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  • In the third millennium BCE,

    在西元前 3000 多年

  • Mesopotamian kings recorded and interpreted their dreams on wax tablets.

    美索布達米雅的國王們就會在蠟版上記錄並解讀他們的夢

  • A thousand years later,

    一千多年後

  • Ancient Egyptians wrote a dream book

    古埃及人寫了一本解夢書

  • listing over a hundred common dreams and their meanings.

    列出了數以百計的常見夢境及其含意

  • And in the years since,

    從那時開始

  • we haven't paused in our quest to understand why we dream.

    我們便不斷探詢做夢的原因

  • So, after a great deal of scientific research, technological advancement, and persistence,

    經過了無數的科學研究、技術的進步及恆心毅力

  • we still don't have any definite answers, but we have some interesting theories.

    我們仍然不知道確切的答案,不過我們有些有趣的理論

  • We dream to fulfill our wishes.

    我們為了滿足願望而做夢

  • In the early 1900s,

    在 20 世紀初期

  • Sigmund Freud proposed that while all of our dreams, including our nightmares,

    西格蒙德.佛洛伊德曾提出我們所有的夢,包括惡夢

  • are a collection of images from our daily conscious lives,

    都是我們意識到的日常生活的影像集合

  • they also have symbolic meanings,

    它們也會有其象徵意義

  • which relate to the fulfillment of our subconscious wishes.

    而這跟我們潛意識中願望的實踐息息相關

  • Freud theorized that everything we remember when we wake up from a dream

    佛洛伊德認為我們醒來時還記得的夢境

  • is a symbolic representation

    是對我們潛意識的原始想法、衝動及慾望

  • of our unconscious primitive thoughts, urges, and desires.

    象徵性表達方式

  • Freud believed that by analyzing those remembered elements,

    佛洛伊德相信藉著分析那些被記住的片段

  • the unconscious content would be revealed to our conscious mind,

    我們的意識便能揭開潛意識的面紗

  • and psychological issues stemming from its repression

    而因潛意識壓抑而衍生出的心理問題

  • could be addressed and resolved.

    便能被發現並解決

  • We dream to remember.

    我們為了記得而做夢

  • To increase performance on certain mental tasks,

    為了增進在心理層面特定工作的表現

  • sleep is good,

    睡覺是有益的

  • but dreaming while sleeping is better.

    但是在睡覺時做夢會更好

  • In 2010, researchers found

    在 2010 年時,研究人員發現

  • that subjects were much better at getting through a complex 3-D maze

    受測人員若有小睡一下並夢到迷宮的話

  • if they had napped and dreamed of the maze prior to their second attempt.

    他們會較第一次更輕易地走出這複雜的立體迷宮

  • In fact, they were up to ten times better at it

    實際上,他們比那些在兩次嘗試中

  • than those who only thought of the maze while awake between attempts,

    只有思考迷宮卻保持清醒

  • and those who napped but did not dream about the maze.

    或是只有小睡卻沒夢到迷宮的受測人員們,表現好了十倍

  • Researchers theorize that certain memory processes

    研究人員認為特定的記憶過程

  • can happen only when we are asleep,

    只會在我們睡著時進行

  • and our dreams are a signal that these processes are taking place.

    而我們的夢便是一個信號,告訴我們這些過程正在進行中

  • We dream to forget.

    我們為了忘記而做夢

  • There are about 10,000 trillion neural connections within the architecture of your brain.

    在你的大腦建構裡大約有一萬兆個神經連結

  • They are created by everything you think and everything you do.

    它們是由你所想及所做的任何事建立而成的

  • A 1983 neurobiological theory of dreaming, called reverse learning,

    有個 1983 年、被稱為逆轉學習的神經生物學理論

  • holds that while sleeping, and mainly during REM sleep cycles,

    認為在睡眠時,尤其是在睡眠的快速動眼期時 (Rapid Eye Movement)

  • your neocortex reviews these neural connections

    你(大腦)的新皮層會檢視那些神經連結

  • and dumps the unnecessary ones.

    並把不必要的捨棄掉

  • Without this unlearning process, which results in your dreams,

    如果沒有這個讓你做夢的去學習化過程

  • your brain could be overrun by useless connections

    你的大腦可能會因為沒用的連接而過度操勞

  • and parasitic thoughts could disrupt the necessary thinking

    這些寄生的想法會干擾

  • you need to do while you're awake.

    你清醒時所需的必要思考

  • We dream to keep our brains working.

    我們為了讓我們的大腦保持運作而做夢

  • The continual activation theory proposes that your dreams result

    連續活化理論提出,你的夢是由

  • from your brain's need to constantly consolidate and create long-term memories

    你的大腦持續性地鞏固及創造長期記憶的需求所造成的

  • in order to function properly.

    目的是為了要讓大腦正常運作

  • So when external input falls below a certain level,

    所以當外界的刺激降低到特定程度之下

  • like when you're asleep,

    像是你睡著時

  • your brain automatically triggers

    你的大腦便自動地啟動

  • the generation of data from its memory storages,

    從其儲存的記憶產生資訊的機制

  • which appear to you in the form of the thoughts and feelings you experience in your dreams

    這機制會以你夢中出現的想法及感覺來出現

  • In other words,

    換言之

  • your dreams might be a random screen saver your brain turns on

    你的夢境有可能是你的大腦開啟的隨機螢幕保護裝制

  • so it doesn't completely shut down.

    這樣大腦才不會整個停擺

  • We dream to rehearse.

    我們為了演練而做夢

  • Dreams involving dangerous and threatening situations are very common,

    與危險、威脅情境有關的夢是非常普遍的

  • and the primitive instinct rehearsal theory

    且原始本性理論

  • holds that the content of a dream is significant to its purpose.

    認為夢境內容對做夢的目的是很重要的

  • Whether it's an anxiety-filled night of being chased through the woods by a bear

    無論是在一個令人焦慮的夜晚,在叢林裡被熊追逐

  • or fighting off a ninja in a dark alley,

    或是在昏暗的走道上與忍者對抗

  • these dreams allow you to practice your fight or flight instincts

    這些夢能讓你鍛鍊你的戰逃機制

  • and keep them sharp and dependable in case you'll need them in real life.

    讓它保持敏銳及可靠,以防你在現實生活中需要用到它

  • But it doesn't always have to be unpleasant.

    但這些夢並不是總得讓人不愉快

  • For instance, dreams about your attractive neighbor

    像是與你迷人鄰居有關的夢境

  • could actually give your reproductive instinct some practice, too.

    也可以給你的生殖天性一些練習

  • We dream to heal.

    我們為了痊癒而做夢

  • Stress neurotransmitters in the brain are much less active

    大腦內的壓力神經傳遞介質

  • during the REM stage of sleep,

    在睡眠的快速動眼期時會較不活躍

  • even during dreams of traumatic experiences, leading some researchers to theorize that one purpose of dreaming is to take the edge off painful experiences to allow for psychological healing.

    即便是在有創傷經驗的夢境中,這使得研究人員認為做夢的目的之一就是為了減輕痛苦經驗的影響,讓心理能夠被療癒

  • Reviewing traumatic events in your dreams with less mental stress

    在夢中以較少的心理壓力回顧創傷性的事件

  • may grant you a clearer perspective

    可能會給你一個更清晰的觀點

  • and enhanced ability to process them in psychologically healthy ways.

    並增強以健康的心理方法處理那些事件的能力

  • People with certain mood disorders and PTSD often have difficulty sleeping,

    有情緒障礙及創傷後壓力症候群(Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder)的人們

  • leading some scientists to believe that lack of dreaming

    常會有睡眠困難,這使得部分科學家認為

  • may be a contributing factor to their illnesses.

    缺乏做夢可能是導致他們病症的一個因素

  • We dream to solve problems.

    我們為了解決問題而做夢

  • Unconstrained by reality and the rules of conventional logic,

    在你的夢中,你的想法不受到現實及常規邏輯的束縛

  • in your dreams, your mind can create limitless scenarios to help you grasp problems and formulate solutions that you may not consider while awake.

    它能夠創造無盡的情境幫助你理解問題,並建構你在清醒時可能不會考慮的解決方法

  • John Steinbeck called it the committee of sleep,

    約翰.史坦貝克稱之為睡眠委員會

  • and researcher has demonstrated

    研究人員已經證實

  • the effectiveness of dreaming on problem solving.

    做夢解決問題的效率

  • It's also how renowned chemist August Kekule

    這也是有名的化學家,奧古斯特.凱庫勒

  • discovered the structure of the benzene molecule,

    如何發現苯的分子結構的

  • and it's the reason that sometimes the best solution for a problem

    這也是為什麼有時候一個問題最棒的解決方法

  • is to sleep on it.

    就是想著它睡覺

  • And those are just a few of the more prominent theories.

    上述的只是些比較著名的理論

  • As technology increases our capability for understanding the brain,

    隨著科技增加我們理解大腦的能力

  • it's possible that one day

    很有可能將來有一天

  • we will discover the definitive reason for them.

    我們會發現做夢的確切原因

  • But until that time arrives, we'll just have to keep on dreaming.

    但在這時刻來臨之前,我們只能繼續作夢了

In the third millennium BCE,

在西元前 3000 多年

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 大腦 夢境 潛意識 睡眠 佛洛伊德

【Ted-Ed】人為什麼會做夢? Why do we dream? - Amy Adkins

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    Hao-wei Huang 發佈於 2018 年 02 月 19 日
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