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  • So the question is, what is invisible?

    所以問題是,有哪些東西是看不見的?

  • There is more of it than you think, actually.

    答案比你想的還要多。

  • Everything, I would say. Everything that matters

    我會說,所有東西,所有重要的東西

  • except every thing and except matter.

    除了所有的,也除了東西。

  • We can see matter. But we can't see what's the matter.

    我們可以看到東西,但我們看不見的這些東西實質到底是甚麼。

  • As in this cryptic sentence I found in The Guardian recently:

    就像我最近在《衛報》看到的一句晦澀的句子。

  • "The marriage suffered a setback in 1965,

    「這段婚姻在1965年遭遇了重挫,

  • when the husband was killed by the wife."

    那年妻子殺害了丈夫。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • There's a world of invisibility there, isn't there?

    這其間可真有許多不可告人的秘密,不是嗎?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So, we can see the stars and the planets,

    所以我們可以看到天空的許多星星

  • but we can't see what holds them apart

    但我們看不到是什麼使他們分離

  • or what draws them together.

    也看不到是什麼使他們聚集的。

  • With matter, as with people, we see only the skin of things.

    對於物質,就如對於人們,我們只能看到表面

  • We can't see into the engine room.

    無法深入核心。

  • We can't see what makes people tick, at least not without difficulty.

    我們看不到人們做事的動機,至少不能輕鬆的就判斷而知 。

  • And the closer we look at anything, the more it disappears.

    而我們觀察的越仔細,真相就越看不清楚。

  • In fact, if you look really closely at stuff,

    事實上,如果你真的足夠靠近去觀察事物

  • if you look at the basic substructure of matter,

    如果你觀察物質的基本構造

  • there isn't anything there.

    那裡什麼都沒有

  • Electrons disappear in a kind of fuzz,

    電子消失成一陣模糊的波動,

  • and there is only energy. And you can't see energy.

    只剩下能量,而我們看不到能量

  • So everything that matters, that's important, is invisible.

    因此對於任何事物來說,重要的是"看不見"的東西

  • One slightly silly thing that's invisible

    還有一個比較可笑的東西,關於"看不見"的

  • is this story, which is invisible to you.

    這個故事,現在對你們來說還是"看不見"的

  • And I'm now going to make it visible to you in your minds.

    但我即將讓它現形在你們腦海之中。

  • It's about an M.P. called Geoffrey Dickens.

    有一位前國會議員,傑佛瑞狄更斯(Geoffrey Dickens)

  • The late Geoffrey Dickens, M.P. was attending a fete in his constituency.

    正在他的選區參加一個宴會

  • Wherever he went, at every stall he stopped he was closely followed

    不管他走到哪裡,在他停下來的每一個地方他都被一個

  • by a devoted smiling woman of indescribable ugliness.

    狂熱且奇醜而微笑的婦女緊緊跟隨者。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Try as he might, he couldn't get away from her.

    僅管他努力嘗試,還是始終無法擺脫她。

  • A few days later he received a letter from a constituent

    幾天以後他收到了一位選民的來信,

  • saying how much she admired him,

    傾述她的仰慕之情,

  • had met him at a fete and asking for a signed photograph.

    回顧宴會的一面之緣以及索求一張簽名的照片。

  • After her name, written in brackets was the apt description, horse face.

    在她的名字後面,括號內寫著一個恰如其分的描述詞:馬臉。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • "I've misjudged this women," thought Mr. Dickens.

    "我錯怪這位女士了"狄更斯議員想到

  • "Not only is she aware of her physical repulsiveness,

    "她不僅僅認知到自己的外表令人厭惡,

  • she turns it to her advantage.

    她還將其加以利用。

  • A photo is not enough."

    一張照片是不夠的。

  • So he went out and bought a plastic frame to put the photograph in.

    於是他出去買了一個塑膠像框將照片放入其中。

  • And on the photograph, he wrote with a flourish,

    而且在照片上他大筆一揮寫上

  • "To Horse Face, with love from Geoffrey Dickens, M.P."

    "致馬臉,您親愛的議員-傑佛瑞狄更斯"

  • After it had been sent off, his secretary said to him,

    當照片寄出去以後,他的秘書跟他說:

  • "Did you get that letter from the woman at the fete?

    "你收到那個宴會上的女人的來信了嘛?

  • I wrote Horse Face on her, so you'd remember who she was."

    我在上面寫上了'馬臉',以便使您能記得她"

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I bet he thought he wished he was invisible, don't you?

    我想他寧可自己是隱藏起來,不是嘛?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So, one of the interesting things about invisibility

    所以"看不見"的一個有趣的特點是

  • is that things that we can't see

    我們無法看見的東西

  • we also can't understand.

    我們也無法理解

  • Gravity is one thing that we can't see

    重力就是一個我們看不見的東西

  • and which we don't understand.

    我們也無法理解它

  • It's the least understood of all the four fundamental forces,

    在四種基本力中它是最神秘的,

  • and the weakest.

    也是最弱的力

  • And nobody really knows what it is or why it's there.

    沒有人知道它是甚麼,為何存在

  • For what it's worth, Sir Isaac Newton, the greatest scientist who ever lived,

    姑且不論真假,艾薩克牛頓爵士,史上最偉大的科學家,

  • he thought Jesus came to Earth specifically to operate the levers of gravity.

    他認為耶穌的降臨就僅僅是為了操縱重力這個槓桿

  • That's what he thought he was there for.

    他認為這就是耶穌的使命。

  • So, bright guy, could be wrong on that one, I don't know.

    所以再聰明的人,在那裡也可能出錯,我不知道。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Consciousness. I see all your faces.

    意識。我可以看見您的臉。

  • I have no idea what any of you are thinking. Isn't that amazing?

    但我卻不知道您們任何一人在想甚麼。這難道不令人驚訝嗎?

  • Isn't that incredible that we can't read each other's minds?

    我們不能閱讀他人的想法,這難到不是很不可思議嗎?

  • But we can touch each other, taste each other perhaps, if we get close enough.

    但是我們可以互相觸摸,如果我們夠親密的話,我們也可能相互的親熱

  • But we can't read each other's minds. I find that quite astonishing.

    但是我們不能知道對方在想甚麼。我覺得這很讓人驚訝。

  • In the Sufi faith, this great Middle Eastern religion,

    在中東的宗教蘇菲教派的信仰當中-

  • which some claim is the route of all religions,

    有些人認為蘇菲教派是一切宗教的根源,

  • Sufi masters are all telepaths, so they say.

    據說,蘇菲長老都懂讀心術

  • But their main exercise of telepathy

    但是他們使用心靈感應的主要目的

  • is to send out powerful signals to the rest of us that it doesn't exist.

    就是向外界傳達這樣的一個強而有力的訊號:它不存在

  • So that's why we don't think it exists,

    所以也就不難理解為甚麼我們不相信讀心術的存在,

  • the Sufi masters working on us.

    這是蘇菲長老們對我們所作的好事

  • In the question of consciousness

    談到意識

  • and artificial intelligence,

    和人工智能

  • artificial intelligence has really, like the study of consciousness,

    人工智能的研究如同對於意識的研究一樣,

  • gotten nowhere. We have no idea how consciousness works.

    毫無進展。我們完全不知道意識是如何運作的。

  • With artificial intelligence, not only have they not created artificial intelligence,

    使用人工智能技術不僅沒有創造出人工智慧,

  • they haven't yet created artificial stupidity.

    也沒有創造出"人工愚蠢"

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • The laws of physics: invisible, eternal, omnipresent, all-powerful.

    物理學的定理:不可見、永恆、全能、無所不在,全部都擁有強大的力量

  • Remind you of anyone?

    這讓你們想起什麼了嗎?

  • Interesting. I'm, as you can guess,

    很有趣。就如你們所想,

  • not a materialist, I'm an immaterialist.

    我不是一個唯物論者,我是個非唯物主義者

  • And I've found a very useful new word, ignostic. Okay?

    而我找到了一個很有用的新字,忽視主義者(ignostic)

  • I'm an ignostic.

    我就是一位忽視主義者。

  • I refuse to be drawn on the question of whether God exists,

    我拒絕被捲入上帝是否存在的問題中,

  • until somebody properly defines the terms.

    除非有人恰當的定義這個名詞。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Another thing we can't see is the human genome.

    另一個我們無法看見的是人類基因

  • And this is increasingly peculiar,

    而且還越來越怪異

  • because about 20 years ago, when they started delving into the genome,

    因為大約20年前,當人們開始探索基因圖譜時

  • they thought it would probably contain around 100,000 genes.

    當時他們預估人類的基因組大概會在十萬個左右

  • Geneticists will know this, but every year since,

    遺傳學家對這個比較熟悉,但是從那以後的每一年

  • it's been revised downwards.

    這個數字不斷往下修正

  • We now think there are likely to be only just over 20,000

    我們現在相信人類基因組

  • genes in the human genome.

    大約只有將近兩萬個基因而已了

  • This is extraordinary. Because rice -- get this --

    這真是奇特,因為稻米,聽好了

  • rice is known to have 38 thousand genes.

    稻米是有三萬八千個基因的

  • Potatoes, potatoes have 48 chromosomes. Do you know that?

    馬鈴薯擁有與48個染色體,你知道嗎?

  • Two more than people,

    比人類多兩個

  • and the same as a gorilla.

    大猩猩也這樣

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • You can't see these things, but they are very strange.

    你看不到這些東西。但他們確實存在,非常奇怪

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • The stars by day. I always think that's fascinating.

    白天的星空,我總覺得它令人著迷

  • The universe disappears.

    整個宇宙好像都不見了。

  • The more light there is, the less you can see.

    光照越強,能看到的反而越少。

  • Time, nobody can see time.

    時間,沒人能看到時間

  • I don't know if you know this. Modern physics,

    我不知道你們有沒有聽過這個。現代物理,

  • there is a big movement in modern physics

    有一個重大的突破

  • to decide that time doesn't really exist,

    就是確定了時間並不存在

  • because it's too inconvenient for the figures.

    因為它很難轉換到數學模式之中

  • It's much easier if it's not really there.

    所以乾脆不存在,這樣就省事多了

  • You can't see the future, obviously.

    很顯然你看不到未來

  • And you can't see the past, except in your memory.

    而除了回憶之外你也看不到過去

  • One of the interesting things about the past is

    一個關於過去的有趣事情

  • you particularly can't see. My son asked me this the other day,

    是有一天我兒子問我,

  • he said, "Dad, can you remember what I was like when I was two?"

    他說"爸爸,你能記得我兩歲時候的樣子嗎?"

  • And I said, "Yes." And he said, "Why can't I?"

    我說:"可以阿"他說:"為甚麼我不行呢?"

  • Isn't that extraordinary? You cannot remember

    這難道不奇怪嗎?你記不得

  • what happened to you earlier than the age of two or three,

    你兩三歲之前的事情

  • which is great news for psychoanalysts,

    不過對於心理學家卻是一個好消息

  • because otherwise they'd be out of a job.

    不然的話他們就要失業了

  • Because that's where all the stuff happens

    因為所有的事情都是那段時間發生的

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • that makes you who you are.

    使得你變成了今天這個樣子

  • Another thing you can't see is the grid on which we hang.

    另一個不可見的東西是我們依賴的架構

  • This is fascinating. You probably know, some of you,

    這很有趣。你們之中的某些人也許知道

  • that cells are continually renewed. You can see it in skin and this kind of stuff.

    細胞是不斷的更新的。你可以在皮膚和其他的外部器官上看到這種情況。

  • Skin flakes off, hairs grow, nails, that kind of stuff.

    皮膚脫落,頭髮生長,指甲等諸如此類。

  • But every cell in your body is replaced at some point.

    但是你身體裡的細胞在某一個時刻也會更新。

  • Taste buds, every 10 days or so.

    味蕾大概十天左右更新。

  • Livers and internal organs sort of take a bit longer. A spine takes several years.

    肝臟和其他的內部器官都可能護長一點。脊椎要幾年。

  • But at the end of seven years, not one cell in your body

    不過七年之後。你身體裡的每一個細胞

  • remains from what was there seven years ago.

    都和七年前不在一樣了

  • The question is, who, then, are we?

    那麼問題是我們是誰?

  • What are we? What is this thing that we hang on,

    我們是甚麼,我們一直依賴的這個東西是甚麼,

  • that is actually us?

    這真的是我們本身嗎?

  • Okay. Atoms, you can't see them.

    原子,我們都無法看見

  • Nobody ever will. They're smaller than the wavelength of light.

    沒人可以看見,它們比光的波長還要小

  • Gas, you can't see that.

    氣體也不可見

  • Interesting. Somebody mentioned 1600 recently.

    非常的有意思。最近有人提到了西元1600年

  • Gas was invented in 1600

    Gas(氣體)這個字在西元1600年

  • by a Dutch chemist called Van Helmont.

    被一位叫Van Helmont的荷蘭化學家所發明

  • It's said to be the most successful ever invention

    這被認為是有史以來個人發明的

  • of a word by a known individual.

    最成功的一個字。

  • Quite good. He also invented a word called "blas,"

    非常的不錯。他還發明了一個字叫blass,

  • meaning astral radiation.

    意即星的輻射

  • Didn't catch on, unfortunately.

    很遺憾的是這個字沒有能流行起來

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But well done, him.

    不過他還是做的很棒。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • There is so many things that -- Light.

    這樣的例子太多了-光

  • You can't see light. When it's dark, in a vacuum,

    你不能看見光。當黑暗之中,在真空裡

  • if a person shines a beam of light straight across your eyes,

    如果有人在你的眼前的正面發射出一道光,

  • you won't see it. Slightly technical, some physicists will disagree with this.

    你是不會看見的。這有一點誇張了,一些物理學家不會贊同這樣的觀點

  • But it's odd that you can't see the beam of light,

    不過奇怪的是你並不能看見這束光

  • you can only see what it hits.

    你只能看到它擊中的地方

  • I find that extraordinary, not to be able to see light,

    我發現這是件很奇妙的事,不能直接看當光本身

  • not to be able to see darkness.

    也不能看見黑暗

  • Electricity, you can't see that.

    電,你看不見電

  • Don't let anyone tell you they understand electricity.

    別相信任何人跟你說的電是甚麼一回事

  • They don't. Nobody knows what it is.

    他們不懂,沒人知道是甚麼回事

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • You probably think the electrons in an electric wire

    你以認為在你開燈的那個剎那,電子在電線中

  • move instantaneously down a wire, don't you, at the speed of light

    以光速瞬間流過整條電線,是嗎?

  • when you turn the light on. They don't.

    實際上並不是

  • Electrons bumble down the wire,

    電子在電現中笨拙的移動,

  • about the speed of spreading honey, they say.

    據說和蜂蜜的流動速度差不多

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Galaxies, 100 billion of them estimated in the universe.

    星系,估計有一千億個散布在我們宇宙中。

  • 100 billion. How many can we see? Five.

    一千億,而我們能看到多少呢?五個

  • Five out of the 100 billion galaxies, with the naked eye,

    一千億個星系中,只有五個能用肉眼看見。

  • and one of them is quite difficult to see unless you've got very good eyesight.

    而其中一個還得有相當好的眼力才能看的到

  • Radio waves. There's another thing.

    無線電,這又是一項

  • Heinrich Hertz, when he discovered radio waves in 1887,

    海因里希·赫茲在1887年發現了無線電

  • he called them radio waves because they radiated.

    他之所以叫它們無線電是因為它們是幅射的

  • And somebody said to him,

    於是有人問他,

  • "Well what's the point of these, Heinrich?

    "那些又有甚麼意義呢,海因里希?

  • What's the point of these radio waves that you've found?"

    你發現的這些無線電波有甚麼意義呢?"

  • And he said, "Well, I've no idea.

    他說,"其實我也不知道

  • But I guess somebody will find a use for them someday."

    不過我想以後應該有人會發現它們的用處的"

  • And that's what they do, radio. That's what they discovered.

    這就是他們所做的,無線電,就就是他們所發現的

  • Anyway, so the biggest thing

    總而言之,對我們而言

  • that's invisible to us is what we don't know.

    最大的不可見事物就是我們不知道的

  • It is incredible how little we know.

    我們所知道的竟是那麼樣的少

  • Thomas Edison once said,

    愛迪生曾說,

  • "We don't know one percent of one millionth

    對於任何事項而言,

  • about anything."

    我們所知道的不過是其百分之一

  • And I've come to the conclusion --

    於是我下了個結論

  • because you've asked this other question, "What's another thing you can't see?"

    因為你們已經問了另外一個問題,"還有甚麼東西我們看不見"

  • The point, most of us. What's the point?

    意義對於我們大多數的人來說,這翻話到底有甚麼意義?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • You can't see a point. It's by definition dimensionless,

    你無法看到一個點,這是在定義上,一個點不佔任何空間,

  • like an electron, oddly enough.

    說來也怪,就像電子一樣

  • But the point, what I've got it down to,

    但是重點,當我們不斷探索時

  • is there are only two questions really worth asking.

    會發現最後只剩兩個問題值得一問

  • "Why are we here?" and "What should we do about it while we are?

    "我們為何存在?"和"我們存在這世界上是為了甚麼而來?"

  • And to help you, I've got two things to leave you with, from two great philosophers,

    為了幫助大家,我留下兩句話,來自兩位偉大的哲學家,

  • perhaps two of the greatest philosopher thinkers of the 20th century,

    也許是20世紀最偉大的兩個思想家

  • one a mathematician and an engineer, and the other a poet.

    一個是數學家也是工程師,另一個是一位詩人。

  • The first is Ludwig Wittgenstein who said,

    首先是Ludvig Vitgenštajn,他說

  • "I don't know why we are here.

    「我不知道我們為何存在,

  • But I'm pretty sure it's not in order to enjoy ourselves."

    但我很確定我們不是為了玩樂而存在。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • He was a cheerful bastard wasn't he?

    他可真是個讓人愉快的傢伙是吧

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And secondly and lastly, W.H. Auden,

    第二個也是最後的,W.H. Auden

  • one of my favorite poets, who said,

    一個我最喜歡的詩人,他說

  • "We are here on earth

    「我們來到這世界

  • to help others.

    是為了幫助其他人。

  • What the others are here for, I've no idea."

    至於其他人為什麼在世界上,我毫無頭緒。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

So the question is, what is invisible?

所以問題是,有哪些東西是看不見的?

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 TED 笑聲 看見 蘇菲 無線電 人工

【TED】約翰-勞埃德盤點看不見的人 (【TED】John Lloyd inventories the invisible)

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    balabalazoe 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字