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  • Alice: Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English. I'm Alice.

    艾莉絲:大家好,歡迎來到六分鐘英語,我是艾莉絲

  • Finn: and I'm Finn. Hello.

    芬恩:我是芬恩,大家好

  • Alice: Hello, Finn. You're off on holiday tomorrow, aren't you?

    艾莉絲:你好,芬恩,明天你就要去度假了,對嗎?

  • Finn: I am and you know, and I'm dreading it. I hate flying!

    芬恩:沒錯,而且我怕得要命,我痛恨飛行!

  • Alice: Do you? I didn't know you had a phobia

    艾莉絲:是嗎?我不知道你有恐懼症

  • and that means a strong and unreasonable fear of something.

    「phobia」(恐懼症)的意思是對某件事感到強烈且毫無理由的恐懼

  • Finn: Well, I don't think this is a phobia because it isn't unreasonable.

    芬恩:我不覺得這是恐懼症,因為它不是毫無理由的

  • Flying thousands of feet up in the sky in a tin can, you know, that's not safe!

    乘著一個鐵罐飛在幾千英呎高的空中,那很危險!

  • Alice: Flying is safer than you think, Finn. It's much riskier to drive or cycle to work.

    艾莉絲:飛行比你想的安全多了,芬恩,開車或騎腳踏車上班還更危險

  • And, actually, risk taking is the subject of today's show!

    而且,事實上「冒險」就是我們今天的主題

  • Risk means the chances of something bad happening.

    「risk」(危險)的意思是某些壞事發生的可能性

  • For example, did you know that your chance of being knocked off your bicycle

    例如,你知道騎腳踏車被撞倒及

  • and killed during a one-mile journey is the same as your chances of winning the lottery?

    在一英里內路程中被殺害的機率跟中樂透一樣嗎?

  • Finn: You know Alice, I didn't know that.

    芬恩:我不知道

  • Alice: And this leads me on to our quiz question for today:

    艾莉絲:而這帶領我們來到今日的小問題:

  • What are the odds ... what are the chances of either of these two things happening? Is it...

    以上這兩件事情發生的機率是多少?

  • a) 1 in 4 million? b) 1 in 14 million?

    是a)四百萬分之一  b) 一千四百萬分之一

  • Or c) 1 in 400 million?

    還是 c)四億分之一

  • Finn: I have no idea. I'll go with the big number: 1 in 400 million, c).

    芬恩:我不知道,我選大的那個:c) 四億分之一 

  • Alice: OK. So we'll find out later if you're right or wrong later on.

    艾莉絲:好的,那麼接下來我們就會知道你是對還是錯

  • Now let's listen to Andreas Wilkey, a psychologist at Clarkson University in New York,

    現在讓我們聽聽紐約克拉克森大學心理學家,安德烈斯.威爾基

  • talking about why we're bad at assessing risk.

    談論我們有多不善於估算風險

  • Andreas Wilkey: People typically fear anything which is small probability

    安德烈斯.威爾基:一般來說人們會去害怕發生機率很小

  • but it's extremely catastrophic if it were to happen...

    但如果發生了就是一場大災難的危險...

  • Think about dying in a plane crash, think about a nuclear meltdown from the nearby power plant.

    像是在空難中罹難或附近的核能發電廠反應爐熔毀

  • Recently we have another increase in these birds' virus outbreaks in South Korea.

    最近我們又轉而對南韓爆發的禽流感感到害怕

  • People read about that.

    人們讀過相關的新聞

  • And they may pay a lot of attention to that in the news but they may forget to get their flu shot.

    而他們又會放太多的注意力在其上以至於忘記去打疫苗

  • Finn: That was Andreas Wilkey from Clarkson University.

    芬恩:以上是克拉克森大學安德烈斯.威爾基的分析

  • And we heard that a small probability of something happening means it's unlikely to happen.

    我們聽到的「a small probability of something happening」(發生某件事的機率很小)意思是不常發生

  • But we worry about big or catastrophic events such as catching bird flu or dying in a plane crash

    但是我們會害怕某種嚴重且具毀滅性的事情發生,像是感染禽流感或是在空難中罹難

  • because we have a gut reaction to them

    因為我們對這類事件擁有本能上的反應

  • in other words, we react emotionally.

    也就是說,衝動性的反應

  • A catastrophic event is something that causes a huge amount of damage and suffering.

    「catastrophic event」(災難)的意思是造成巨大傷害或痛苦的事情

  • Alice: And it's often because of media coverage

    艾莉絲:而這樣的情況經常源於媒體覆蓋率

  • for example, watching the news and reading the newspapers

    例如,看新聞或報紙

  • that it can be difficult for us to understand how likely certain things are to happen.

    使我們難以設身處地的理解事情的情況

  • Catastrophic events feel like very real threats,

    當我們易於遺忘很小但是經常發生乃至習以為常的危險時

  • while we tend to forget about the small but chronic risks that become more likely over time.

    災難就會感覺像是一種真正的威脅

  • Finn: We do. Chronic means something that lasts for a long time.

    芬恩:沒錯,「chronic」 的意思是持久、長期的事情

  • So for example, what if there was a cigarette that killed you as soon as you smoked it?

    打個比方,如果只要一吸菸你就會死的話

  • Nobody would do that, would they?

    還會有人要吸菸嗎?

  • Alice: No, they wouldn't.

    艾莉絲:不會

  • Finn: But plenty of people are happy to smoke for years

    芬恩:但大量的人卻多年來恣意的吸菸

  • and put off worrying about the health risks for the future.

    並將未來的身體健康放在一旁

  • Alice: Yes, that's a good point, Finn! People feel they are in control of risks that stretch over time.

    艾莉絲:很好的舉例,芬恩!人們覺得自己能控制那隨著時間過去而增長的危險

  • You know, they think, "I could stop tomorrow" or "I could smoke less".

    他們覺得「我明天再戒就好了」,或是「我可以吸少一點」

  • But what about people who enjoy taking big risksthose thrill seekers out there?

    那麼那些享受冒險的極限挑戰者又是怎麼想的呢?

  • Finn: People who enjoy extreme sports actually seek out dangerit gives them extreme pleasure!

    芬恩:享受極限運動的人們實際上是在尋找危險,危險帶給他們極致的快樂

  • So let's listen to Karina Hollekim from Norway. She's a base jumper �V that's

    那麼,讓我們聽聽挪威的卡琳娜.赫利肯的說法,她是一位

  • a person with a parachute who leaps from tall buildings or cliffs

    乘著跳傘穿梭於高樓與懸崖峭壁間的低空跳傘員

  • and she's talking about what she feels about risk.

    她將談論她面對危險時的感覺

  • Karina Hollekim: You need to measure the pleasure. Is it going to be worth it for you?

    卡琳娜.赫利肯:你需要去估量歡愉對你來說值不值得

  • So if the risk is really high, it means that the pleasure needs to be equally high.

    所以如果非常危險,那們表示它帶來的歡愉需要與危險同等

  • Or hopefully even higher... You can't measure it on a scale or anything. For me, it's a stomach feeling.

    或甚至更高,你沒有辦法用量角器或任何器具來測量它,對我來說,是用胃來感覺

  • It's the value within me, and I'm the only one who can tell what value it has to me.

    這是我的人生價值,我是唯一知道那價值對我來說是什麼的人

  • Alice: Yes. It must be a magical feeling to step off a cliff, mustn't it, Finn?

    艾莉絲:能夠落在懸崖上一定是個很美妙的感覺,對吧,芬恩?

  • Finn: "It's a stomach feeling", you knowmy stomach would definitely be saying, "oh no, no, no!"

    芬恩:「用胃來感覺」,我的胃一定會對我說「喔不,不,不」

  • So why not change the subject and give me the answer to today's quiz question?

    所以,我們怎麼不轉換一下話題,告訴我今日小問題的答案呢?

  • Alice: I asked: What are your chances of being knocked off your bicycle and killed during

    艾莉絲:我問「被撞倒腳踏車和在一英哩的路途中被殺

  • a one-mile journey and this is the same as your chances of winning the national lottery?

    以及中國家樂透的機率有多少」

  • So is it... a) 1 in 4 million? b) 1 in 14 million? Or c) 1 in 400 million?

    答案是a) 四百萬分之一 b) 一千四百萬分之一 或是 c) 四億分之一

  • Finn: I said c) 1 in 400 million.

    芬恩:我說是 c) 四億分之一

  • Alice: Yes. And you were wrong, Finn.

    艾莉絲:沒錯,而你是錯的,芬恩

  • Finn: Alright. Really? OK.

    芬恩:喔,是嗎?好吧

  • Alice: Yes. The odds are actually 1 in 14 million.

    艾莉絲:是的,機率是一千四百萬分之一

  • You are as likely to win the national lottery from a single ticket

    你會用一張彩卷中國家樂透和

  • as you are to be knocked off your bicycle and killed during a one-mile journey.

    被撞倒腳踏車和在一英哩的路途中被殺的機率一樣

  • This statistic comes from the Professor David Spiegelhalter,

    這項統計數字來源為大衛.史畢柯霍克教授

  • who is Winton Professor of the Public Understanding of Risk in the Statistical Laboratory at the

    一位英國劍橋大學統計實驗室中

  • University of Cambridge in the UK.

    大眾危機意識學的教授

  • So I think he really knows his stuff.

    我覺得他真的很了解自己的定位

  • Finn: That's a very long title, yes, I'm sure he does.

    芬恩:真是有夠長的頭銜,我確定他非常了解

  • Alice: Yeah.

    艾莉絲:是啊

  • Finn: So let's hear today's words again, Alice?

    芬恩:那麼,讓我們來聽聽今天的單字吧,艾莉絲?

  • Alice: Here they are:

    艾莉絲:那麼我們開始:

  • phobia

    恐懼症

  • risk

    危險

  • probability

    可能性

  • gut reaction

    本能反應

  • catastrophic

    災難性的

  • media coverage

    媒體覆蓋率

  • chronic

    長期的

  • thrill seekers

    極限運動員

  • base jumper

    低空跳傘

  • And that brings us to the end of today's 6 Minute English.

    今天的六分鐘英語就在此告一段落

  • We hope you were thrilled by today's programme.

    希望你享受今天的節目

  • Please join us again soon.

    希望再次見到你

  • Both: Bye.

    兩位:掰掰

Alice: Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English. I'm Alice.

艾莉絲:大家好,歡迎來到六分鐘英語,我是艾莉絲

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 多益 芬恩 艾莉絲 危險 機率 恐懼症

BBC 6 Minute English December 17, 2015 - Why do we take risks?

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    Adam Huang 發佈於 2016 年 01 月 31 日
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