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  • So whenever I visit a school and talk to students,

    每當我拜訪學校並和學生對談時,

  • I always ask them the same thing:

    我總是問他們一樣的事情:

  • Why do you Google?

    你為什麼Google?

  • Why is Google the search engine of choice for you?

    你為什麼選擇Google當作你的搜尋引擎?

  • Strangely enough, I always get the same three answers.

    奇怪的是,我總是得到一樣的三種答案。

  • One, "Because it works,"

    第一種:「因為它有用」

  • which is a great answer; that's why I Google, too.

    很棒的答案,這也是我Google的原因。

  • Two, somebody will say,

    第二種,有人回答:

  • "I really don't know of any alternatives."

    「我實在不知道別的選項。」

  • It's not an equally great answer and my reply to that is usually,

    這不算是一個很棒的答案,我通常都會回應:

  • "Try to Google the word 'search engine,'

    『Google一下「搜尋引擎」啊!

  • you may find a couple of interesting alternatives."

    你或許會找到一些有趣的選項。』

  • And last but not least, thirdly,

    最後,但也很重要的第三種答案,

  • inevitably, one student will raise her or his hand and say,

    不可避免的,總會有位學生舉手並說:

  • "With Google, I'm certain to always get the best, unbiased search result."

    「我相信使用google總是可以得到 最好的且公正的搜尋結果。」

  • Certain to always get the best, unbiased search result.

    相信總是可以得到最好的且公正的搜尋結果

  • Now, as a man of the humanities,

    在此,身為一個人文學科的人,

  • albeit a digital humanities man,

    儘管亦是數位人文學科的人,

  • that just makes my skin crawl,

    這實在令我感到不舒服,

  • even if I, too, realize that that trust, that idea of the unbiased search result

    即使我也了解, 信任它的搜尋結果是公正的這個想法

  • is a cornerstone in our collective love for and appreciation of Google.

    是奠基於我們大家對於google的愛與感激,

  • I will show you why that, philosophically, is almost an impossibility.

    我將跟你們解釋, 從哲學的角度這幾乎是不可能的。

  • But let me first elaborate, just a little bit, on a basic principle

    但先讓我說明一下, 一些關於基本的原則

  • behind each search query that we sometimes seem to forget.

    在搜尋的背後 我們似乎有時會忘記的事。

  • So whenever you set out to Google something,

    每當你要google什麼時,

  • start by asking yourself this: "Am I looking for an isolated fact?"

    先問自己這個問題: 「我是否在找一個獨立的事實?」

  • What is the capital of France?

    法國的首都是什麼?

  • What are the building blocks of a water molecule?

    水分子是由什麼組成的?

  • Great -- Google away.

    很好,就google吧!

  • There's not a group of scientists who are this close to proving

    並不會有一群科學家 有任何一點的想反證說

  • that it's actually London and H30.

    那其實是倫敦和H3O.

  • You don't see a big conspiracy among those things.

    你並不會在這看到什麼大陰謀

  • We agree, on a global scale,

    以全球的規模,我們同意

  • what the answers are to these isolated facts.

    這些獨立事實的答案是什麼。

  • But if you complicate your question just a little bit and ask something like,

    但如果你複雜化你的問題, 一點點就好了,問像這樣的問題

  • "Why is there an Israeli-Palestine conflict?"

    「為何會有以色列巴勒斯坦衝突?」

  • You're not exactly looking for a singular fact anymore,

    你就無法找到單一的事實了,

  • you're looking for knowledge,

    你在搜尋的知識

  • which is something way more complicated and delicate.

    是很複雜且棘手的。

  • And to get to knowledge,

    要得到這個知識,

  • you have to bring 10 or 20 or 100 facts to the table

    你必需將10個20個 或甚至100個事實攤在桌上

  • and acknowledge them and say, "Yes, these are all true."

    認可它們並說: 「是的,這些都是真的。」

  • But because of who I am,

    但因為我是我,

  • young or old, black or white, gay or straight,

    不管是年輕或年老、黑人或白人, 同性戀或異性戀,

  • I will value them differently.

    我將會有不同的解讀,

  • And I will say, "Yes, this is true,

    然後我會說,「是的,這是真的,

  • but this is more important to me than that."

    但這對我來說比那個重要。」

  • And this is where it becomes interesting,

    這便是開始變得有趣的地方,

  • because this is where we become human.

    因為這也是我們為何成為人類的原因,

  • This is when we start to argue, to form society.

    這也是我們開始去爭辯,並形成了社會。

  • And to really get somewhere, we need to filter all our facts here,

    而我們若真的想達到某個程度, 我們必須開始過濾我們的事實,

  • through friends and neighbors and parents and children

    透過我們的朋友、鄰居、父母、小孩

  • and coworkers and newspapers and magazines,

    還有同事、新聞以及雜誌,

  • to finally be grounded in real knowledge,

    最終才能成為有根據的真實知識,

  • which is something that a search engine is a poor help to achieve.

    這也是搜尋引擎較無法達成的。

  • So, I promised you an example just to show you why it's so hard

    所以呢,我答應提供一個範例 來解釋為什麼這麼困難

  • to get to the point of true, clean, objective knowledge --

    去取得真實、不受無染且客觀的知識,

  • as food for thought.

    就讓我們一起思考一下。

  • I will conduct a couple of simple queries, search queries.

    我將進行個簡單的搜尋,

  • We'll start with "Michelle Obama,"

    我們從「米雪兒・歐巴馬」開始,

  • the First Lady of the United States.

    美國的第一夫人,

  • And we'll click for pictures.

    然後我們點選圖片,

  • It works really well, as you can see.

    它運作得很好,就像你看到的一樣,

  • It's a perfect search result, more or less.

    這是個完美的搜尋結果,大體上而言。

  • It's just her in the picture, not even the President.

    只有她在圖片裡,甚至沒有總統。

  • How does this work?

    這是怎麼運作的?

  • Quite simple.

    很簡單,

  • Google uses a lot of smartness to achieve this, but quite simply,

    Google運用很多智慧來達成, 但很簡單地,

  • they look at two things more than anything.

    他們主要會看兩個地方,

  • First, what does it say in the caption under the picture on each website?

    第一,每張圖片在網站上的標題是什麼?

  • Does it say "Michelle Obama" under the picture?

    圖片下方是否標著「米雪兒・歐巴馬」?

  • Pretty good indication it's actually her on there.

    這是很好的指標來告訴我們這是她。

  • Second, Google looks at the picture file,

    第二,Google會看圖片的檔案,

  • the name of the file as such uploaded to the website.

    你上傳圖片到網站上的檔名。

  • Again, is it called "MichelleObama.jpeg"?

    同樣的,是否為「米雪兒歐巴馬.jpeg」?

  • Pretty good indication it's not Clint Eastwood in the picture.

    這是很好的指標來告訴我們 這不是克林·伊斯威特的圖片。

  • So, you've got those two and you get a search result like this -- almost.

    所以,你通過這兩點得到了這樣的搜尋結果, 差不多是這樣的。

  • Now, in 2009, Michelle Obama was the victim of a racist campaign,

    現在來看2009年時,米雪兒・歐巴馬 是一個種族歧視宣傳活動的受害者

  • where people set out to insult her through her search results.

    該活動中人們決定要用搜尋結果來羞辱她,

  • There was a picture distributed widely over the Internet

    當時網路上有一廣為流傳的圖片,

  • where her face was distorted to look like a monkey.

    是她的臉被扭曲成像一隻猴子,

  • And that picture was published all over.

    而那張圖片被到處刊登,

  • And people published it very, very purposefully,

    人們有意圖地刊登這張照片,

  • to get it up there in the search results.

    好讓那張圖片能出現在搜尋結果裡,

  • They made sure to write "Michelle Obama" in the caption

    他們會確保標題是「米雪兒・歐巴馬」

  • and they made sure to upload the picture as "MichelleObama.jpeg," or the like.

    並確保上傳時檔名是「米雪兒歐巴馬.jpeg」, 或類似的。

  • You get why -- to manipulate the search result.

    你知道為什麼,因為要操弄搜尋的結果。

  • And it worked, too.

    而這也真的可行。

  • So when you picture-Googled for "Michelle Obama" in 2009,

    所以在2009年 你google「米雪兒・歐巴馬」的圖片時,

  • that distorted monkey picture showed up among the first results.

    那變形的猴子圖片會出現在搜尋結果的前面。

  • Now, the results are self-cleansing,

    現在,搜尋結果已被自身淨化了

  • and that's sort of the beauty of it,

    這也是它美好的地方

  • because Google measures relevance every hour, every day.

    因為google會測量關聯性, 在每個鐘頭、每一天。

  • However, Google didn't settle for that this time,

    然而,Google這次並不因此滿意,

  • they just thought, "That's racist and it's a bad search result

    他們想說: 「那真是種族歧視,而且這個搜尋結果很差,

  • and we're going to go back and clean that up manually.

    我們將要回去人工清除它,

  • We are going to write some code and fix it,"

    並寫一些編碼來修正。」

  • which they did.

    他們就這麼做了。

  • And I don't think anyone in this room thinks that was a bad idea.

    我想在這個房間內 沒有人覺得那是一個不好的主意,

  • Me neither.

    我也不覺得。

  • But then, a couple of years go by,

    但是後來,幾年過去了,

  • and the world's most-Googled Anders,

    世界上被搜尋最多的次的安德斯,

  • Anders Behring Breivik,

    安德斯·貝林·布雷維克,

  • did what he did.

    做了他做的事,

  • This is July 22 in 2011,

    在2011年7月22號,

  • and a terrible day in Norwegian history.

    挪威歷史上悲痛的一天。

  • This man, a terrorist, blew up a couple of government buildings

    這個人是個恐怖份子,炸毀了幾棟政府大樓

  • walking distance from where we are right now in Oslo, Norway

    就在離我們現在不遠處的挪威奧斯陸,

  • and then he traveled to the island of Utøya

    然後他跑到了烏托亞島,

  • and shot and killed a group of kids.

    射殺了一群孩子,

  • Almost 80 people died that day.

    幾乎八十個人在那天喪生。

  • And a lot of people would describe this act of terror as two steps,

    許多人會描述這個恐怖攻擊有兩步驟

  • that he did two things: he blew up the buildings and he shot those kids.

    便是他做的那兩件事:炸毀大樓和射殺孩子。

  • It's not true.

    這並不是事實,

  • It was three steps.

    其實有三步驟。

  • He blew up those buildings, he shot those kids,

    他炸毀大樓和射殺孩子

  • and he sat down and waited for the world to Google him.

    然後他坐下並等待全世界去google他。

  • And he prepared all three steps equally well.

    這三個步驟他都有準備好

  • And if there was somebody who immediately understood this,

    當時有人馬上就了解這件事,

  • it was a Swedish web developer,

    那就是一位瑞典的網頁開發者,

  • a search engine optimization expert in Stockholm, named Nikke Lindqvist.

    一位斯德哥爾摩的搜尋引擎優化專家, Nikke Lindqvist

  • He's also a very political guy

    他也是一位非常政治性的人

  • and he was right out there in social media, on his blog and Facebook.

    所以他便在他的社群平台,部落格和臉書,

  • And he told everybody,

    告訴大家,

  • "If there's something that this guy wants right now,

    「那個人現在如果有最希望的事,

  • it's to control the image of himself.

    便是控制他自己的形象,

  • Let's see if we can distort that.

    我們來看看是否能扭曲這件事。

  • Let's see if we, in the civilized world, can protest against what he did

    是否我們在這文明的世界 可以抗議他的所作所為,

  • through insulting him in his search results."

    透過他的搜尋結果來污辱他。」

  • And how?

    如何做到?

  • He told all of his readers the following,

    他告訴他的讀者:

  • "Go out there on the Internet,

    「去網路上

  • find pictures of dog poop on sidewalks --

    找狗大便在人行道上的圖片,

  • find pictures of dog poop on sidewalks --

    找狗大便在人行道上的圖片,

  • publish them in your feeds, on your websites, on your blogs.

    把它刊登在你的近況、你的網站或你的部落格。

  • Make sure to write the terrorist's name in the caption,

    並確保將恐怖份子的名字寫在標題上,

  • make sure to name the picture file "Breivik.jpeg."

    確保圖片的檔名為「布雷維克.jpeg」

  • Let's teach Google that that's the face of the terrorist."

    讓我們來教導google那就是恐怖份子的臉。」

  • And it worked.

    這成功了。

  • Two years after that campaign against Michelle Obama,

    在米雪兒・歐巴馬事件後的兩年,

  • this manipulation campaign against Anders Behring Breivik worked.

    這個反對安德斯·貝林·布雷維克的操弄宣傳成功了。

  • If you picture-Googled for him weeks after the July 22 events from Sweden,

    如果在7月22後幾個星期 你在瑞典用google搜尋他的圖片

  • you'd see that picture of dog poop high up in the search results,

    你會看到狗大便的圖片出現在搜尋結果前面,

  • as a little protest.

    以表達抗議。

  • Strangely enough, Google didn't intervene this time.

    奇怪的是,這次google並沒有干涉,

  • They did not step in and manually clean those search results up.

    他們並沒有涉入且人工清除這些搜尋結果。

  • So the million-dollar question,

    一個重要卻難以回答的問題,

  • is there anything different between these two happenings here?

    這兩個事件有什麼不一樣嗎?

  • Is there anything different between what happened to Michelle Obama

    發生在蜜雪兒・歐巴馬的事件有不同於

  • and what happened to Anders Behring Breivik?

    發生在安德斯·貝林·布雷維克的嗎?

  • Of course not.

    當然沒有。

  • It's the exact same thing,

    這是完全一樣的事件。

  • yet Google intervened in one case and not in the other.

    但是google只干涉了其中一件 而沒干涉另一件。

  • Why?

    為什麼?

  • Because Michelle Obama is an honorable person, that's why,

    因為蜜雪兒・歐巴馬是一位高尚的人, 這就是為什麼。

  • and Anders Behring Breivik is a despicable person.

    而安德斯·貝林·布雷維克是一個卑鄙的人。

  • See what happens there?

    看到發生什麼事了嗎?

  • An evaluation of a person takes place

    這裏發生了對一個人的評量

  • and there's only one power-player in the world

    而這世界上只有一有份量的選手

  • with the authority to say who's who.

    有權威能說誰是誰,

  • "We like you, we dislike you.

    「我們喜歡你,我們不喜歡你。

  • We believe in you, we don't believe in you.

    我們相信你,我們不相信你。

  • You're right, you're wrong. You're true, you're false.

    你是對的,你是錯的。 你是真的,你是假的。

  • You're Obama, and you're Breivik."

    你是歐巴馬,而你是布雷維克。」

  • That's power if I ever saw it.

    這是一種力量,如果我能看見的話。

  • So I'm asking you to remember that behind every algorithm

    所以我請你們記得在每個運算法後面,

  • is always a person,

    總有一個人,

  • a person with a set of personal beliefs

    一個有自己信念的人

  • that no code can ever completely eradicate.

    是沒有編碼可以屏除的。

  • And my message goes out not only to Google,

    而我的訊息不單指Google,

  • but to all believers in the faith of code around the world.

    而是給所有世界上所有 信仰編碼的信眾,

  • You need to identify your own personal bias.

    你必需辨識出自己的偏見,

  • You need to understand that you are human

    你必須了解你是人類,

  • and take responsibility accordingly.

    進而負起責任。

  • And I say this because I believe we've reached a point in time

    我會這麼說是因為我相信 我們已經達到了一個時間點

  • when it's absolutely imperative

    非常迫切地

  • that we tie those bonds together again, tighter:

    再次的更密切地連結了

  • the humanities and the technology.

    人性和科技,

  • Tighter than ever.

    比以往更加緊密。

  • And, if nothing else, to remind us that that wonderfully seductive idea

    這僅僅是想提醒我們這美好且誘人的

  • of the unbiased, clean search result

    公正不受污染的搜尋結果

  • is, and is likely to remain, a myth.

    有可能還是個迷思。

  • Thank you for your time.

    謝謝您的時間。

  • (Applause)

    (鼓掌)

So whenever I visit a school and talk to students,

每當我拜訪學校並和學生對談時,

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A2 初級 中文 美國腔 搜尋 圖片 布雷維克 米雪兒 歐巴馬 安德斯

【TEDx】不為人知的搜尋引擎成見 (The myth of the unbiased search result | Andreas Ekstrøm | TEDxOslo)

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