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  • Pizza is, without a doubt, the food of the gods.

    披薩,無庸置疑是最棒的食物

  • Whether you keep it simple with a New York-style

    不管你喜歡的是簡單的紐約風格起司披薩

  • slice of cheese or go for Chicago deep dish

    或是芝加哥滿滿餡料的深盤披薩

  • loaded with ingredients, all pizzas deliver divine,

    所有披薩都能帶來

  • rich, cheesy, mouth-watering experiences that

    非凡、濃郁、充滿起司、令人垂涎的體驗

  • hustle your brain’s pleasure centers into overdrive.

    刺激大腦的愉悅中心

  • Although the ingredients may change,

    雖然食材有些不同

  • all pizza tastes delicious thanks to a complex

    但是所有披薩都因為複雜、美妙的化學

  • chemical symphony of flavor and texture.

    所形成的味道和口感而美味無比

  • Today on Reactions, we want to give you lesson

    今天的Reactions,我們要教你一些化學

  • in chemistry to help better explain the profound

    讓你了解你最愛的派

  • beauty found deep within your favorite pie.

    背後的深奧與美好

  • So let’s start with the dough.

    先從麵團開始

  • Pizza dough is pretty easy to make and has the base

    披薩麵團很容易製作

  • ingredients of flour, salt, yeast, and warm water.

    材料很單純:麵粉、鹽、酵母和溫水

  • The yeast is actually a living, single celled fungus

    酵母其實是活的、單細胞的菌類

  • that you buy at the store in a dormant state.

    而在商店裡購買時是處於休眠狀態的

  • It’s normally just called baker’s yeast, but that’s

    通常俗稱麵包酵母

  • just laymen’s speak for saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    但其實是釀酒酵母

  • When all of these ingredients are mixed together,

    當所有材料混合在一起時

  • and the yeast is hit with warm water,

    酵母受到溫水的刺激

  • it wakes right on up and starts to break down complex

    而又活躍起來,並開始分解

  • sugars found in the flour, spitting out carbon dioxide

    麵粉中複雜的糖類,釋出二氧化碳

  • in return, and ultimately making the dough rise.

    使麵糰膨脹起來

  • Once the dough is fully risen and formed into

    等到麵團發酵完畢、揉成披薩的形狀

  • a pizza shape, the sauce is then added.

    接下來就可以加醬料

  • Of course, there are all kinds of sauces but all

    當然,市面上有很多不同的醬料

  • tomato-based ones have one thing in commonacidity.

    但是所有番茄作為基底的醬料都有共通的元素:酸

  • Tomatoes are naturally between 4.0 and 4.6 on

    番茄自然的pH值介於4.0和4.6

  • the pH scale, but canned tomatoes can be even lower.

    罐頭番茄甚至更低

  • This is why some people out there end up getting

    這就是為什麼以些人吃太多披薩後

  • acid reflux from overconsumption of pizza.

    會胃食道逆流

  • To balance out an overly acidic pizza sauce,

    為了平衡披薩醬料中的酸

  • some people add a tiny pinch of baking soda,

    有些人會加入一小撮鹼性的小蘇打粉

  • which is basic, making it an antacid

    當作酸鹼中和劑

  • which helps neutralize the acid burn.

    來中和酸性造成的燒傷感

  • On the topic of acids, let’s get to cheese.

    提到了酸,就來談談起司

  • Cheese is basically a byproduct of adding acid to milk.

    起司其實是在牛奶中加入酸所形成的副產品

  • Milk is made up of proteins called casein and whey, as well as fats.

    牛奶是由酪蛋白、乳漿蛋白和脂肪所構成

  • When acids are added, the casein coagulates to

    當加入酸之後,酪蛋白便凝結

  • form cheese, and separates from the whey protein.

    形成起司,與乳漿蛋白分離

  • To make the cheese stronger, cheese makers

    為了讓起司更扎實

  • add rennin which helps to keep the casein

    製作起司時會加入凝乳酶

  • molecules bound tightly together.

    使酪蛋白結合得更堅固

  • Cheese has historically been used as a way

    起司從過去就被拿來

  • to preserve dairy, but what makes the pizza

    保存乳製品,但是最適合拿來

  • maker cheese of choice - mozzarella - different

    做披薩的起司──莫薩里拉乾酪──不同的是

  • is that it’s best eaten freshly made.

    它比較適合新鮮的時候吃

  • It is a super moist, soft cheese, which basically

    這種起司非常濕潤、柔軟

  • means that when it’s heated up, it gets really

    表示在受熱時

  • stretchy and adds in awesome texture

    會變得十分有彈性

  • and mouth feel to your pie.

    為披薩增加口感

  • With the basics of pizza down, any pizza maestro

    完成披薩的基本要素後

  • can finish their symphony off with their own

    任何披薩狂都能為個人化的披薩

  • personalized mix of toppings. Different folks,

    撒上喜歡的料

  • different strokes, but the final step and

    不同的人、不同的風格

  • most important is what goes on in the oven,

    但是最後、最重要的是烤箱裡發生的事

  • the place where all toppings become equals.

    所有餡料都經歷一樣的過程

  • The first thing to be affected is the cheese.

    最先起變化的是起司

  • When cheese meets heat, the fats in the cheese

    當起司受熱時,其中的脂肪

  • change from solid to liquid, mozzarella stays

    便由固態轉為液態,而莫薩里拉乾酪

  • nice and stringy, because calcium ions help

    則由於鈣離子能夠將酪蛋白抓住

  • to hold all of the casein proteins together.

    所以仍保持彈性

  • Calcium, good for your bones and good for your mozzarella.

    鈣質,對你的骨頭以及莫薩里拉乾酪都很有幫助

  • Then, when the pizza starts to properly cook,

    接著,當披薩開始烤熟

  • the holy grail of culinary chemical reactions

    烹飪中最神聖的化學反應開始了:

  • begins: the maillard reaction.

    梅納反應

  • At temperatures above 140°C, sugars react with

    當溫度超過140°C

  • amino acids to create flavor compounds that give

    醣開始與氨基酸反應,製造食物中

  • food that distinct, bold, cooked flavor.

    獨特、強烈、烤熟的混合氣味

  • It also is known as the browning reaction

    這就是所謂的褐變反應

  • and it happens on the crust, toppings and cheese,

    餅皮、餡料、起司都會發生這種反應

  • but to add to pizza’s complexity,

    但是醬料與餡料下的麵團

  • under the sauce and toppings, the dough is left

    仍保持柔軟、濕潤

  • very soft and moist to give every bite

    讓每一口披薩都有

  • an interesting mixed texture.

    特殊的口感

  • Obviously, youve all the sudden got

    很明顯的,你現在搞懂

  • the taste for pizza, so get your phone out

    披薩的美味關鍵了,所以快點拿出電話

  • and dial the nearest pizza maestro,

    打到最近的披薩店吧

  • but before you do that don’t forget

    但是在這麼做之前

  • to hit the subscribe button there!

    別忘了按下訂閱鍵!

Pizza is, without a doubt, the food of the gods.

披薩,無庸置疑是最棒的食物

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影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 披薩 起司 酵母 醬料 麵團 餡料

披薩的科學 (The Chemistry of Pizza - Reactions)

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    羅紹桀 發佈於 2016 年 03 月 14 日
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