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  • So my name is Kakani Katija, and I'm a bioengineer.

    我叫 Kakani Katija,我是一個生物工程學家。

  • I study marine organisms in their natural environment.

    我研究天然環境中的海洋生物。

  • And what I want to point out,

    而我想指出的,

  • and at least you can see this in this visualization,

    以及至少你可以在這具象圖所看到的──

  • is that the ocean environment is a dynamic place.

    海洋是一個動態的環境。

  • What you're seeing are the kinds of currents,

    你正看到的是各種洋流,

  • as well as the whirls,

    以及渦旋,

  • that are left behind in the ocean because of tides or because of winds.

    這些因為潮汐或者風的流動而在海洋中留下痕跡的渦旋。

  • And imagine a marine organism as living in this environment,

    而想像一個海洋生物活在這樣的環境中,

  • and they're trying to undergo their entire lives

    且他們努力接受他們全部的生活

  • while dealing with currents like these.

    都在處理這樣的水流擾動。

  • But what I also want to point out

    而我還想指出的是,

  • is that small organisms also create small fluid motions, as well.

    即使是微小的生物個體一樣會產生些微流體運動。

  • And it's these fluid motions that I study.

    而這些流體運動正是我所研究的。

  • And we can think about them like being footprints.

    我們可以想像它們就像足跡一樣。

  • So this is my dog Kieran, and take a look at her footprints.

    這是我的狗,Kieran,請看一下她的足跡。

  • Footprints provide a lot of information.

    足跡可以提供很多訊息,

  • Not only do they tell us what kind of organism left them,

    不只告訴我們是什麼生物留下它們,

  • they might also tell us something about when that organism was there,

    也可能告訴我們什麼時候那個生物個體曾出現,

  • but also what kind of behavior, were they running or were they walking?

    還有她的行為:是在跑動、還是走路?

  • And so terrestrial organisms, like my cute dog Kieran,

    所以陸上生物,就像我的可愛小狗Kieran,

  • might be leaving footprints behind in dirt or in sand,

    可能在泥土或沙上留下足跡。

  • but marine organisms leave footprints in the form of what we call wake structures,

    而海洋生物的足跡則是以我們稱為「尾流結構」的形式留下,

  • or hydrodynamic signatures, in fluid.

    或者流體上稱為「水動力跡訊」。

  • Now imagine, it's really hard to see these kinds of structures

    現在你可以想像,這真的很難觀察這些尾流結構,

  • because fluid is transparent.

    因為流體是透明的。

  • However, if we add something to the fluid, we get a completely different picture.

    然而,如果我們在流體加上一些東西,我們可以得到一個完全不一樣的圖像。

  • And you can see that these footprints that marine organisms create

    而你可以看到這些海洋生物產生的足跡

  • are just dynamic.

    十分動態。

  • They are constantly changing.

    它們不斷改變。

  • And marine organisms also have the ability to sense these signatures.

    同時海洋生物也能夠去感覺這些跡訊。

  • They can also inform decisions,

    它們也可以傳達決策,

  • like whether or not they want to continue following a signature like this

    例如她們是否要繼續跟隨跡訊

  • to find a mate or to find food,

    去尋找伴侶或食物。

  • or maybe avoid these signatures to avoid being eaten.

    或者避開這些跡訊以避免被掠食。

  • So imagine the ability to be able

    所以想像一種能力,

  • to not only see or visualize these kinds of signatures,

    不但可以看到或具象化這些跡訊,

  • but to also measure them.

    而且還可以測量它們。

  • This is the engineering side of what I do.

    這就是我在工程學上所研究的。

  • And so what I've done is I actually took a laboratory technique

    為此實際上我採用了一種實驗室技術,

  • and miniaturized it and basically shrunk it down

    使之微型化,基本上縮小到

  • into the use of underwater housings

    可以放進水下設備外罩內,

  • to make a device that a single scuba diver can use.

    做成一個潛水員可單獨使用的裝置。

  • And so a single scuba diver can go anywhere from the surface to 40 meters,

    這樣一個潛水員可以在水面到40公尺深處到處移動,

  • or 120 feet deep,

    或是說120英尺深,

  • to measure the hydrodynamic signatures that organisms create.

    去測量生物個體產生的水動力跡訊。

  • Before I begin,

    在我開始之前,

  • I want to immerse you into what these kinds of measurements require.

    我想要讓你們深入這些測量所需的條件。

  • So in order to work, we actually dive at night,

    所以操作上,其實我們在晚上潛水。

  • and this is because we're trying to minimize any interactions

    這是因為我們嘗試著減少任何

  • between the laser and sunlight

    雷射和陽光間的相互影響。

  • and we're diving in complete darkness

    我們在完全黑暗中潛水,

  • because we do not want to scare away the organisms we're trying to study.

    因為不想嚇跑我們正要研究的生物。

  • And then once we find the organisms we're interested in,

    一旦我們發現了目標生物,

  • we turn on a green laser.

    就開啟綠色雷射光。

  • And this green laser is actually illuminating a sheet of fluid,

    這個綠色雷射光會照亮一片海水,

  • and in that fluid,

    而在這片海水中,

  • it's reflecting off of particles that are found everywhere in the ocean.

    它反射了海洋中隨處可見的微粒。

  • And so as an animal swims through this laser sheet,

    所以當有動物游過這片雷射光區時,

  • you can see these particles are moving over time,

    你可以看到這些微粒隨著時間一直移動。

  • and so we actually risk our lives to get this kind of data.

    所以事實上我們冒著生面危險取得了這樣的資料。

  • What you're going to see

    你將看到的是,

  • is that on the left these due particles images

    在左圖這些微粒影像投射

  • that shows the displacement of fluid over time,

    顯示流體隨著時間變化而位移,

  • and using that data,

    用這些資料,

  • you can actually extract what the velocity of that fluid is,

    你可以確實引導出流體的速率。

  • and that's indicated by the vector plots that you see in the middle.

    如中間的向量圖所呈現的。

  • And then we can use that data

    然後我們可以用這些資料

  • to answer a variety of different questions,

    來回答各式各樣的問題。

  • not only to understand the rotational sense of that fluid,

    不僅是瞭解流體的循環,

  • which you see on the right,

    如同你在右邊圖像看到的,

  • but also estimate something about energetics,

    也能進行能量學上的估量。

  • or the kinds of forces that act on these organisms or on the fluid,

    或是研究什麼力量作用在這些生物或流體上,

  • and also evaluate swimming and feeding performance.

    還有評估游泳和掠食效率。

  • We've used this technique on a variety of different organisms,

    我們已經在各種不同的生物個體上使用這個技術,

  • but remember, there's an issue here.

    但是記得,這裡還有個問題。

  • We're only able to study organisms that a scuba diver can reach.

    我們只能夠研究潛水員可及的海洋生物。

  • And so before I finish, I want to tell you what the next frontier is

    所以在我結束之前,我想告訴你下一個研究趨勢為何,

  • in terms of these kinds of measurements.

    就目前可得的測量而言。

  • And with collaborators at Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute,

    與蒙特雷灣水族館研究所的合作者共同研究下,

  • we're developing instrumentation to go on remotely opperated vehicles

    我們正在發展遙控儀器,

  • so we can study organisms anywhere from the surface down to 4000 meters,

    讓我們能研究任何從海水表面到4000公尺深的生物,

  • or two and a half miles.

    或是2.5英里深。

  • And so we can answer really interesting questions about this organism,

    所以我們真的可以回答一些生物上非常有趣的問題。

  • this is a larvacean,

    這是一種尾海鞘,

  • that creates a feeding current and forces fluids through their mucus house

    她會產生掠食激流,迫使液體流向她們的黏液腔,

  • and extracts nutrients.

    然後汲取養分。

  • And then this animal,

    然後是這個動物,

  • this is a siphonophore,

    這是管水母。

  • and they can get to lengths about half the size of a football field.

    她們的長度可以延展到半個足球場長。

  • And they're able to swim vertically in the ocean

    而且她們可以在海水中垂直游動,

  • by just creating jet propulsion.

    就是靠著噴流推進。

  • And then finally we can answer these questions

    然後最後我們可以回答這些問題:

  • about how swarming organisms, like krill,

    關於蜂擁而居的生物個體,例如磷蝦,

  • are able to affect mixing on larger scales.

    如何在大尺度上影響海水混和。

  • And this is actually one of the most interesting results so far

    這確實是目前我們藉著潛水儀器,

  • that we've collected are using the scuba diving device in that organisms,

    在研究那樣子的生物上,所得到的最有趣的結果之一,

  • especially when they're moving in mass,

    尤其是在她們群體移動時,

  • are able to generate mixing

    可以促進海水混和,

  • at levels that are equivalent to some other physical processes

    程度相等於一些其他與風力或潮汐相關的物理作用。

  • that are associated with winds and tides.

  • But before I finish,

    而在我結束之前,

  • I want to leave you all with a question

    我想留給你們大家一個問題,

  • because I think it's important to keep in mind

    我相信這有必要銘記在心,

  • that technologies today that we take for granted

    就是現在我們視為理所當然的科技

  • started somewhere.

    是從某些地方發展而來的。

  • It was inspired from something.

    某些事物賦予了人們靈感。

  • So imagine scientists and engineers were inspired by birds

    所以想像科學家和工程學家因為鳥類而得到

  • to create airplanes.

    創造飛機的靈感。

  • And something we take for granted,

    我們視為理所當然的,

  • flying from San Francisco to New York,

    從舊金山飛行到紐約,

  • is something that was inspired by an organism.

    這靈感是由一種生物個體所喚起的。

  • And as we're developing these new technologies

    而正當我們發展這些新科技

  • to understand marine organisms,

    來了解海洋生物時,

  • what we want to do is answer this question:

    我們想知道的是回答這個問題:

  • how will marine organisms inspire us?

    這些海洋生物如何賦予我們的靈感?

  • Will they allow us to develop new underwater technologies,

    她們可否促使我們發展新的水下技術,

  • like underwater vehicles that look like a jellyfish?

    例如一個像水母的水下交通工具?

  • I think it's a really exciting time in ocean exploration

    我想,這真是海洋探索上,一個令人興奮的時刻,

  • because now we have the tools available to answer this kind of question,

    因為現在我們可以取得這些工具去回答這類問題,

  • and with the help of you guys at some point,

    同時在某些時候可以得到你們大家的幫助。

  • you can apply these tools to answer this kind of question

    你可以應用這些工具去回答這類問題,

  • and also develop technologies of the future.

    也能發展未來科技。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

So my name is Kakani Katija, and I'm a bioengineer.

我叫 Kakani Katija,我是一個生物工程學家。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 生物 流體 海洋 海水 個體

【TED-Ed】令人驚豔卻隱形的海洋生物足跡 (The surprising (and invisible) signatures of sea creatures - Kakani Katija)

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    Casper Hsu 發佈於 2016 年 03 月 04 日
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