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  • Alright folks, today were talking the

    好的各位,今天我們要來談談

  • dos and donts of one of the world’s best foods, the grilled cheese sandwich.

    製作世界上最美味的食物之一 ──烤起司三明治──的技巧與禁忌

  • And yes, weve got the science to back it up.

    是的,這些都是有科學根據的

  • There are so, so many different types

    世界上有很多很多

  • of cheese out there, but there’s one

    不同種類的起司

  • type you want when it comes to grilled

    但是談到烤起司三明治

  • cheese - the kind that’s nice and stretchy.

    就非得用會牽絲的那種

  • So then how does chemistry get you that perfect stretchy, gooey grilled cheese?

    那麼要怎麼用化學解釋那完美的牽絲、濃稠烤起司呢?

  • (Reactions SPLASH INTRO!)

    (Reactions的片頭)

  • Time for a primer on cheese.

    來談談起司的入門知識

  • The first step of cheesemaking

    製作起司的第一步

  • is to form curds out of milk.

    就是讓牛奶形成凝乳

  • Milk is 90% water, plus a mix of casein and

    牛奶有90%是水,加上一些酪蛋白

  • whey proteins, lactose, calcium, and fats.

    乳漿蛋白質、乳糖、鈣質和脂肪

  • Casein proteins float around in milk in

    酪蛋白在牛奶中

  • tiny molecular clumps called micelles

    以膠束──微小的分子團──形式漂浮著

  • that refuse to stick together because

    膠束彼此因為外圍有相同電荷的關係

  • they have same charge on the outside.

    而彼此排斥、不相碰

  • These micelles hold around 2/3rds of

    膠束帶著牛奶中

  • the calcium in milk, and believe it

    2/3的鈣質,而且信不信由你

  • or not, calcium is the key to the perfect grilled cheese.

    鈣質就是完美烤起司的關鍵

  • To form curds, bacteria and enzymes

    要形成凝乳,需要在牛奶中

  • are added to milk to make it coagulate,

    加入細菌和酶使其凝固

  • or go from a liquid to a solid or semisolid state.

    也就是形成由液體轉為固體前的半固體狀態

  • The bacteria converts lactose into lactic acid

    細菌將乳糖轉變為乳酸

  • to drop the pH, which eliminates

    以降低pH值

  • the charge of the casein micelles to help them stick together.

    減低酪蛋白膠束的電荷、使他們易於結合

  • Enzymes called rennet are

    一種叫凝乳酶的酵素

  • used to speed the process up.

    能加速這個過程

  • Once the curds are formed, the whey and

    凝乳形成後,便會瀝乾

  • excess moisture is drained, and the little

    乳漿以及多餘的水分

  • clumps can then be heated, bathed in salt

    而那些碎凝乳塊就會經過加熱、泡鹽水

  • water, and pressed together to meet the

    以及壓合在一起

  • specifications of different types of cheese.

    而形成不同種類的起司

  • Once pressed, the cheese is left to age

    經過壓合後,起司會依據不同的種類

  • from days to years depending on the style.

    熟成數日至數年

  • The longer the cheese sits, the more

    熟成越久

  • lactose is converted into lactic acid, and the lower the pH.

    越多乳糖轉成乳酸,pH值也越降越低

  • The lower the pH, thesharperthe cheese.

    pH值越低,起司就越「強烈」

  • Remember that folks, because with grilled

    記好啊各位,pH值對鈣質

  • cheese, that pH level has a huge effect

    有很大的影響

  • on the calcium found inside, and in turn, the texture when heated.

    改變烤起司加熱後的質地

  • If protein is the structural backbone

    如果說蛋白質是起司的結構性骨幹

  • of cheese, than calcium is the rebar

    那麼鈣質就是

  • that reinforces the backbone.

    增加骨幹強度的鋼筋

  • It’s what grips all of the casein

    鈣質能將所有酪蛋白分子

  • molecules together to form the micelles.

    都抓在一起形成膠束

  • Melty, stretchy cheeses have casein

    融化、牽絲的起司中的酪蛋白

  • proteins that can break away and go with

    要擺脫束縛、自然流動

  • the flow and what that takes is a lower

    就需要低pH值的環境

  • pH which lets the calcium ditch its job

    讓鈣質能夠

  • of holding all the casein together.

    將酪蛋白都聚集在一起

  • That means more proteins break out of

    這讓更多蛋白質在掙脫時

  • their cages to interact with the fats

    能夠與脂肪和水分相互作用

  • and moisture in the cheese, to make everything flow

    讓起司得以流動

  • together as one big, lovely, gooey mess.

    形成大量、美好、濃稠的混亂

  • But if the pH is too low the cheese will

    但是如果pH值過低

  • release all of its oils when heated,

    起司便會在加熱時釋放所有的脂肪

  • leaving a curdly, clumpy disaster.

    形成凝固、塊狀的悲劇

  • The secret to getting the perfect cheese

    要製作烤起司三明治

  • for a grilled cheese sandwich is to find

    的完美起司的關鍵就是

  • one with the right pH to perfectly balance

    找到能夠平衡鈣質

  • out the calcium and protein structure.

    與蛋白質結構的酸度

  • Cheeses with a pH range between 5.3 and

    pH值在5.3-5.5之間的起司

  • 5.5 are right on the money, and here’s

    是最棒的狀態

  • a handful of perfect examples.

    有許多完美的實例都是如此

  • Here’s a Reactions Grilled Cheese Pro tip:

    來講些Reactions專業烤起司的技巧:

  • If youre in the cheese aisle confused

    如果你在買起司時

  • about all the different types of cheddar,

    不知道該選哪種切達起司

  • go with the mild one, it’s gonna have

    選味道溫和一點的吧

  • the texture youre looking for,

    它會有你想要的口感

  • unlike its broken down, sharp older siblings.

    不像它其他碎裂、強烈的陳年兄弟

  • Oh and what about those perfect yellow

    那麼那些有美麗的黃色、加工過的

  • squares of processedAmericancheese?

    方形「美式」起司呢?

  • This type of cheese is made by melting

    這種起司是由兩種以上不同的起司

  • together two or more different cheeses

    融化後混合在一起

  • like colby and cheddar, and adding an

    例如柯爾比乾酪和切達起司

  • emulsifier such as sodium or potassium

    並加入乳化劑

  • phosphate, which limits the amount of

    例如磷酸鈉或磷酸鉀

  • calcium holding everything together,

    限制能夠將所有東西集結在一起的鈣質的數量

  • all the while increasing the pH, sometimes up to 5.8.

    同時提高pH值,有時候甚至高到5.8

  • This makes for a highly meltable cheese

    這能做出容易融化

  • product with an exceptionally mild flavor.

    味道非常溫和的起司產品

  • Okay folks, so now you get the picture,

    好的各位,你現在大概懂了

  • so get the darn cheese already.

    所以快去買些起司吧

  • If any of you out there have any food

    如果你們還有任何

  • related questions, post them down in

    有關食物的問題

  • the comments for us but if youre

    在下面的回應裡像我們發問

  • hungry for more food chem, check out

    但是如果你還對更多食物的化學原理有興趣

  • this video on the chemistry of pizza.

    來瞧瞧這部關於披薩的化學原理的影片吧

  • Today’s episode was inspired by an

    今天這部影片是受到

  • absolutely amazing book called the

    一本很棒的書的啟發

  • kitchen as laboratory, check out the

    書名是「廚房如實驗室」

  • first chapter by Jennifer Kimmel,

    去看看Jennifer Kimmel所寫的第一章節

  • The chemistry of a grilled cheese sandwich.

    關於烤起司三明治的化學原理

  • A link’s down in the description,

    下面說明欄中有連結

  • get yourself a copy! Thumbs up,

    去買一本來看吧!

  • subscribe, well see you again soon.

    按讚、訂閱,我們下次再見

Alright folks, today were talking the

好的各位,今天我們要來談談

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 起司 形成 三明治 牛奶 蛋白質 化學

用科學方法做出美味焗烤起司三明治! (The Science of the Perfect Grilled Cheese Sandwich)

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    羅紹桀 發佈於 2016 年 03 月 18 日
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