」或ISIS團體,開宗明義就是要建立伊斯蘭教國家

  • and so a facile conclusion is their faith is to blame. But according to political scientist

    所以簡單來說就是信仰造成他們的惡行,但根據政治學者

  • Dr. Max Abrahms, groups like that are quote, ”ignorant people with respect to religion

    Max Abrahms博士所言,類似團體是由「對宗教一無所知的人組成

  • and they are generally the newest members to the religion." Horgan agrees with this

    這些人通常是新進的信徒」Horgan也同意這個說法

  • assessment, saying that young converts are more susceptible to recruiters because they

    他認為新信徒較容易受到煽動

  • lack a deeper religious knowledge that would help them reject extremist arguments.

    因為他們對宗教缺乏認識,更容易接受極端的論點

  • But Horgan insists that even if a perfect model of a terrorist could be identified,

    但Horgan強調,就算能找到完美符合恐怖份子的性格模型

  • it wouldn’t be very useful. After all you can’t arrest people just because they have

    也沒什麼用,畢竟不能因為一個人有可能加入暴力激進團體

  • the potential to join violent extremists. Instead he says we should be focusing on understanding

    就將他逮捕,Horgan認為更需要關注的

  • the paths that lead them there and giving them options to get out. Plenty of people

    是瞭解恐怖份子走上歧途的原因,並提供他們出路

  • who join up with radicals eventually become disenchanted. They realize that the group

    許多加入激進團體的人最後突然醒悟,因為他們發現

  • doesn’t really serve their ideals, or isn’t the utopian society the recruiters made it

    團體追求的不是他們的理想,或與團員描繪的理想社會相去甚遠

  • out to be.

    團體追求的不是他們的理想,或與團員描繪的理想社會相去甚遠

  • Of course, Horgan and the people who study terrorists have a tough job cut out for them.

    當然,Horgan和其他恐怖主義學者的研究工作十分困難

  • Terrorist groups rely on fear tactics because they are tiny minorities, and the people who

    恐怖團體仰賴恐怖策略是因為他們是群體中的少數

  • leave and are willing to talk to researchers are an even smaller subset of that. It’s

    而退團後願意接受研究訪談的人更是人數稀少

  • a pressing problem that’s tough to study, so hypotheses abound but there’s very little

    恐怖問題十分迫切卻難以研究,假說多不勝數

  • in the way of actual data. Once again, more research is needed.

    但真正的研究資料極其短缺,於是我們還需要更多研究

  • Even though there are a lot of paths people take to join a group like ISIS, for some reason

    雖然類似ISIS等團體的成員來自各地,但不知原因為何

  • an unusually high number come from one town in Belgium. Lisette explains why over on Seeker

    非常多人來自比利時的小鎮,請看Lisette在Seeker Daily為您介紹

  • Daily.

    非常多人來自比利時的小鎮,請看Lisette在Seeker Daily為您介紹

  • Whether youve been directly affected by terrorism or not, we encourage you to find

    無論你是否受到恐怖主義的危害,我們鼓勵你伸出援手

  • a way to help. Doing good anonymously is great, but spread the word and

    為善不欲人知很好,但提倡公益

  • try to get others involved, too. Let’s

    呼籲他人也很重要

  • try and make the world a better place, and we'll see you next time on DNews.

    讓我們一起改變世界,下次DNews再見

In the aftermath of a terrorist attack, were always left asking the question: how could

恐怖事件發生後,我們總有疑問

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 恐怖份子 團體 激進 成員 理想 研究

為什麼有些人會變成恐怖份子? 心理學這樣說...(Why Do Some People Become Terrorists?)

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    劉宜佳 發佈於 2016 年 03 月 23 日
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