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  • Welcome back to the show. I’m Carl Azuz.

  • For many of you, the weekend was an hour shorter and well be explaining why later today.

  • First up, the new normal in Japan.

  • Japanese lawmakers and citizens observed a moment of silence at 2:46 p.m. on Friday.

  • That was the exact time that a magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck five years beforehand.

  • Businesses, transit, school lessons, they all came to a stop.

  • Weve explored some of the lasting damage from the historic quake,

  • and the devastating tsunami and the contaminating nuclear meltdowns that followed.

  • But today, even in areas where fishermen are back to work

  • and where kids were back to school,

  • changes brought on by the 2011 disaster are still visible.

  • Japan is still a country in recovery and still on guard.

  • Our journey takes us five kilometers, more than three miles off the Japanese coast.

  • Scientists scour the seabed, searching for radiation.

  • Greenpeace researcher Jan Vande Putte’s team just beginning to assess the fallout,

  • five years after Fukushima.

  • There’s still an enormous amount of radioactivity there,

  • which is in liquid form. It’s leaking into the underground and slowly moving into the ocean.

  • That’s very dangerous for the future.

  • Scientists believe around 80 percent of radioactive material from Fukushima went into the Pacific Ocean,

  • which is why researchers are out here,

  • trying to find radioactive hot spots where fishing may be unsafe.

  • A staple of the Japanese diet, seafood is tested for radiation.

  • This Fukushima nursery school takes it one step further,

  • before children eat a single bite, cooks scan every ingredient.

  • So, no radiation?

  • Yes.

  • Safety measures don’t stop in the kitchen.

  • The playground has a Geiger counter.

  • Teachers test daily walking routes, students get regular medical checks.

  • Are all of these precautions really necessary, or is it more for peace of mind?

  • "It’s absolutely necessary," says the principal.

  • "We need to keep measuring for radiation."

  • So far, 167 Fukushima children are suspected of having thyroid cancer.

  • Experts disagree if cases are connected to the meltdown.

  • "The government doesn’t understand our five years of suffering, raising children here," says this father.

  • Before the meltdown, the Japanese public overwhelmingly supported nuclear energy.

  • Today, polls show most are against it.

  • Japan shut down all of its nuclear reactors after Fukushima,

  • just a few have been restarted, with new strict safety codes.

  • Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s pro-nuclear government wants many more back on.

  • We need to have an independent safety regulator.

  • Can all the regulations, though, really prevent another Fukushima?

  • I hope so.

  • Ken Koyama was on a government panel recommending the restart,

  • even he admits nuclear reactors will never be fully safe in a nation prone to natural disasters.

  • I think that the concern can always -- can exist.

  • They haven’t learned the lesson from Fukushima.

  • Nuclear opponents urged Japan to invest more in renewable energy,

  • saying keeping reactors idle is the only way to protect future generations

  • and prevent another catastrophe. Will Ripley, CNN, Fukushima, Japan.

  • As international researchers raced to find a treatment for the dangerous Zika virus,

  • some scientists in South Africa are on the hunt for diseases before they hit the human population.

  • Rabies, the SARS virus, Ebola, there’s something they all may have in common: bats.

  • These animals can be carriers of disease.

  • On the plus side, bats are great at pollinating and controlling insect population,

  • helping forests and farmers.

  • The Centers for Disease Control says seeing them flying around at night is normal,

  • usually nonthreatening.

  • But it cautions that divers, explorers, spelunkers, people who spend time near caves where bats like to live

  • need to be cautious and to avoid bats.

  • Lest, of course, youre a researcher who’s hunting viruses,

  • in which case a bat infested cave is exactly where you want to go.

  • The hazmat suits and respirators make for a difficult descend.

  • Itsmuch needed protection against what we could find in the cave below.

  • Were following some of the world’s most highly trained virus hunters,

  • in search of disease-carrying bats.

  • So, they have to crawl through the narrow gaps into the different chambers,

  • because in each chamber, there could be a different type of bat, which could have different viruses.

  • And in this case, there are thousands.

  • Each one with a potential to carry rabies, Marburg, perhaps even Ebola.

  • Some of the world’s most severe but least understood viruses.

  • Even with Ebola, there’s not a direct link between the human outbreaks from the bats.

  • We see some evidence in the bats and we see human outbreaks.

  • But we can’t say that bat caused the human outbreak.

  • So, so much is still unknown?

  • There’s a lot of still unknown.

  • So, they study diseases here, in bat populations before the potential human outbreaks.

  • So, this is an adult.

  • This is in some remote cave.

  • Outside, just miles away, Johannesburg, the city of 4 million.

  • So close to human habitation, this type of monitoring and prevention is critical.

  • In this lab, were working with the most dangerous pathogens known to humans.

  • Disease detection that exists thanks to this, a fully enclosed pressurize safety lab,

  • the only one of its kind in Africa.

  • With the highest level of precaution must be taken,

  • researchers train for a year just to step inside.

  • Here, they aren’t surprised that the recent outbreak of Zika,

  • a virus once thought to be remote and isolated.

  • We have a global world.

  • So, these emerging viruses, while we may find them here in Africa,

  • they may impact the populations here, the people here, the animals here,

  • and they may impact populations in other countries.

  • Outside the cave, blood and saliva samples are taken,

  • and the bats are marked before being released,

  • back into an environment that seems increasingly prime for outbreaks.

  • David McKenzie, CNN, Hotbrom (ph) Cave, South Africa.

  • Checking in now with three of the schools that have been keeping up with us this academic year.

  • From the most populous city in India, that’s Mumbai,

  • hello to everyone watching at Oberoi International School.

  • Next, were visiting Rapid City, South Dakota, where the Knights are watching.

  • St. Paul’s Lutheran School is on the roll.

  • And were wrapping up with the Huskies, from Herbert Hoover High School.

  • Welcome to our viewers in Clendenin, West Virginia.

  • Every year at this time, millions of people are sleepy.

  • Daylight Saving Time kicked in Saturday night.

  • Americans set their clocks ahead one hour,

  • which means that unless they went to bed early, theyre said to lose an hour of sleep.

  • Springing forward is the law in the U.S., but no one gets in trouble for breaking it,

  • which is why a couple of places don’t observe Daylight Saving Time.

  • So why do we change the clocks ahead one hour in the spring and back one hour in the fall?

  • Well, it’s actually to reduce the electricity consumption by extending the daylight hours.

  • In the U.S., we change our clocks at 2:00 a.m. on the second Sunday in March.

  • That begins Daylight Saving Time, that’s when we spring ahead.

  • On the first Sunday in November, we change our clock to 2:00 a.m. again,

  • that’s actually just going back to Standard Time.

  • Believe it or not, this started with an idea from Benjamin Franklin.

  • Franklin did write an essay suggesting that people could use less candles

  • if they got up early and made better use of daylight.

  • In 1918, the Standard Time Act established time zones, and Daylight Saving Time.

  • But not all states participate.

  • To this day, most of Arizona and all of Hawaii do not change their clocks.

  • Over 70 countries across the world observe daylight saving time,

  • with notable exceptions of China and Japan.

  • In 2007, we actually change the date of when we set our clocks back an hour to the first week in November,

  • this help protect trick-or-treaters by giving them an extra hour of daylight.

  • One of the other lines of thinking was that we would have a better voter turnout on election years.

  • Experts say each time you change your clocks,

  • it’s always a good idea to change those batteries in your smoke detector

  • and always look forward to fall when you get that extra hour of sleep.

  • Argentina’s Perito Moreno Glacier is growing.

  • In some areas, the ice grows upward, as high as 200 feet above part of Lake Argentina.

  • Every so often, some of that ice collapses.

  • So, when there were signs another major break was on the way,

  • this camera was there to capture this -- a huge rapture, spilling massive waves of water.

  • The last time a major collapse happened was in 2012,

  • with the glacier advancing a few feet every day,

  • it’s likely to happen again, or should we say lakely.

  • Of course, the ice growth may appear to be glacial,

  • but the stares of the collapse won’t be.

  • How could your eyes glace over or your attention lapse at such a collapsal (ph) collapse?

  • I’m Carl Azuz and we hope youll chill with us again tomorrow.

Welcome back to the show. I’m Carl Azuz.

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March 14, 2016 - CNN Student News with subtitle

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