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  • Death is something that all of us must deal with at some point in our lives whether it be a family member, a pet, or even your own eventual end.

    死亡這件事是我們生命中遲早會碰到的事情,不論是家人或寵物的離世,甚至是最終輪到自己的時候。

  • In fact, about 100 people die every minute in the world.

    事實上,在這地球上每一分鐘大概就有一百人死亡。

  • But what actually happens when you die?

    不過當我們死亡的時候,身體會怎麼變化?

  • In the first few seconds after death, the last bit of oxygen in your body is depleted and brain activity surges.

    在死亡後的幾秒鐘內,我們會耗盡最後一口氣,接著腦部活動會突然十分劇烈。

  • As the neurons begin to stop functioning, your brain stops secreting hormones which regulate body function.

    然後當神經功能開始停止運作,腦部會停止分泌調節身體機能的賀爾蒙。

  • And while some bodily functions may persist for a few minutes, as the remaining stores of ATP are used, which is your body’s main energy source.

    生理功能在人類死亡後還會持續個幾分鐘,是因為還有剩餘的 ATP (三磷酸腺苷)在運作,而 ATP 是體內的主要能量來源。

  • The muscles relax, including sphincters, which means defecation and urination may occur.

    它使肌肉放鬆,包括括約肌,意味著身體會開始排尿及排泄。

  • Around 15-25 minutes after death, the lack of blood flow through the capillaries leads to the paleness of death seen in light skinned people.

    死亡後的 15 分鐘到 25 分鐘左右,由於流通於微血管的血液減少,人體會從原本正常的膚色轉成蒼白。

  • Because your heart is no longer running, there is no active propulsion of blood through the body, so gravity begins to cause pooling of blood in the lowest parts of the body.

    因為心臟已經停止跳動,並失去了將血液帶進身體的動力,重力就會影響血液的流向,將它導向體內的最底層。

  • After a few hours of blood pooling a reddish purple discolouration of the skin occurs, and reaches its maximum discolouration by 12 hours.

    血液流向底層的幾小時後,皮膚會開始浮現紫紅色, 12 個小時後,整個皮膚呈現紫色的狀況是最明顯的。

  • This is one of the ways in which coroners or forensic investigators determine the approximate time and position of a body at death.

    驗屍官或法醫就是利用這個原理去檢驗屍體的死亡時間及地點。

  • Within 3-6 hours, the infamous rigor mortis sets in; not only has your bod lost its energy source,

    死亡後的三到六小時以內,所謂的屍僵現象開始產生,身體不只會失去能量,

  • but deterioration of cellular organelles leaks calcium into muscles cells, and this binds to proteins which are responsible for muscle contraction.

    細胞器官也會開始退化,釋出鈣進到肌細胞裡面,導致負責肌肉收縮的蛋白質凝固。

  • This causes uncontrolled tensing or stiffness of muscles, making the bodystuckin a position, lasting anywhere from 24-48 hours.

    這個現象使肌肉無法控制收縮,於是身體就「固定」於一個姿勢了,而這現象會維持一到兩天。

  • Up to this point, unless youve been chemically embalmed or preserved in some manner, your body has been slowly decomposing as well, undergoing cell death.

    到了這個階段,除非你的身體有做化學防腐處理或是被特別的保存,不然你的身體會漸漸腐蝕,而細胞會開始壞死。

  • Without proper blood flow, these cells accumulate and along with CO2 gas, cause the ph of tissues to rise.

    當血壓流通不正常會累積出壞死的細胞,再加上二氧化碳氣體的緣故,血液組織的 ph 值(溶液酸碱程度)會升高。

  • This weakens the cell membrane, eventually causing them to burst and release their cytosol, which contains functioning proteins and enzymes that further breakdown surrounding tissue.

    當細胞膜越來越薄,最後會導致細胞破裂並釋出含有有效的蛋白質和酶的細胞溶質,而這些物質會加速周遭組職的破壞。

  • There are also around 100 trillion microorganisms that help to break down your body.

    另外,體內有將近百兆個微生物能夠瓦解我們的身體組職。

  • The anaerobic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract begin to eat through abdominal organs.

    例如腸胃系統的厭氧細菌會吃掉腹部周圍的器官。

  • This process is known as putrefaction and it’s where things can get stinky.

    這個過程就是所謂的腐敗,也是身體瓦解的開始。

  • Breakdown of amino acids by the bacteria produces extremely foul gases,

    由細菌瓦解出來的胺基酸會釋出非常惡臭的氣體,

  • which attracts certain insects like mites, carrion beetles and blowflies which lay eggs in the rotting tissue.

    這氣體會吸引某些蟲,例如蟎蟲、腐屍甲蟲和蒼蠅在腐敗的組織裡下蛋。

  • The eggs hatch within a day, and the larvae or maggots eat the tissue to survive until they mature.

    這些蛋會在一天內孵化成蛆蟲,並靠吃屍體維生,直到它們成熟為止。

  • After weeks, these maggots may consume 60% of the body’s tissue, creating holes that allow decomposition fluids and gasses to escape.

    幾個星期過後,這些蛆蟲將會吃完體內百分之六十的組織,使屍體產生空洞,而這些空洞是用來釋放體內分解出的物質與氣體。

  • Between 20-50 days, butyric fermentation begins, attracting beetle larvae, protozoa and fungi.

    在二十到五十天以內,丁酸發酵會開始並吸引甲蟲幼蟲、原蟲及真菌。

  • This process, known as dry decay, can take up to a year, but occurs faster in hotter temperatures.

    這個發酵過程就是所謂的屍體硬化與腐爛,這過程大概需要一年的時間,但是在比較熱的時候會比較快。

  • Over years, plants and animals eat away at the remaining bits of the body, including skeletal remains.

    幾年過後,植物和動物會消耗完剩下的軀體,包括骨骸。

  • Eventually, if left completely to the elements, every bit of the body will be broken down and its constituent molecules will be recycled.

    最後,軀體將會完全的瓦解,一點也不留,最後會如同分子與大地共生共存。

  • If you’d like to learn more about the psychological side of death, check out our AsapTHOUGHT video on the Top 5 Regrets People Have Before Dying.

    如果你想進一步了解死後心理上的變化,請觀賞我們 AsapTHOUGHT「人在死前的五大憾事」的影片。

  • It’s a fascinating look at the things people think about in their last moments.

    裡面提到人在臨死前會冒出的有意義的想法。

  • Link in the description! And subscribe for more weekly science video!

    連結在說明處,並訂閱我們的每周科學影片!

Death is something that all of us must deal with at some point in our lives whether it be a family member, a pet, or even your own eventual end.

死亡這件事是我們生命中遲早會碰到的事情,不論是家人或寵物的離世,甚至是最終輪到自己的時候。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 身體 細胞 死亡 血液 氣體 屍體

【泛科學精選】當我們死的時候,身體會產生什麼變化?(What Happens When You Die?)

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    Shirley Huang 發佈於 2020 年 12 月 08 日
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