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  • I guess the story actually has to start

    我想這件事

  • maybe back in the the 1960s,

    得追溯回1960年代,

  • when I was seven or eight years old,

    那時我才七、八歲,

  • watching Jacques Cousteau documentaries on the living room floor

    我常坐在客廳地板上,戴著我的蛙鏡和蛙鞋,

  • with my mask and flippers on.

    看著傑克.庫斯托(著名深海探險家)的記錄片,

  • Then after every episode, I had to go up to the bathtub

    等節目一結束,我就會跑到浴缸,

  • and swim around the bathtub and look at the drain,

    在裡頭游泳,盯著排水孔看,

  • because that's all there was to look at.

    因為那是那裡唯一的東西。

  • And by the time I turned 16,

    到我十六歲時,

  • I pursued a career in marine science,

    我朝海洋科學方面發展,

  • in exploration and diving,

    進行探索與潛水,

  • and lived in underwater habitats, like this one off the Florida Keys,

    我會待在潛水艇裡,像是這艘在佛羅里達外海的潛艇,

  • for 30 days total.

    有時會待上一個月。

  • Brian Skerry took this shot. Thanks, Brian.

    布萊恩.史凱瑞幫我拍了這張照片,謝謝你,布萊恩。

  • And I've dived in deep-sea submersibles around the world.

    我搭乘深海潛水艇潛入世界各地的水域,

  • And this one is the deepest diving submarine in the world,

    這艘潛水艇則是世界上能潛入最深海域的潛艇,

  • operated by the Japanese government.

    為日本政府所有。

  • And Sylvia Earle and I

    我和席薇亞.厄爾(海洋保育運動者)

  • were on an expedition in this submarine

    在20年前一同前往日本,

  • 20 years ago in Japan.

    在這艘潛水艇上考察。

  • And on my dive, I went down 18,000 feet,

    那次我們潛入海底5,400公尺深,

  • to an area that I thought

    到達一個我原以為

  • would be pristine wilderness area on the sea floor.

    會是純淨自然的海底區域。

  • But when I got there, I found

    但我到那兒之後,

  • lots of plastic garbage and other debris.

    我發現許多塑膠垃圾和廢棄物,

  • And it was really a turning point in my life,

    那是我人生中的一個轉折點,

  • where I started to realize

    那時我才明白,

  • that I couldn't just go have fun doing science and exploration.

    我不可能以玩樂的心情來研究科學和探索,

  • I needed to put it into a context.

    我必須要更有深度,

  • I needed to head towards conservation goals.

    我要朝保育這個目標前進。

  • So I began to work

    所以我開始

  • with National Geographic Society and others

    和國家地理協會及其他人一起合作,

  • and led expeditions to Antarctica.

    帶領一支考察隊伍去南極洲。

  • I led three diving expeditions to Antarctica.

    我總共帶領過三支潛水考察隊伍去南極洲,

  • Ten years ago was a seminal trip,

    10年前還只是先發隊伍,

  • where we explored that big iceberg, B-15,

    我們探索了那座大冰山B-15,

  • the largest iceberg in history, that broke off the Ross Ice Shelf.

    那是有史以來最大的冰山,是從羅斯(Ross)冰棚脫落的。

  • And we developed techniques

    我們還開發了幾項技術,

  • to dive inside and under the iceberg,

    讓我們能潛入冰山裡面和下面,

  • such as heating pads on our kidneys

    像是我們會在腎臟上綁上一組

  • with a battery that we dragged around,

    用電池供電的加熱墊,

  • so that, as the blood flowed through our kidneys,

    當我們人體的血液流經腎臟時,

  • it would get a little boost of warmth

    就能補充到熱能,

  • before going back into our bodies.

    再循環到身體其他部位。

  • But after three trips to Antarctica,

    在結束三趟南極洲之旅後,

  • I decided that it might be nicer to work in warmer water.

    我覺得在常溫的環境裡工作還是比較好,

  • And that same year, 10 years ago,

    所以就在那一年,也就是10年前,

  • I headed north to the Phoenix Islands.

    我就往北來到鳳凰群島,

  • And I'm going to tell you that story here in a moment.

    我等一下會花些時間告訴各位那裡的一些事情,

  • But before I do, I just want you to ponder this graph for a moment.

    但在此之前,我希望各位能好好想想這張圖,

  • You may have seen this in other forms,

    你以前可能看過以不同形式呈現的這張圖,

  • but the top line is the amount of protected area

    最上面的線是指全球被納入保護的

  • on land, globally,

    陸地區域大小,

  • and it's about 12 percent.

    這大約是12%。

  • And you can see that it kind of hockey sticks up

    你可以看到這條線有點像曲棍球棒一樣,

  • around the 1960s and '70s,

    在1960到1970年代附近開始往上攀升,

  • and it's on kind of a nice trajectory right now.

    現在則很像一條完美的拋物線了。

  • And that's probably because

    這或許是因為

  • that's when everybody got aware of the environment

    人們開始注意到環境議題,

  • and Earth Day

    設計了地球日,

  • and all the stuff that happened in the '60s with the Hippies and everything

    還有60年代嬉皮們所提倡的那些事情,

  • really did, I think, have an affect on global awareness.

    我認為這每一件事都引起了世人關注。

  • But the ocean-protected area

    但是海洋保護區這條線,

  • is basically flat line

    卻似乎一直維持不動,

  • until right about now -- it appears to be ticking up.

    直到最近似乎還有上升的趨勢。

  • And I do believe that we are at the hockey stick point

    我相信這條海洋保護區的線

  • of the protected area in the ocean.

    會呈現如曲棍球棒的形狀,

  • I think we would have gotten there a lot earlier

    我認為如果我們能看清海裡發生了什麼事,

  • if we could see what happens in the ocean

    這條曲線就能早一點呈現曲棍球棒狀,

  • like we can see what happens on land.

    就像陸地保護區那條曲線一樣。

  • But unfortunately, the ocean is opaque,

    不幸的是,海洋並沒有那麼容易看透,

  • and we can't see what's going on.

    我們並不清楚海裡發生了什麼事,

  • And therefore we're way behind on protection.

    因此也就談不上劃分什麼保護區了。

  • But scuba diving, submersibles

    但是利用潛水技術或是乘坐潛艇,

  • and all the work that we're setting about to do here

    利用我們目前所有的技術,

  • will help rectify that.

    其實可以幫我們釐清真相。

  • So where are the Phoenix Islands?

    鳳凰群島在哪裡?

  • They were the world's largest marine-protected area

    那個區域以前是世上最大的海洋保護區,

  • up until last week

    直到上個星期,

  • when the Chagos Archipelago was declared.

    查戈斯群島才取代鳳凰群島成為最大的保護區。

  • It's in the mid-Pacific. It's about five days from anywhere.

    鳳凰群島在中太平洋,不管從哪裡去都要花差不多五天,

  • If you want to get to the Phoenix Islands,

    如果你要到鳳凰群島,

  • it's five days from Fiji,

    從斐濟去要五天,

  • it's five days from Hawaii, it's five days from Samoa.

    從夏威夷去要五年,從薩摩亞去也要五天。

  • It's out in the middle of the Pacific,

    它位在太平洋的中間,

  • right around the Equator.

    就在赤道附近。

  • I had never heard of the islands 10 years ago,

    在十年前,我從未聽過這個地方,

  • nor the country, Kiribati, that owns them,

    更別提吉里巴斯這個擁有鳳凰群島的國家了。

  • till two friends of mine who run a liveaboard dive boat in Fiji

    後來有二個朋友,他們在斐濟經營潛艇生意,

  • said, "Greg, would you lead a scientific expedition up to these islands?

    他們說:「克雷格,你要不要帶一支科學考察隊來這個群島?

  • They've never been dived."

    還沒有人來過哩。」

  • And I said, "Yeah.

    我回說:「好啊!

  • But tell me where they are and the country that owns them."

    告訴我那個群島在哪裡、哪個國家吧!」

  • So that's when I first learned of the Islands

    那是我第一次知道有那個群島,

  • and had no idea what I was getting into.

    我完全不知道那裡長什麼樣子,

  • But I was in for the adventure.

    我就當我是去探險而已。

  • Let me give you a little peek here of the Phoenix Islands-protected area.

    我先來大概描述一下鳳凰群島保護區的樣貌,

  • It's a very deep-water part of our planet.

    那裡的水域很深,

  • The average depths are about 12,000 ft.

    平均有3,600公尺深,

  • There's lots of seamounts in the Phoenix Islands,

    在鳳凰群島有許多海底山,

  • which are specifically part of the protected area.

    也屬於保護區的一部分。

  • Seamounts are important for biodiversity.

    海底山對於保持生物多樣化是很重要的,

  • There's actually more mountains in the ocean than there are on land.

    事實上,在地球上,海裡的山要比陸地上的山多得多,

  • It's an interesting fact.

    很有趣吧!

  • And the Phoenix Islands is very rich in those seamounts.

    鳳凰群島擁有非常多的海底山,

  • So it's a deep -- think about it in a big three-dimensional space,

    所以水域很深--請你們試著以三度空間來想像,

  • very deep three-dimensional space

    在一個很深的三度空間裡,

  • with herds of tuna, whales,

    有成群的鮪魚和鯨魚,

  • all kinds of deep sea marine life

    還有其他各種深海生物,

  • like we've seen here before.

    各種我們熟知的生物。

  • That's the vessel that we took up there

    那是我們較早時

  • for these studies, early on,

    為研究所搭乘的水上飛機,

  • and that's what the Islands look like -- you can see in the background.

    這就是群島的全貌,你可以看到水裡有些島嶼,

  • They're very low to the water,

    都低於水平面之下,

  • and they're all uninhabited, except one island

    全都不能住人,除了一個島以外,

  • has about 35 caretakers on it.

    上面只有35個管理員。

  • And they've been uninhabited for most of time

    這些島上已經很久沒有人居住,

  • because even in the ancient days,

    因為即使在古代,

  • these islands were too far away

    這些島還是離斐濟、夏威夷、

  • from the bright lights of Fiji and Hawaii and Tahiti

    或大溪地這些有人居住的地方太遠,

  • for those ancient Polynesian mariners

    就算對古代擅於橫越太平洋的

  • that were traversing the Pacific so widely.

    波利尼西亞航海人來說也是太遠。

  • But we got up there,

    我們到了那裡,

  • and I had the unique and wonderful scientific opportunity and personal opportunity

    我覺得來到一個從未經世人探索的地方,對科學研究和我個人來說,

  • to get to a place that had never been dived

    都是非常獨特和美好的經驗,

  • and just get to an island and go, "Okay, where are we going to dive?

    所一到島上我就說:「我們該從哪裡開始潛水探索?

  • Let's try there,"

    試試那裡吧!」

  • and then falling into the water.

    接著我就跳進水裡,

  • Both my personal and my professional life changed.

    從此改變了我的一生和我的職業生涯。

  • Suddenly, I saw a world

    我突然看到一個

  • that I had never seen before in the ocean --

    我以前從未看過的海洋世界,

  • schools of fish that were so dense

    那裡的魚大量成群地一起游動,

  • they dulled the penetration of sunlight from the surface,

    遮蔽了從海水表面射入的光線;

  • coral reefs that were continuous

    珊瑚礁是一整片,

  • and solid and colorful,

    結構完整且色彩豐富;

  • large fish everywhere,

    到處都有大魚游動,

  • manta rays.

    主要是魟魚。

  • It was an ecosystem. Parrotfish spawning --

    那是一個完整的生態體系,我看到鸚哥魚在產卵,

  • this is about 5,000 longnose parrotfish spawning

    大約有5千隻長鼻鸚哥魚

  • at the entrance to one of the Phoenix Islands.

    在鳳凰群島的某個入口處附近產卵。

  • You can see the fish are balled up

    他們全都亂成一片,

  • and then there's a little cloudy area there

    只看到海水裡有一片混涿的水域,

  • where they're exchanging the eggs and sperm for reproduction --

    他們就在那裡為延續後代而互相交換卵子與精子。

  • events that the ocean is supposed to do,

    那些活動本來就是海裡常發生的事,

  • but struggles to do in many places now

    但現在卻因為人類的參與,

  • because of human activity.

    而使這些活動處處受限。

  • The Phoenix Islands and all the equatorial parts of our planet

    鳳凰群島和其他赤道附近的地區一樣,

  • are very important for tuna fisheries,

    都是鮪魚捕撈業者的聚集地,

  • especially this yellowfin tuna that you see here.

    尤其是你現在所看到的黃鰭鮪魚。

  • Phoenix Islands is a major tuna location.

    鳳凰群島是主要的鮪魚產地,

  • And sharks -- we had sharks on our early dives,

    而鯊魚--在我們早期的探索就看過鯊魚了,

  • up to 150 sharks at once,

    一下子就看到150隻鯊魚,

  • which is an indication

    這表示這裡的生態環境

  • of a very, very healthy, very strong, system.

    很健康也很完善。

  • So I thought the scenes

    我以為這些美好的景象

  • of never-ending wilderness

    會一直、永遠地

  • would go on forever,

    持續下去,

  • but they did finally come to an end.

    但終究還是消失了。

  • And we explored the surface of the Islands as well --

    我們也探索了各個島嶼,

  • very important bird nesting site,

    發現那裡是非常重要的鳥類棲息地,

  • some of the most important bird-nesting sites in the Pacific, in the world.

    世上許多重要的鳥類都築巢在此。

  • And we finished our trip.

    這趟探索就到此為止。

  • And that's the area again.

    這是鳳凰群島,

  • You can see the Islands -- there are eight islands --

    你可以看到總共有八個島,

  • that pop out of the water.

    只有八個島是露在水面上的,

  • The peaks that don't come out of the water are the seamounts.

    沒露出來的島尖,其實是海底山。

  • Remember, a seamount turns into an island when it hits the surface.

    如果海底山的山尖露出水面,就稱為島嶼。

  • And what's the context of the Phoenix Islands?

    那麼鳳凰群島到底是由幾個島組成的?

  • Where do these exist?

    這個群島隸屬於什麼國家?

  • Well they exist in the Republic of Kiribati,

    鳳凰群島隸屬於吉里巴斯共和國,

  • and Kiribati is located in the Central Pacific

    而吉里巴斯位於太平洋中間,

  • in three island groups.

    由三個群島組成。

  • In the west we have the Gilbert Islands.

    西邊是吉爾勃特群島,

  • In the center we have the Phoenix Islands,

    中間則是我們這次所談到的

  • which is the subject that I'm talking about.

    鳳凰群島,

  • And then over to the east we have the Line Islands.

    東邊則是直線群島。

  • It's the largest atoll nation in the world.

    吉里巴斯是世上最大的環狀珊瑚礁島國,

  • And they have

    他們的人口

  • about 110,000 people

    約有11萬人,

  • spread out over 33 islands.

    分佈在33個島嶼上。

  • They control 3.4 million cubic miles of ocean,

    全國的海域約有340萬立方哩,

  • and that's between one and two percent

    大約佔全世界

  • of all the ocean water on the planet.

    海域的1%或2%。

  • And when I was first going up there,

    我第一次到那裡時,

  • I barely knew the name of this country 10 years ago,

    也就是十年前,我其實完全沒聽過那個國家,

  • and people would ask me,

    人們都問我:

  • "Why are you going to this place called Kiribati?"

    「你為什麼要去吉里巴斯?」

  • And it reminded me of that old joke

    這讓我想起了一個老掉牙的笑話,

  • where the bank robber comes out of the courthouse handcuffed,

    一個戴著手銙的銀行搶匪從法院走出來,

  • and the reporter yells, "Hey, Willy. Why do you rob banks?"

    記者對他叫道:「嘿!威利!你為什麼要搶銀行?」

  • And he says, "cause that's where all the money is."

    他回說:「因為那裡的錢最多啊!」

  • And I would tell people, "Why do I go to Kiribati?

    所以我回覆道:「我為什麼要去吉里巴斯?

  • Because that's where all the ocean is."

    因為那裡的海洋最多啊!」

  • They basically are one nation

    吉里巴斯其實是

  • that controls most of the equatorial waters

    在中太平洋地區掌控最多

  • of the Central Pacific Ocean.

    赤道附近海域的國家,

  • They're also a country

    他們同時也

  • that is in dire danger.

    面臨著迫切的危機,

  • Sea levels are rising,

    因為海平面不斷上升,

  • and Kiribati, along with 42 other nations in the world,

    而吉里巴斯和世上其他42個國家一樣,

  • will be under water within 50 to 100 years

    在未來的50到100年之內,

  • due to climate change

    會因為氣候變遷而沈入海底。

  • and the associated sea-level rise from thermal expansion

    因為溫室效應會使冰山熔化,

  • and the melting of freshwater into the ocean.

    而使海平面上升,

  • The Islands rise only one to two meters

    現在的島嶼也不過高於海平面

  • above the surface.

    1到2公尺而已,

  • Some of the islands have already gone under water.

    有些島嶼已經沈入海底。

  • And these nations are faced with a real problem.

    這些國家所面對的是迫切的真實危機,

  • We as a world are faced with a problem.

    我們這個世界也面對相同的問題,

  • What do we do with displaced fellow Earthlings

    當這些國家的人民流離失所、

  • who no longer have a home on the planet?

    無家可歸時,我們該怎麼辦?

  • The president of the Maldives

    馬爾地夫總統

  • conducted a mock cabinet meeting

    最近在海底召開了一次

  • underwater recently

    具嘲諷意味的內閣會議,

  • to highlight the dire straits of these countries.

    以彰顯這些國家所面臨的迫切危機。

  • So it's something we need to focus on.

    這是我們應該關注的問題,

  • But back to the Phoenix Islands,

    但讓我們先回到鳳凰群島,

  • which is the subject of this Talk.

    這是我今天演講的主題,

  • After I got back, I said,

    在我回到那兒之後,我說:

  • okay, this is amazing, what we found.

    我們看到了很棒的東西,

  • I'd like to go back and share it with the government of Kiribati,

    我想和吉里巴斯政府分享我的探索成果,

  • who are over in Tarawa,

    但政府機構在最西邊群島

  • the westernmost group.

    的塔拉瓦島上,

  • So I started contacting them --

    所以我與他們聯繫,

  • because they had actually given me a permit to do this --

    他們先前核准了我這次的探索,

  • and I said, "I want to come up and tell you what we found."

    我說:「我想過來告訴你們我的探索成果。」

  • And for some reason they didn't want me to come,

    但不知為何,他們似乎不想看到我,

  • or it was hard to find a time and a place, and it took a while,

    或是他們安排不出適當的時間地點,反正就是拖了一陣子,

  • but finally they said, "Okay, you can come.

    最後他們才說:「好,你可以過來,

  • But if you come, you have to buy lunch

    但你來的時候,要幫我們每個

  • for everybody who comes to the seminar."

    參與會議的人準備午餐。」

  • So I said, "Okay, I'm happy to buy lunch.

    我回說:「好啊!我很樂意請客,

  • Just get whatever anybody wants."

    看看大家想吃什麼。」

  • So David Obura, a coral reef biologist, and I went to Tarawa,

    我和一位珊瑚礁生物學家大衛.歐布拉一起去塔拉瓦島,

  • and we presented for two hours

    我們講解了二個小時,

  • on the amazing findings of the Phoenix Islands.

    說明我們在鳳凰群島的驚人發現,

  • And the country never knew this. They never had any data from this area.

    但他們似乎從來不知道,他們對這片海域一無所知,

  • They'd never had any information from the Phoenix Islands.

    從來沒有針對鳳凰群島的海域做過任何調查。