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  • Translator: Morton Bast Reviewer: Thu-Huong Ha

    讓我來為你介紹

  • I would like to talk to you about

    一種非常特別的動物

  • a very special group of animals.

    世界上有一萬種不同的鳥類

  • There are 10,000 species of birds in the world.

    禿鷹是所有鳥類中最受威脅的一種

  • Vultures are amongst the most threatened group of birds.

    當你看到這樣的禿鷹

  • When you see a vulture like this, the first thing

    你的腦海裡浮現的第一個念頭是

  • that comes to your mind is, these are disgusting, ugly,

    這真是噁心、醜陋、貪婪的生物

  • greedy creatures that are just after your flesh,

    也讓你聯想到政客(大笑)(掌聲)

  • associated with politicians. (Laughter) (Applause)

    我想改變你的看法

  • I want to change that perception. I want to change

    我想改變你對這些鳥類的感覺

  • those feelings you have for these birds, because

    因為他們需要我們的同情,非常需要。(笑聲)

  • they need our sympathy. They really do. (Laughter)

    稍後我將告訴你為什麼

  • And I'll tell you why.

    首先,為什麼大家對禿鷹的印象這麼差?

  • First of all, why do they have such a bad press?

    當達爾文在1832年橫跨大西洋時

  • When Charles Darwin went across the Atlantic in 1832

    在小獵犬號上,他看見土耳其禿鷹

  • on the Beagle, he saw the turkey vulture,

    他說:「這些是為了沉溺墮落而生的

  • and he said, "These are disgusting birds

    無毛、紅頭的噁心鳥類。」(笑聲)

  • with bald scarlet heads that are formed to revel in putridity." (Laughter)

    你想不到更惡毒的侮辱了, 而這卻出自於達爾文之口。(笑聲)

  • You could not get a worse insult, and that from Charles Darwin. (Laughter)

    但是,他在回來後改變了他的想法

  • You know, he changed his mind when he came back,

    之後我再告訴你為什麼

  • and I'll tell you why.

    另外,迪士尼也已經把禿鷹列入角色之一了(笑聲)

  • They've also be associated with Disney — (Laughter) —

    裡頭包括了像高飛狗一樣象徵愚笨的角色

  • personified as goofy, dumb, stupid characters.

    如果你最近看到肯亞的報導

  • More recently, if you've been following the Kenyan press

    (笑聲)(鼓掌)(歡呼)

  • — (Laughter) (Applause) (Cheers) —

    牠們們還被看作是肯亞的國會議員

  • these are the attributes that they associated

    但是我想要抗議這件事

  • the Kenyan MPs with. But I want to challenge that.

    你知道我為什麼想要抗議這件事嗎?

  • I want to challenge that. Do you know why?

    因為國會議員

  • Because MPs

    不會讓環境更乾淨(笑聲)

  • do not keep the environment clean. (Laughter)

    國會議員無助於預防疾病的散播

  • MPs do not help to prevent the spread of diseases.

    而且還很難做到一夫一妻制(笑聲)(鼓掌)

  • They are hardly monogamous. (Laughter) (Applause)

    得要很久才會絕種(笑聲)

  • They are far from being extinct. (Laughter)

    而且我最喜歡的一點是, 禿鷹長得比較好看(笑聲)(鼓掌)

  • And, my favorite is, vultures are better looking. (Applause) (Laughter)

    這裡有現存的兩種禿鷹

  • So there's two types of vultures in this planet.

    有在美國被發現的新世界禿鷹

  • There are the New World vultures that are mainly found

    像是兀鷹、卡拉卡拉鷹

  • in the Americas, like the condors and the caracaras,

    以及有十六種的舊世界禿鷹

  • and then the Old World vultures, where we have

    在這十六種當中

  • 16 species. From these 16, 11 of them are facing

    有十一種瀕臨絕種

  • a high risk of extinction.

    為什麼禿鷹很重要呢?

  • So why are vultures important? First of all,

    首先,牠們在生態中提供了非常重要的服務

  • they provide vital ecological services. They clean up.

    牠們是大自然的清道夫,為我們清理垃圾

  • They're our natural garbage collectors.

    牠們清理屍骨殘骸

  • They clean up carcasses right to the bone.

    牠們幫忙殺死細菌、吸收炭疽病毒

  • They help to kill all the bacteria. They help absorb anthrax

    阻止可能大量傳播

  • that would otherwise spread and cause

    造成無數生物死亡或得病的病菌

  • huge livestock losses and diseases in other animals.

    最近的研究報告指出

  • Recent studies have shown that in areas where there are

    在沒有禿鷹的地區,屍體需要經過三到四倍的時間

  • no vultures, carcasses take up to three to four times

    來分解與腐爛

  • to decompose, and this has huge ramifications

    這樣的過程讓疾病交錯傳染

  • for the spread of diseases.

    禿鷹也具有許多重要歷史性的意義

  • Vultures also have tremendous historical significance.

    禿鷹讓人們聯想到了埃及文化

  • They have been associated in ancient Egyptian culture.

    奈克貝特是保護者與母性的象徵

  • Nekhbet was the symbol of the protector

    與眼鏡蛇同時出現時

  • and the motherhood, and together with the cobra,

    則象徵了上埃及與下埃及的團結與統一

  • symbolized the unity between Upper and Lower Egypt.

    在印度神話中,加達羽是禿鷹之神

  • In Hindu mythology, Jatayu was the vulture god,

    牠冒著生命危險從十頭惡魔羅波那手中

  • and he risked his life in order to save the goddess Sita

    救出悉達女神

  • from the 10-headed demon Ravana.

    在西藏文化裡,牠們在天葬中扮演了很重要的角色

  • In Tibetan culture, they are performing very important

    在某些地區,如西藏

  • sky burials. In places like Tibet, there are no places

    他們沒有地方或木材可以為亡者辦理火葬

  • to bury the dead, or wood to cremate them,

    因此禿鷹提供了自然分解的機制

  • so these vultures provide a natural disposal system.

    那麼禿鷹到底出了什麼問題?

  • So what is the problem with vultures?

    有八種禿鷹在肯亞出現

  • We have eight species of vultures that occur in Kenya,

    其中有六種正瀕臨絕種的危機

  • of which six are highly threatened with extinction.

    原因是被人類毒殺

  • The reason is that they're getting poisoned, and the reason

    而被毒殺的原因則是

  • that they're getting poisoned is because there's

    人類與野生動物之間的衝突

  • human-wildlife conflicts. The pastoral communities

    牧羊人毒死那些會掠食的動物

  • are using this poison to target predators,

    結果是這些禿鷹成了犧牲者

  • and in return, the vultures are falling victim to this.

    在印度、巴基斯坦等南亞國家

  • In South Asia, in countries like India and Pakistan,

    有四種禿鷹被列為極危物種

  • four species of vultures are listed as critically endangered,

    意味著再過十五年牠們就會絕種了

  • which means they have less than 10 or 15 years to go extinct,

    絕種的原因是因為

  • and the reason is because they are falling prey

    牠們吃了被餵食像雙氯芬酸鈉這種止痛藥的生畜

  • by consuming livestock that has been treated

    而成為了犧牲者

  • with a painkilling drug like Diclofenac.

    這種藥物在印度的獸醫中

  • This drug has now been banned for veterinary use in India,

    已確定被列為禁藥

  • and they have taken a stand.

    因為沒有禿鷹的時候

  • Because there are no vultures, there's been a spread

    就會有無數的野狗在屍體丟棄場

  • in the numbers of feral dogs at carcass dump sites,

    而當有野狗的時候

  • and when you have feral dogs, you have a huge time bomb

    就有了狂犬病爆發的不定時炸彈

  • of rabies. The number of cases of rabies

    狂犬病已在印度以驚人的速度蔓延開來了

  • has increased tremendously in India.

    肯亞將要興建非洲最大型的風車農場

  • Kenya is going to have one of the largest wind farms in Africa:

    353座風車將會座落在圖爾卡納湖

  • 353 wind turbines are going to be up at Lake Turkana.

    我並不反對風力發電

  • I am not against wind energy, but we need to work

    但是我們需要和各國政府合作

  • with the governments, because wind turbines

    因為風車會將鳥切成兩半,就像圖片裡的那樣

  • do this to birds. They slice them in half.

    它們是鳥類攪拌機

  • They are bird-blending machines.

    在西非,有一種黑市交易是

  • In West Africa, there's a horrific trade

    將禿鷹的屍體販賣給做巫術和戀物癖的人

  • of dead vultures to serve the witchcraft and the fetish market.

    目前我們已做了一些努力 我們做了關於這些鳥的研究

  • So what's being done? Well, we're conducting research

    我們在這些鳥的身上放了傳輸器

  • on these birds. We're putting transmitters on them.

    我們試著了解最基本的禿鷹生態

  • We're trying to determine their basic ecology,

    然後看牠們將前往何處

  • and see where they go.

    我們發現牠們在不同國家間來去

  • We can see that they travel different countries, so

    所以如果只著重於單一地點,對解決問題毫無幫助

  • if you focus on a problem locally, it's not going to help you.

    我們需要與各國政府進行區域合作

  • We need to work with governments in regional levels.

    我們也和當地居民合作

  • We're working with local communities.

    告訴他們如何欣賞禿鷹

  • We're talking to them about appreciating vultures,

    以及人類對這些美麗物種的需求

  • about the need from within to appreciate these

    以及牠們提供的幫助

  • wonderful creatures and the services that they provide.

    怎樣參與合作呢?你可以開始行動

  • How can you help? You can become active,

    積極表示意見,寫信給你的政府

  • make noise. You can write a letter to your government

    告訴當權者我們需要關注這些

  • and tell them that we need to focus on these very

    被誤會的物種

  • misunderstood creatures. Volunteer your time

    花點時間分享這些內容,傳遞出去

  • to spread the word. Spread the word.

    當你走出這間房間

  • When you walk out of this room, you will be informed

    你將收到關於禿鷹的訊息

  • about vultures, but speak to your families, to your children,

    告訴你的家庭、孩子和鄰居

  • to your neighbors about vultures.

    禿鷹是一種優美的動物

  • They are very graceful. Charles Darwin said

    達爾文見到牠們在空間輕鬆飛翔的姿態時

  • he changed his mind because he watched them fly

    改變了他的想法

  • effortlessly without energy in the skies.

    如果沒有這樣美麗的物種

  • Kenya, this world, will be much poorer

    肯亞和這個世界都將會變得更貧窮

  • without these wonderful species.

    謝謝!(掌聲)

  • Thank you very much. (Applause)

Translator: Morton Bast Reviewer: Thu-Huong Ha

讓我來為你介紹

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B1 中級 中文 TED 絕種 肯亞 笑聲 鳥類 風車

【TED】穆尼爾-維拉尼:為什麼我愛禿鷲(Munir Virani:為什麼我愛禿鷲)。 (【TED】Munir Virani: Why I love vultures (Munir Virani: Why I love vultures))

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