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  • For more than 100 years,

    遠在一百多年前

  • the telephone companies have provided wiretapping assistance to governments.

    電信公司已經提供政府對監聽的協助,

  • For much of this time, this assistance was manual.

    在當時大體上這種協助是靠人工的 -

  • Surveillance took place manually and wires were connected by hand.

    監控的發生靠人力, 而且線路是由人工架接的,

  • Calls were recorded to tape.

    往來電話被錄到錄音帶裡去;

  • But as in so many other industries,

    不過就像許多他產業一樣,

  • computing has changed everything.

    電腦運算已經改變了每一件事情。

  • The telephone companies built surveillance features

    電信公司把監控功能建置在 它們網路的最核心處,

  • into the very core of their networks.

    我要大家好好思索一下這個:

  • I want that to sink in for a second:

    我們的電話和承載我們收發話線路網

  • Our telephones and the networks that carry our calls

    被架線是以監控當優先考量 -

  • were wired for surveillance first.

    「最優先而且最重要的」。

  • First and foremost.

    這個意思就是當你與你的另一半、

  • So what that means is that when you're talking to your spouse,

    小孩、同事、醫生正在講電話時,

  • your children, a colleague or your doctor on the telephone,

    某人可以正在聽著。

  • someone could be listening.

    那個某人可能是你們自己的政府,

  • Now, that someone might be your own government;

    也可以是其他國的政府、 某個外事情報人員、

  • it could also be another government, a foreign intelligence service,

    駭客、從事犯罪行為者、追蹤者,

  • or a hacker, or a criminal, or a stalker

    或是破解進入監控系統的任何 其他利益團體,

  • or any other party that breaks into the surveillance system,

    「駭」進了電信公司的監控系統。

  • that hacks into the surveillance system of the telephone companies.

    不過在電信公司當作優先要務 完成監控系統之建置的時候,

  • But while the telephone companies have built surveillance as a priority,

    矽谷科技公司們就沒這麼做了,

  • Silicon Valley companies have not.

    而且在過去幾年下來,

  • And increasingly, over the last couple years,

    越來越普遍地矽谷科技公司 把強大的加密技術

  • Silicon Valley companies have built strong encryption technology

    打造進它們的通訊產品,

  • into their communications products

    這使得監控變得極度地困難。

  • that makes surveillance extremely difficult.

    比方說你們之中的許多人 也許都有 iPhone,

  • For example, many of you might have an iPhone,

    要是你使用 iPhone 來傳送簡訊

  • and if you use an iPhone to send a text message

    傳給其他也有 iPhone 的人,

  • to other people who have an iPhone,

    那些簡訊是無法輕易就被人側錄走的;

  • those text messages cannot easily be wiretapped.

    而事實上據 「蘋果」 所言,

  • And in fact, according to Apple,

    他們自己也沒辦法看到簡訊內容。

  • they're not able to even see the text messages themselves.

    同樣地如果你使用 FaceTime 與你的朋友或是深愛之人

  • Likewise, if you use FaceTime to make an audio call

    做視訊通話或者錄影通話的話,

  • or a video call with one of your friends or loved ones,

    那也一樣無法輕易就被人監聽到的。

  • that, too, cannot be easily wiretapped.

    而且不只是「蘋果」而已,

  • And it's not just Apple.

    現在被「臉書」所持有、全世界上億人口

  • WhatsApp, which is now owned by Facebook

    所使用的「Whatsapp」,

  • and used by hundreds of millions of people around the world,

    也已經把強大的加密系統 建置在它的產品裡面;

  • also has built strong encryption technology into its product,

    這代表在「聖公會南半球聯盟」 裡面的人能夠輕鬆地連絡

  • which means that people in the Global South can easily communicate

    而沒有政府 - 通常是專制政府 - 來側錄他們的簡訊。

  • without their governments, often authoritarian,

    所以在有辦法隨時隨地聽取

  • wiretapping their text messages.

    任何電話收發話的 100 年後,

  • So, after 100 years of being able to listen to any telephone call --

    你也許想像得出來政府官員 是非常不高興的,

  • anytime, anywhere --

    而且事實上那是持續在發生的事情,

  • you might imagine that government officials are not very happy.

    政府官員們超極火大,

  • And in fact, that's what's happening.

    他們並不是因為這些加密工具 是現在可到手的而火大,

  • Government officials are extremely mad.

    讓他們最生氣的

  • And they're not mad because these encryption tools are now available.

    是科技公司已經把加密功能 建置進了它們的產品裡面,

  • What upsets them the most

    而且透過預設把它們啟動著,

  • is that the tech companies have built encryption features into their products

    預設這檔事才是重點。

  • and turned them on by default.

    簡單來說科技公司已經讓 加密技術民主化了,

  • It's the default piece that matters.

    也因此就像英國首相 大衛.卡麥隆的政府官員們,

  • In short, the tech companies have democratized encryption.

    他們相信所有的通訊 - 電子郵件、簡訊、語音留言,

  • And so, government officials like British Prime Minister David Cameron,

    所有這一切對政府而言 應該是可到手的,

  • they believe that all communications -- emails, texts, voice calls --

    而加密技術正使得這件事情變棘手的。

  • all of these should be available to governments,

    聽好!我極度支持他們的觀點 -

  • and encryption is making that difficult.

    「我們活在一個危險的時點、 在一個危險的世界,

  • Now, look -- I'm extremely sympathetic to their point of view.

    真的有壞人就在外面,

  • We live in a dangerous time in a dangerous world,

    有著恐怖分子和其他嚴重的 國家安全威脅」,

  • and there really are bad people out there.

    我猜我們全都想要聯邦調查局 和國土安全部來監查吧。

  • There are terrorists and other serious national security threats

    但是這些監控功能帶有著一個成本,

  • that I suspect we all want the FBI and the NSA to monitor.

    理由就是並沒有叫做 「恐怖分子的筆電」

  • But those surveillance features come at a cost.

    或是「毒品商的手機」這樣子的東西,

  • The reason for that is

    我們都使用著相同的通訊設備;

  • that there is no such thing as a terrorist laptop,

    這所代表的意思就是假若 毒品商的電話往來

  • or a drug dealer's cell phone.

    或是恐怖份子的電話往來可以被攔截,

  • We all use the same communications devices.

    然後剩下來的我們這些人 也一樣可以如此被攔截。

  • What that means is that if the drug dealers' telephone calls

    而我認為我們確實需要去問:

  • or the terrorists' telephone calls can be intercepted,

    「世界上十億的人口應該使用

  • then so can the rest of ours, too.

    如此便於受監聽的設備嗎?」

  • And I think we really need to ask:

    我剛講過駭進監控系統 這場景並非是假想的,

  • Should a billion people around the world be using devices

    在 2009 年時

  • that are wiretap friendly?

    「谷歌」和「微軟」 應警方合法的監控要求

  • So the scenario of hacking of surveillance systems that I've described --

    而建立在他們網絡裡的監控系統

  • this is not imaginary.

    被中國政府所破解了;

  • In 2009,

    因為中國政府想找出

  • the surveillance systems that Google and Microsoft built into their networks --

    美國政府正在監視他們的哪一位特務。

  • the systems that they use to respond to lawful surveillance requests

    在 2004 年同樣的舉動,

  • from the police --

    建立在希臘最大的電信公司 - 「渥達豐」網絡裡的監控系統

  • those systems were compromised by the Chinese government,

    被一個找不著人的個體所破解,

  • because the Chinese government wanted to figure out

    而那個監控功能

  • which of their own agents the US government was monitoring.

    被用來監聽希臘總理與 內閣成員的收發話,

  • By the same token,

    做這件事的其他國政府或是 駭客始終沒有被逮到。

  • in 2004, the surveillance system built into the network

    沒錯,有這些這些監控系統或是暗門

  • of Vodafone Greece -- Greece's largest telephone company --

    帶來很麻煩的事情,

  • was compromised by an unknown entity,

    當你打造一個暗門進到通訊網絡 或是科技的一小部分裡面時,

  • and that feature, the surveillance feature,

    你無沒掌控好誰會越過這道暗門的,

  • was used to wiretap the Greek Prime Minister

    你沒辦法掌控到底是你這邊的人 還是其他方的人、

  • and members of the Greek cabinet.

    到底是好人還是壞蛋。

  • The foreign government or hackers who did that were never caught.

    所以衝著這理由我認為 -

  • And really, this gets to the very problem with these surveillance features,

    建立一個盡可能戒備森嚴的 網絡是比較好的,

  • or backdoors.

    是的這意味著在未來

  • When you build a backdoor into a communications network

    加密技術將會讓監聽更為困難,

  • or piece of technology,

    那意味著警察抓壞蛋即將會有 更為艱辛的時間了;

  • you have no way of controlling who's going to go through it.

    但是替代選項意味著要活在一個

  • You have no way of controlling

    任何人的電話、簡訊 可以被從事犯罪行為者、

  • whether it'll be used by your side or the other side,

    跟蹤者、外事情報特務來監控,

  • by good guys, or by bad guys.

    而我不想活在那樣的世界裡。

  • And so for that reason, I think that it's better

    所以此時你大概有阻撓 許多形式政府監控的工具,

  • to build networks to be as secure as possible.

    已經在你的手機上頭、在你的口袋裡,

  • Yes, this means that in the future,

    你只是可能不瞭解那些工具 有多強大、多安全,

  • encryption is going to make wiretapping more difficult.

    或是至今你用來傳遞訊息之 其他方法確實是有多不牢靠的。

  • It means that the police are going to have a tougher time

    因此我要給你的中心理念就是這個 -

  • catching bad guys.

    「我們需要用這些工具」;

  • But the alternative would mean to live in a world

    我們需要保護好我們的電話往來、

  • where anyone's calls or anyone's text messages could be surveilled

    我們需要保護好我們的簡訊,

  • by criminals, by stalkers and by foreign intelligence agencies.

    我希望你們利用這些工具,

  • And I don't want to live in that kind of world.

    我希望你告訴你們深愛之人、同事 -

  • And so right now, you probably have the tools

    「使用加密的傳遞訊息工具!」,

  • to thwart many kinds of government surveillance

    不要只是因為便宜 和簡單來使用它們,

  • already on your phones and already in your pockets,

    卻是因為安全才使用它們。

  • you just might not realize how strong and how secure those tools are,

    謝謝大家!

  • or how weak the other ways you've used to communicate really are.

    (掌聲)

  • And so, my message to you is this:

  • We need to use these tools.

  • We need to secure our telephone calls.

  • We need to secure our text messages.

  • I want you to use these tools.

  • I want you to tell your loved ones, I want you to tell your colleagues:

  • Use these encrypted communications tools.

  • Don't just use them because they're cheap and easy,

  • but use them because they're secure.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

For more than 100 years,

遠在一百多年前

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 監控 政府 簡訊 監聽 電話

TED】如何避免手機被監視......--Christopher Soghoian | TED Talks - TED Talks (【TED】How to Avoid Surveillance...With Your Phone | Christopher Soghoian | TED Talks)

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