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  • In the two years since Edward Snowden leaked the US's surveillance secrets, he has applied for asylum in 27 countries.

    自從兩年前愛德華.史諾登揭露美國情資機密之後,他已經向 27 國申請庇護

  • Thus far, only Russia has agreed to grant him year-to-year asylum.

    至今只有俄國給予為期一年的臨時庇護

  • So, what exactly is asylum, and who can get it?

    究竟庇護是什麼?誰有資格申請?

  • Well, people have been seeking refuge from persecution for a long time.

    自古人們為逃離迫害便會尋求庇護

  • Historically, those accused of crimes would hide in churches, where one could not be harmed without facing the wrath of God.

    歷史上,罪犯藏身教堂,在那裡除非上帝降下天罰,否則沒人能治他

  • In 511 AD, this "right to asylum" for murderers, adulterers, and thieves was codified in French law.

    西元 511 年,法國法律明定殺人犯、姦夫淫婦以及小偷擁有「尋求庇護權」

  • This is one of the reasons that churches are referred to as "sanctuaries".

    這也是教堂又稱「庇護所」的原因之一

  • However, the modern form of asylum came about in the 1951 UN Refugee Convention.

    不過現代庇護源自 1951 年聯合國難民公約

  • Following World War II, a large number of refugees swarmed through Europe, and a criteria for asylum seekers had to be established.

    二戰後,大批難民湧入歐洲,庇護申請資格應運而生

  • Thus, a person can seek asylum if they are quote "unable or unwilling to return to their country of origin owing to a well-founded fear

    若一個人「無法或不願返回自己的國家是因

  • of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion."

    種族、宗教、國籍、社會團體或政治理念所產生的迫害而造成合理的畏懼」就能申請庇護

  • As in Snowden's case, most asylum is granted within the borders of a host country.

    史諾登的案例中,大部分國家只給予境內申請人庇護

  • However, any territory owned by a host country can be used as well.

    不過任何申請國領地也都適用

  • Julian Assange, founder of Wikileaks, is another famous asylum seeker. He is currently being housed in Ecuador's embassy in London.

    危機解密創辦人艾桑吉便是一例,他目前藏身倫敦的厄瓜多大使館

  • If he leaves the embassy he risks extradition to Sweden.

    若他離開大使館一步就有可能被引渡回瑞典

  • If you are granted asylum, you are able to live as a legal immigrant in that country.

    一旦獲得庇護,就能在該國過合法移民的生活

  • You cannot be extradited back to your country of origin, as long as you have asylum status.

    只要有庇護身分,就不能被引渡回母國

  • In the US, after a year, you can apply for a green card, and later, citizenship.

    獲得美國庇護一年後便能申請綠卡,甚至是公民身分

  • So, how do you get it? Well, essentially you have to prove to an asylum country that you fit the profile of a refugee.  

    庇護要怎麼申請呢?首先要向申請國證明符合難民資格

  • Also, that the government of your home country is intent on persecuting you, or is unable to stop your persecution by others.

    而母國政府意圖迫害你或無力保護你免於迫害

  • However, the United States for example,

    但以美國來舉個例子

  • is only willing to accept a certain number of refugees from each part of the world,

    美國對於全球各地難民,只願接受一定數量

  • with different ceilings per region.

    各地區上限不同

  • In July of 2013, Russia granted Snowden asylum.

    2013 年 7 月,俄國提供史諾登庇護

  • This allowed him not only to live and work in Moscow, but also to avoid answering the charges against him.

    讓他得以在莫斯科居住工作,也能迴避訴訟

  • However, the move caused even more tension in the already tumultuous relationship between the United States and Russia.

    然而此舉使得美俄關係更加緊張

  • The Obama administration described the move as "extremely disappointing",

    歐巴馬政府形容此舉「極度令人失望」

  • and even threatened to scale back diplomatic relations.

    甚至威脅降低外交關係層級

  • In many cases, asylum can cause significant controversy between countries.

    在許多案例中,庇護造成兩國極大紛爭

  • When one country harbors people who may have committed political or social crimes in another,

    當一國收容另一國的政治或社會犯

  • it highlights the ideological differences between those countries.

    就突顯了兩國間不同的意識形態

  • Luckily, the UN Refugee Convention has made it clear that protecting the defenseless from persecution is more important than political stability.

    所幸聯合國難民公約明示保護人民免於迫害,比起政治穩定更為重要

  • Although asylum can be granted in many cases, there are also times when countries assist one another to arrest fugitives.

    雖然庇護適用情況很多,但國家間也會合作逮捕逃犯

  • To learn about how this works, check out our video here.

    想知道國家如何合作,看看我們的這部影片

  • There is no inherent obligation to cooperate when it comes to criminal deportation.

    國家間沒有合作遣返罪犯的義務

  • As a result, a special process, know as extradition,

    因此產生「引渡」的特別程序

  • is an agreement between countries to transfer suspects to wherever they are intended to be prosecuted.

    引渡是兩國間協定將嫌犯遣送回國受審

  • Thanks for watching TestTube! Don't forget to subscribe for all of our latest reports.

    感謝收看 TestTube!別忘了訂閱以收看我們的最新影片

In the two years since Edward Snowden leaked the US's surveillance secrets, he has applied for asylum in 27 countries.

自從兩年前愛德華.史諾登揭露美國情資機密之後,他已經向 27 國申請庇護

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庇護知多少 (What Is Asylum And How Does It Work?)

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    劉宜佳 發佈於 2016 年 03 月 27 日
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