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  • These are simple objects:

    這些都是很普通的用品:

  • clocks, keys, combs, glasses.

    鐘錶、鑰匙、梳子、眼鏡。

  • They are the things the victims of genocide in Bosnia

    這些是波士尼亞種族大屠殺的受害者

  • carried with them on their final journey.

    在走上絕路時攜帶的東西。

  • We are all familiar with these mundane,

    我們都很熟悉這些平凡無奇的

  • everyday objects.

    日常用品。

  • The fact that some of the victims carried

    一些受害者帶著

  • personal items such as toothpaste and a toothbrush

    個人用品像牙膏及牙刷的事實

  • is a clear sign they had no idea

    清楚的顯示出他們不知道

  • what was about to happen to them.

    他們將面臨什麼命運。

  • Usually, they were told that they were going to be

    通常他們被告知他們

  • exchanged for prisoners of war.

    將與戰俘交換。

  • These items have been recovered

    這些物品從我的家鄉

  • from numerous mass graves across my homeland,

    多個萬人塚中挖掘出來。

  • and as we speak, forensics are exhuming bodies

    就在當下,法醫鑑識人員正從

  • from newly discovered mass graves,

    新發現的萬人塚中掘出屍體。

  • 20 years after the war.

    這已是戰後 20 年。

  • And it is quite possibly the largest ever discovered.

    這很可能是有史以來最大的一個。

  • During the four years of conflict

    這四年的衝突,

  • that devastated the Bosnian nation in the early '90s,

    在 90 年代早期, 蹂躪了波士尼亞國,

  • approximately 30,000 citizens, mainly civilians,

    大約三萬公民,主要是平民,

  • went missing, presumed killed,

    從人間蒸發,推定死亡,

  • and another 100,000 were killed

    另外還有十萬人

  • during combat operations.

    在戰鬥作業中被殺。

  • Most of them were killed

    他們受害的時間大多在

  • either in the early days of the war

    戰事早期

  • or towards the end of the hostilities,

    或敵對行動的尾聲,

  • when U.N. safe zones like Srebrenica

    即聯合國安全區如斯雷布雷尼查

  • fell into the hands of the Serb army.

    落入塞爾維亞軍隊手中的時候。

  • The international criminal tribunal

    國際刑事法庭

  • delivered a number of sentences

    宣判了數項刑責

  • for crimes against humanity and genocide.

    針對人權及種族大屠殺的罪行。

  • Genocide is a systematic and deliberate

    種族大屠殺是系統及蓄意

  • destruction of a racial, political, religious

    毀滅一個人種、政治體、宗教

  • or ethnic group.

    或民族的行為。

  • As much as genocide is about killing.

    種族大屠殺不但要趕盡殺絕,

  • It is also about destroying their property,

    它還要摧毀受害者的財產,

  • their cultural heritage,

    他們的文化遺產,

  • and ultimately the very notion that they ever existed.

    最終還要毀滅他們曾經存在的證據。

  • Genocide is not only about the killing;

    種族大屠殺不僅僅是殺人而已:

  • it is about the denied identity.

    它要否定身分。

  • There are always traces

    總是會留下蛛絲馬跡——

  • no such thing as a perfect crime.

    沒有所謂的完美犯罪。

  • There are always remnants of the perished ones

    總是有一些遇難者的遺物

  • that are more durable than their fragile bodies

    堅固遠超過主人脆弱的身體,

  • and our selective and fading memory of them.

    以及我們對他們選擇及褪色的記憶。

  • These items are recovered

    這些物品,

  • from numerous mass graves,

    從多個萬人塚中挖掘出來,

  • and the main goal of this collection of the items

    而收集這些物品主要的目的,

  • is a unique process

    是一段獨特的過程

  • of identifying those who disappeared in the killings,

    來驗明在屠殺中消失者的身分,

  • the first act of genocide on European soil

    這是歐洲大陸上 在猶太人大屠殺之後,

  • since the Holocaust.

    第一起種族滅絕事件。

  • Not a single body should remain undiscovered

    每一具遺體都該被發掘

  • or unidentified.

    被辨識。

  • Once recovered,

    一旦被挖掘出來,

  • these items that the victims carried with them

    這些受害者帶著

  • on their way to execution

    陪他們走上絕路的物品,

  • are carefully cleaned, analyzed,

    都仔細的清洗、分析、

  • catalogued and stored.

    分類及保存。

  • Thousands of artifacts are packed in white plastic bags

    成千上萬的出土物 包在白色的塑膠袋中

  • just like the ones you see on CSI.

    就像你在 CSI 犯罪現場 看到的一樣。

  • These objects are used as a forensic tool

    這些物品成為法醫辨識人員

  • in visual identification of the victims,

    在目視識別受害者時的工具,

  • but they are also used as very valuable forensic evidence

    但他們也可當作非常 有價值的法醫證據,

  • in the ongoing war crimes trials.

    在持續進行的戰犯審判上承堂供證。

  • Survivors are occasionally called

    倖存者有時候也會被傳喚

  • to try to identify these items physically,

    試著親眼辨認這些物品,

  • but physical browsing is extremely difficult,

    但是親眼瀏覽極其困難,

  • an ineffective and painful process.

    是一段無效又痛苦的過程。

  • Once the forensics and doctors and lawyers

    一旦法醫人員及醫生及律師

  • are done with these objects,

    不再需要這些物品,

  • they become orphans of the narrative.

    它們就成為故事裡沒人要的孤兒。

  • Many of them get destroyed, believe it or not,

    很多都被銷毀,信不信由你,

  • or they get simply shelved,

    或是束之高閣。

  • out of sight and out of mind.

    眼不見為淨。

  • I decided a few years ago

    我在數年前決定

  • to photograph every single exhumed item

    要拍攝每一項挖掘出的物品

  • in order to create a visual archive

    以製作視覺檔案庫

  • that survivors could easily browse.

    讓倖存者很容易地瀏覽。

  • As a storyteller, I like to give back to the community.

    作為一個說故事的人, 我想要回饋社區。

  • I like to move beyond raising awareness.

    我想做的不只是喚起意識。

  • And in this case, someone may

    我這樣做,或許就有人能

  • recognize these items

    辨認這些物品,

  • or at least their photographs will remain

    至少這些物品的照片會留存

  • as a permanent, unbiased and accurate reminder

    成為永久、公正又準確的紀念

  • of what happened.

    提醒我們發生了什麼事。

  • Photography is about empathy,

    攝影是一種同理心,

  • and the familiarity of these items guarantee empathy.

    而這些熟悉的物品 保證讓你產生同理心。

  • In this case, I am merely a tool,

    這樣,我不過就是個工具

  • a forensic, if you like,

    一位法醫鑑定員,你可以這麼說,

  • and the result is a photography that is as close

    其結果就是拍出盡可能

  • as possible of being a document.

    記實的文物攝影。

  • Once all the missing persons are identified,

    一旦確認了所有的失蹤人口,

  • only decaying bodies in their graves

    只有在墳墓中腐化的屍體

  • and these everyday items will remain.

    及這些日常用品會留下。

  • In all their simplicity,

    就是因為它們很普通,

  • these items are the last testament

    這些物品成為最後的證據

  • to the identity of the victims,

    證明著受害者的身分,

  • the last permanent reminder

    也是最後的恆久提醒

  • that these people ever existed.

    這些人曾經存在過。

  • Thank you very much.

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

These are simple objects:

這些都是很普通的用品:

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B1 中級 中文 TED 大屠殺 法醫 受害 種族 用品

【TED】茲亞·加非克: 日常的用品,悲慘的歷史 (Ziyah Gafić: Everyday objects, tragic histories)

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    Max Lin 發佈於 2016 年 02 月 11 日
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