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  • After the French Revolution erupted in 1789,

    1789 年法國大革命爆發後

  • Europe was thrown into chaos.

    歐洲陷入一片混亂

  • Neighboring countries' monarchs feared they would share the fate of Louis XVI,

    鄰國的君主害怕他們的下場會與路易十六一樣

  • and attacked the New Republic,

    因而攻擊新的共和國,

  • while at home, extremism and mistrust between factions led to bloodshed.

    同時,法國極端主義及派系間的不信任

  • In the midst of all this conflict,

    導致流血衝突,

  • a powerful figure emerged to take charge of France.

    在爭端之中,一位叱吒風雲的人物出現、坐鎮法國

  • But did he save the revolution or destroy it?

    到底他是拯救還是摧毀了革命?

  • "Order, order, who's the defendant today? I don't see anyone."

    「肅靜!肅靜!今天的被告是誰?我沒看到人」

  • "Your Honor, this is Napoléon Bonaparte,

    「庭上,這位是拿破崙.波拿巴,

  • the tyrant who invaded nearly all of Europe

    幾乎把整個歐洲都侵略的暴君

  • to compensate for his personal stature-based insecurities."

    就只為了補償他因身高帶來的不安全感」

  • "Actually, Napoléon was at least average height for his time.

    「其實拿破崙的身高至少有當時的平均高度

  • The idea that he was short comes only from British wartime propaganda.

    他很矮的說法只是英國的戰爭宣傳手段

  • And he was no tyrant.

    況且他也不是暴君

  • He was safeguarding the young Republic from being crushed

    他保護了新建立的共和國

  • by the European monarchies."

    不被歐洲王權摧毀」

  • "By overthrowing its government and seizing power himself?"

    「用發動政變為自己奪權這種方法?」

  • "Your Honor, as a young and successful military officer,

    「庭上,身為年輕有為的軍官

  • Napoléon fully supported the French Revolution,

    拿破崙完全支持法國大革命

  • and its ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity.

    及其自由、平等、博愛的理想

  • But the revolutionaries were incapable of real leadership.

    但是那群革命志士沒有真正的領導能力

  • Robespierre and the Jacobins who first came to power

    羅伯斯比和雅各賓黨等率先奪權的人

  • unleashed a reign of terror on the population,

    對人民發動腥風血雨的恐怖統治

  • with their anti-Catholic extremism

    不但帶著反天主教激進主義

  • and nonstop executions of everyone who disagreed with them.

    還不斷地處決與他們意見相左的人

  • And The Directory that replaced them was an unstable and incompetent oligarchy.

    而其後接掌的督政府又是不穩定、無能的寡頭政治

  • They needed a strong leader who could govern wisely and justly."

    他們需要一位強人來賢明公正的治理國家」

  • "So, France went through that whole revolution

    「所以,法國經歷了整場革命

  • just to end up with another all-powerful ruler?"

    結局竟是另一位霸權統治?」

  • "Not quite.

    「不盡然

  • Napoléon's new powers were derived from the constitution

    拿破崙的新政權有憲法依據

  • that was approved by a popular vote in the Consulate."

    此憲法獲得執政府多數同意」

  • "Ha! The constitution was practically dictated at gunpoint in a military coup,

    「笑話!這部憲法實際上是在 軍事政變的槍口下決定的

  • and the public only accepted the tyrant

    人民接受這位暴君

  • because they were tired of constant civil war."

    只因為他們厭煩了打不停的內戰」

  • "Be that as it may,

    「就算是這個原因

  • Napoléon introduced a new constitution and a legal code

    拿破崙也推行了新憲法及新法典

  • that kept some of the most important achievements of the revolution intact:

    使得革命最重要的成就不受影響:

  • freedom of religion

    宗教自由

  • abolition of hereditary privilege,

    廢除世襲特權

  • and equality before the law for all men."

    及法律之前人人平等」

  • "All men, indeed.

    「所有的『男人』都平等,的確

  • He deprived women of the rights that the revolution had given them

    他剝奪了革命賦予的女權

  • and even reinstated slavery in the French colonies.

    甚至還在法國殖民地恢復蓄奴制度

  • Haiti is still recovering from the consequences centuries later.

    海地在數世紀後, 仍在努力從這個制度的後果中恢復

  • What kind of equality is that?"

    這是什麼平等?」

  • "The only kind that could be stably maintained at the time,

    「這是當時唯一能穩定維持的方法

  • and still far ahead of France's neighbors."

    而且此舉還是遙遙領先鄰國」

  • "Speaking of neighbors, what was with all the invasions?"

    「說到鄰國那些侵略又是怎麼回事?」

  • "Great question, Your Honor."

    「這問題問得太好了!庭上」

  • "Which invasions are we talking about?

    「我們在說哪個侵略?

  • It was the neighboring empires who had invaded France

    是鄰近帝國來侵略法國

  • trying to restore the monarchy,

    為要恢復王權

  • and prevent the spread of liberty across Europe,

    避免自由在歐洲傳播開來

  • twice by the time Napoléon took charge.

    他們在拿破崙掌權時侵略了兩次

  • Having defended France as a soldier and a general in those wars,

    在這幾場戰爭中他以軍人及將軍的身分保衛法國

  • he knew that the best defense is a good offense."

    因而知道攻擊就是最好的防守」

  • "An offense against the entire continent?

    「攻擊整片歐陸?

  • Peace was secured by 1802,

    1802 年和平終於來臨

  • and other European powers recognized the new French Regime.

    其它歐洲強權承認新法國政權

  • But Bonaparte couldn't rest unless he had control of the whole continent,

    但是波拿巴在他能控制整片大陸之前寢食難安

  • and all he knew was fighting.

    而且他也只知道戰鬥

  • He tried to enforce a European-wide blockade of Britain,

    他試圖強迫全歐洲對英國實施封鎖

  • invaded any country that didn't comply,

    侵略任何不聽話的國家

  • and launched more wars to hold onto his gains.

    並發動更多戰爭以保護既得利益

  • And what was the result?

    結果是什麼?

  • Millions dead all over the continent,

    歐陸數以百萬人死於非命

  • and the whole international order shattered."

    整個國際秩序完全破壞」

  • "You forgot the other result:

    「你忘了另一個結果

  • the spread of democratic and liberal ideals across Europe.

    民主自由的理想傳遍歐洲

  • It was thanks to Napoléon that the continent was reshaped

    感謝拿破崙的努力,歐陸得以重新改造

  • from a chaotic patchwork of fragmented feudal and religious territories

    從支離破碎、雜亂無章的封建及宗教領地

  • into efficient, modern, and secular nation states

    轉變成高效率、現代化及政教分離的國家

  • where the people held more power and rights than ever before."

    人民擁有前所未有的力量及權利」

  • "Should we also thank him for the rise of nationalism

    「難道我們也該感謝他興起民族主義

  • and the massive increase in army sizes?

    及大規模擴編軍隊?

  • You can see how well that turned out a century later."

    你知道這在一世紀後演變成怎麼樣的結果」

  • "So what would European history have been like if it weren't for Napoléon?"

    「所以,如果沒有拿破崙,歐洲歷史會如何發展?」

  • "Unimaginably better/worse."

    「難以想像的更好 / 更糟」

  • Napoléon seemingly unstoppable momentum would die in the Russian winter snows,

    拿破崙破竹般的氣勢在俄國冬雪中消失殆盡

  • along with most of his army.

    他的軍隊也隨之消亡

  • But even after being deposed and exiled,

    但是即使他遭受廢黜及放逐

  • he refused to give up,

    仍然不願放棄

  • escaping from his prison and launching a bold attempt at restoring his empire

    他從監牢逃出,發動大膽攻擊以恢復他的帝國

  • before being defeated for the second and final time.

    卻再度也是最後一次戰敗

  • Bonaparte was a ruler full of contradictions,

    波拿巴是位充滿矛盾的統治者

  • defending a popular revolution by imposing absolute dictatorship,

    實施強權獨裁以衛人民革命

  • and spreading liberal ideals through imperial wars,

    用帝國戰爭傳播自由理想

  • and though he never achieved his dream of conquering Europe,

    雖然他從未實現征服歐洲的夢想

  • he undoubtedly left his mark on it, for better or for worse.

    但他無疑在歷史上留下了一席之地,不管是好是壞

After the French Revolution erupted in 1789,

1789 年法國大革命爆發後

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 拿破崙 法國 歐洲 侵略 憲法

【TED-Ed】歷史上的拿破崙 (History vs. Napoleon Bonaparte - Alex Gendler)

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    swtso 發佈於 2016 年 05 月 13 日
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