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  • So let’s talk about moving. It’s a real challenge to get all of your stuff from one

    我們來談談「遷移」。 這是一個大挑戰 ,把你所有的東西從一個地方

  • place to another. The thing is, even if you decide to leave lots of junk behind, one thing

    挪到另一個地方。事實上,即使你決定丟掉許多垃圾,有件事

  • youre always stuck with is your old language. It might clutter up the brain space you want

    你擺脫不掉─就是你的舊語言。它可能會堆滿你想要用來

  • for your fresh new language, but there’s nothing you can do about it. Some things, you can’t leave

    存放新語言的空間,但是你就是沒辦法清出空間。有些事情你沒辦法拋諸腦後

  • behind. I’m Moti Lieberman, and this is The Ling Space.

    我是Moti Lieberman。你現在正在收看的是 The Ling Space

  • So the biggest difference between learning your first language and any other one is also the most

    所以學習第一語言和其他種語言最大的差別,也就是最明顯的差別,在於

  • obvious: when youre learning a second or third language, you already have a whole linguistic

    當你正在學第二語言或是第三語言,你已經擁有一個完整的語言學

  • system inside your head. And as much as we’d like to forget everything we know about our native

    系統在你的腦袋中。縱使我們想要忘記和我們母語相關的任何事情

  • language, when we learn a new one, we just can’t. Once your system’s been wired

    當我們學習一個新的語言的時候,我們根本忘不掉。 一旦你的系統

  • with the grammar of your first language, that knowledge is very sticky. It’s like caramel,

    和你的第一語言接通,那樣的知識非常根深蒂固。就像是焦糖

  • except inside your brain.

    在你腦袋中

  • But people still learn new languages, right? It’s not like there’s a sign that says,

    但是人們仍然能夠學習新語言,對吧? 它不像一個告示板寫著

  • if youre over two years old, you can’t ride the new language roller coaster. The

    如果你超過兩歲,你不能乘坐新語言雲霄飛車

  • difference, though, is this: if you already have a grammar in your head, and you start

    然而,差異在於:如果你已經有了一套文法在你腦中,然後你開始

  • learning a new one, your first guess about whatever your new language will do is based on

    學一個新的,你在新語言中的猜測會奠基於

  • however your old language did it. In other words, you transfer knowledge over from your first

    你舊有的語言。換句話說,你從你的第一語言移轉知識

  • language, or L1, into your second language, or L2. As you get more information about your

    我們稱之為L1,到你的第二語言,我們稱之為L2。當你得到更多關於第二語言的知識

  • L2, youll revise all those ideas and make a new grammar, but transfer happens first.

    你會改寫這些點子,並且創造一套新的文法系統。但是在這之前,「移轉」會先發生

  • So how do we know there has to be transfer? Well, if everyone started from scratch for

    我們怎麼知道會先「移轉」? 如果每一個人學習第二語言時都從零開始

  • their L2, they would all follow the same path, right? All people would pick up their new

    他們會有同樣的學習路徑,對吧?所有的人會用一樣的方法

  • language in the same way, no matter where they were coming from. Use the same language

    學習新語言,不論他們從何處來。用相同的語言

  • recipe, get the same language cake. But that’s not even close to what happens! We see different

    食譜,然後得到相同的語言蛋糕。但是這跟實際發生的事情一點都不一樣!我們看見不同的

  • patterns in what mistakes people make depending on what their first language was. And we know

    錯誤模式,因為人們有著不同的第一語言。而且我們知道

  • they can’t be getting it from speakers of whatever it is theyre learning, because

    他們不可能從他們正在學習的對象身上習得,因為

  • native speakers would never say those things.

    母語人士絕對不會犯那些錯

  • For example, take an English word likehave.” French doesn’t have that [h] sound at the

    舉例來說:英文字"have",法文並不能把 [h] 這個音

  • beginning, but it's totally fine with a sound like [v] coming at the end of

    放在字首,但是卻可以把像是 [v] 的這個音放在

  • a word, so a French learner of English will usually say something like [æv]. A German

    字尾,所以一個以法語為母語的英語學習者,常常會把它念成 [æv] (省略字首的[h])。一個德國

  • speaker, on the other hand, comes equipped with a language that already has [h], but doesn’t

    人和法國人不同的是,他原本的語言就具備 [h] 這個音,但是並不能

  • let sounds like [v] show up at the end of a word, so theyll usually say something like [hæf].

    把 [v] 放在字尾,所以他們常常把它說成 [hæf] (以無聲的[f] 取代有聲的 [v])

  • We even see changes in how youll pronounce things depending on what dialect of a language

    我們甚至發現一個人如何發音會取決於你所說的方言

  • you speak! So no version of

    所以沒有一個法語的版本

  • French has that [ð] sound that you get in English in words like [ði] (the) or [ðɛɹ] (there).

    會有像是你在英語中學到的單字 [ði] (the) 或是 [ðɛɹ] there 有 [ð] 這個音

  • It’s a really hard sound for L2 speakers to learn, and so theyll often switch

    這對第二語言學習者來說,真的是一個很難學的音,所以他們常常

  • it up for a different consonant. But European French speakers will fix it by saying [z],

    用另一個不同的子音來替換。但是歐洲的法語人士會用 [z] 來取代 [ð]

  • likeGo over zere.” Quebec French speakers on the other hand will get around it by using [d], like

    像是 “Go over zere”。魁北克的法語人士卻會用 [d] 這個音

  • Go over dere.” Even though it’s the same language! But theyre not the same dialect,

    像是 “Go over dere.” 雖然這是相同的語言,但是他們並不是相同的方言

  • and that change is enough to make the English pronunciations they end up with different, too.

    因而讓他們的英文發音變得不同

  • So how much do you transfer from your native language? Wellpretty much everything!

    你會從你的母語移轉多少東西到第二語言呢? 嗯...幾乎是所有東西!

  • Yeah. Everything. You fully transfer over that whole native grammar. You leave the words

    你沒有聽錯。是所有東西。你會把所有母語的文法搬遷過來。你可能會把字母留下

  • behind, mostly, but you take everything else. Were able to say this because we can find

    大部分來說,但是你拿走了剩下的所有東西。我們可以這樣說 因為我們發現

  • evidence of transfer in every part of the L2 grammar, from the phonemes all the

    有關於移轉第二語言所有文法的證據,從語音到

  • way up through semantics.

    語意都有

  • Weve already talked about some phonological examples, but only for single sounds. We can

    我們已經討論了一些音韻學的例子,但是只有幾個音而已。我們也可以

  • also find plenty of cases where whole words are affected by transfer. Like, take groups

    找到足夠的例子,看見整個單字都被「移轉現象」影響的例子。像是

  • of consonants. Some languages are totally fine with bunches of consonants clumping

    以一系列的子音來說。有些語言可以接受一大群子音擠

  • together in a word, and others firmly disapprove of it. But even if you disapprove, there are

    在一個字裡面,有些語言卻完全禁止。但是即使你反對,還是有

  • lots of different ways to fix it.

    很多不同的方式可以克服

  • Take a word likesparkle.” If youre a Spanish speaker, you don’t like that [sp]

    例如 "sparkle" 這個字。如果你是一個西班牙母語者,你不能接受 [sp]

  • at the beginning of the word. Spanish fixes this by putting an [ɛ] at the beginning of the word,

    在字首。西班牙人透過放入 [ɛ] 在字首解決這個問題

  • so that [s] and [p] belong to different syllables. So a Spanish learner of English

    如此以來 [s] 和 [p] 就分屬於不同的音節。所以一個西語的英文學習者

  • would probably say something likespɑɹkəl].

    可能會說出像是 [ɛspɑɹkəl] 這樣的單字

  • But Japanese, which also hates consonant clusters, takes a different tack. Between the pairs

    但是也不喜歡字音聚集的日本人嘗試了不同的方法。在每對

  • of consonants, Japanese shoehorns in this extra vowel, [ɯ]. If there’s a vowel in between,

    子音之間,日本人硬塞進一個多餘的母音─ [ɯ]。如果有一個母音在中間

  • no more bunch of consonants, so problem solved! That’s why a Japanese speaker wouldn’t

    字音就不會連在一起,問題就解決了!那就是為什麼一個日本人不能

  • saysparkleoresparkel”. They’d say [sɯpɑ:kɯɾɯ] (スパークル). So

    說 [sparkle] 或是 [ɛspɑɹkəl] 他們會說 [sɯpɑ:kɯɾɯ] (スパークル)。因此

  • from this, you can tell that non-native accents are a result of transfer. Your accent is

    你可以將非母語發音視為「移轉」後的結果。你的口音

  • different based on what the phonology of your native language was, because it got moved

    會不同是源自於你母語的語音學,因為它和其他的東西

  • over with everything else. This can be some of the toughest stuff to fix, but it IS doable.

    一起遷移。這可以視為最難解決的問題,但是仍然可以解決

  • But transfer goes beyond phonology. We can see it in syntax, too. So, no surprise, sentences

    不過移轉不只發生在語音學。我們也可以在句法學看到,因此不出所料,句子

  • get built differently in different languages. For example, in English, adverbs come before

    會在不同的語言中會有不同的結構。例如:英文的副詞在

  • the verb, so likeBarney frequently wears suits,” but in French, it comes after the

    動詞之前,像是 巴尼「很常」穿西裝。但是在法文裡面,副詞在

  • verb. “Barney porte fréquemment des costumes.” And sure enough, the word order here transfers.

    動詞之後。巴尼穿「很常」西裝。而且果然,這些字的順序移轉了

  • In English, L1 French speakers will sayBarney wears frequently suits”. Similarly, in French,

    在英文中,母語為法語的人會說:巴尼穿「很常」西裝。同樣地,在法文中

  • English speakers will sayBarney fréquemment porte des costumes.” You just get what your

    母語為英語的人會說:巴尼「很常」穿西裝。你只是說出

  • native language would have done.

    你用母語時會說的話

  • Or maybe youre a Greek learner of English, and you want to sayTed married the woman

    或者是你可能是個以希臘語為母語的英語學習者。你想要說:「泰德和那個

  • that he met at the wedding.” Well, in Greek, you’d put the equivalent of her in that

    在婚禮相遇的女人結婚了」。嗯,在希臘語中,你必須要把「her」的相對詞

  • lower sentence, like this: Ο Θοδωρής παντρεύτηκε κάποια γυναίκα

    放在後面的句子,像是「Ted married the woman

  • που τη γνώρισε στον γάμο. So in English, you wouldn’t leave thather

    who met 'her' in the wedding」。 在英文裡面,你不會省略那個"她"

  • out, right? No, you’d probably sayTed married the woman that he met her at the wedding.”

    對吧?當然不會。你應該要說 “Ted married the woman that he met her at the wedding.”

  • And transfer strikes again.

    移轉現象再度來襲

  • We can even see this in the way that L2 learners interpret sentences. So consider the sentence

    我們甚至可以從第二語言學習者的翻譯模式看出一些端倪。看看下面這個句子

  • Lily didn’t drink the beer or the whiskey.” In English, this sentence means that Lily

    “Lily didn’t drink the beer or the whiskey.” 以英文來說,這個句子代表莉莉

  • couldn’t have drank either of the alcoholic beverages. But in Japanese, the exact same

    不可能喝了任何一種酒精飲料。但是在日文中,幾乎相同的句子

  • sentence would mean that Lily drank either the beer, or the whiskey, but not both of

    卻可以代表莉莉喝了啤酒或是威士忌但是不是兩樣都有

  • them. So the same sentence, with the same structure, but a different interpretation.

    一樣句法結構的句子卻有不同的翻譯

  • So what happens when you ask a Japanese learner of English whether Lily had either

    那麼,當你問一個日語為母語的英語學習者莉莉是否喝了飲料

  • of the drinks? Theyll tell you that she drank one or the other of them, but not both. So even the

    他們會告訴你她喝了其中一種 但是不是兩種都有喝。所以即使

  • way you want to interpret a sentence gets transferred over.

    是詮釋的方法都會產生「移轉現象」

  • That’s because L2 transfer is everywhere. It’s helpful in a way, because you don’t

    那是因為第二語言的移轉現象比比皆是。這很有幫助,因為你不需要

  • have to start from scratch with each new language. That’d take way longer! But

    從零開始學習一個語言。如果這樣,你會耗費很多時間,但

  • it’s so pervasive, it colors everything you do in your L2. You can work at

    它影響力很大,影響到你在第二語言的所有表現。你可以

  • getting beyond it, but sometimes youre just stuck with what you have. If you look

    超越它,不過有時候你無法擺脫你有的。如果你檢視

  • at your first language, you can find what sorts of mistakes youll probably make in

    你的第一語言,你可以找到一些你可能會在新語言中犯下的錯誤

  • your new one. For better or for worse, it’s the linguistic baggage you carry around with you.

    或好或壞,這是你背負的語言學包袱

  • So weve reached the end of the Ling Space for this week. If my word order seemed natural

    現在我們來到了這星期 Ling Space 的尾聲。如果我的文字順序對你來說很自然

  • to you, you learned that when we learn a new language, we transfer over our whole native

    你就知道當我們學習一個新語言,我們移轉我們整個母語的

  • grammar; that depending on what language youre starting from, the mistakes youll make

    文法,並且取決於你最一開始學習的語言,你在第二語言犯下的錯誤

  • in the L2 will be different; and that transfer effects can be found all over linguistics,

    也會因此不同。這樣的移轉現象可以在語言學

  • from phonology to syntax to semantics.

    語音學、句法學、和語意學中找到

  • The Ling Space is produced by me, Moti Lieberman. It’s directed by Adèle-Elise Prévost,

    Ling Space 出自於我 Moti Lieberman。導演為 Adèle-Elise Prévost

  • and it’s written by both of us. Our production assistant is Georges Coulombe, our music and

    劇本由我們共同撰寫,我們的助理是 Georges Coulombe。我們的音樂和

  • sound design is by Shane Turner, and our graphics team is AtelierMuse. Write down in the comments

    音效由Shane Turner設計。我們的圖畫設計團隊為 AtelierMuse。影片下方可以留言

  • below, or you can bring the discussion back over to our website, where we have some extra material

    或是你可以到我們的網站討論,在那裡我們有更多額外的教材

  • on this topic. Check us out on Tumblr, Twitter and Facebook, and if you want to keep expanding

    在這次的主題上。請從 Tumblr, Twitter and Facebook 上面搜尋我們。如果你想要擴展

  • your own personal Ling Space, please subscribe. And well see you next Wednesday.

    你個人的 Ling Space,請訂閱我們。下星期三見

  • Ekosi maka Kawi asamēna kapimitin!

    就這樣。我們下次再見!

So let’s talk about moving. It’s a real challenge to get all of your stuff from one

我們來談談「遷移」。 這是一個大挑戰 ,把你所有的東西從一個地方

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

A2 初級 中文 美國腔 語言 學習 法語 子音 句子 文法

轉入第二語言學習 (Transfer in Second Language Acquisition)

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    Sh, Gang (Aaron) 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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