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  • Which of these has the least carbohydrates?

    在這些東西中,哪一個是含碳水化合物最少的呢?

  • This roll of bread?

    這個麵包卷?

  • This bowl of rice?

    這碗飯?

  • Or this can of soda?

    還是這罐汽水?

  • It's a trick question.

    這是個微妙的問題

  • Although they may differ in fats, vitamins, and other nutritional content,

    雖然它們的脂肪、維生素和其他的營養成分都不同

  • when it comes to carbs, they're pretty much the same.

    但其實他們的碳水化合物含量差不多

  • So what exactly does that mean for your diet?

    所以這跟我們的飲食有什麼關係?

  • First of all, carbohydrate is the nutritional category for sugars

    首先 碳水化合物在營養分類中被歸類為糖類分子

  • and molecules that your body breaks down to make sugars.

    你的身體會分解它 產生糖分

  • Carbohydrates can be simple or complex depending on their structure.

    碳水化合物依其結構可以是簡單或複雜的

  • This is a simple sugar, or monosaccharide.

    這是最簡單的糖 或稱單糖

  • Glucose, fructose, and galactose are all simple sugars.

    葡萄糖、果糖和半乳糖都是簡單的糖

  • Link two of them together, and you've got a disaccharide,

    兩個單糖連結在一起 就是雙糖

  • lactose, maltose, or sucrose.

    乳糖、麥芽糖或蔗糖

  • Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand,

    另一方面 複合碳水化合物

  • have three or more simple sugars strung together.

    由三個或三個以上的單糖鍵結

  • Complex carbohydrates with three to ten linked sugars

    如果有三到十個複合碳水化合物鍵結

  • are oligosaccharides.

    被稱作寡糖

  • Those with more than ten are polysaccharides.

    而在十個以上的則是多糖

  • During digestion,

    在消化過程中

  • your body breaks down those complex carbohydrates

    我們的身體會分解這些複合碳水化合物

  • into their monosaccharide building blocks,

    變成單糖體

  • which your cells can use for energy.

    也就是你的細胞的能量來源

  • So when you eat any carbohydrate-rich food,

    所以 當你吃富含碳水化合物的食物時

  • the sugar level in your blood, normally about a teaspoon, goes up.

    大約是一茶匙的糖 你的血糖 通常會升高

  • But your digestive tract doesn't respond to all carbohydrates the same.

    但是我們的消化系統 對不同的碳水化合物 做不同處理

  • Consider starch and fiber,

    看看澱粉和纖維

  • both polysaccharides,

    兩者都是多糖

  • both derived from plants,

    都是來自植物

  • both composed of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides joined together,

    也都是由上百或是上千的單糖體復合組成

  • but they're joined together differently,

    但是它們的組合的方法不同

  • and that changes the effect they have on your body.

    也改變了對身體的效果

  • In starches, which plants mostly store for energy in roots and seeds,

    澱粉是植物在根部和種子中最常見的能量儲存方式

  • glucose molecules are joined together by alpha linkages,

    葡萄醣分子 以α(阿爾法)鍵結

  • most of which can be easily cleaved by enzymes in your digestive tract.

    是最容易被你體內的酵素(酶)所切斷

  • But in fiber, the bonds between monosaccharide molecules are beta bonds,

    而纖維 則是單糖體分子以β(貝它)方式鍵結

  • which your body can't beak down.

    我們的身體無法分解

  • Fiber can also trap some starches, preventing them from being cleaved,

    同時纖維也會阻止一些澱粉 防止它被分解

  • resulting in something called resistant starch.

    這就被稱為抗性澱粉

  • So foods high in starch, like crackers and white bread,

    那些含有高澱粉的食物 像是餅乾或白麵包

  • are digested easily,

    很容易被消化

  • quickly releasing a whole bunch of glucose into your blood,

    快速地釋放葡萄糖到血液中

  • exactly what would happen if you drank something high in glucose, like soda.

    就如同你直接和下高葡萄糖的飲料 像是汽水

  • These foods have a high glycemic index,

    這些是高升糖指數食物

  • the amount that a particular food raises the sugar level in your blood.

    這些食物容易讓你的血糖升高

  • Soda and white bread have a similar glycemic index

    汽水和白麵包的升糖指數差不多

  • because they have a similar effect on your blood sugar.

    因為他們對血糖指數的影響差不多

  • But when you eat foods high in fiber, like vegetables, fruits, and whole grains,

    而當你吃高纖維的食物 像是蔬菜 水果 或是全麥麵包

  • those indigestible beta bonds slow the release of glucose into the blood.

    那些不能消化的β(貝它)鍵結會減緩葡萄糖釋放到血液中的速度

  • Those foods have a lower glycemic index,

    這些食物的低升糖指低

  • and foods like eggs, cheese, and meats have the lowest glycemic index.

    像是雞蛋 乳酪 和肉都是低升糖指數食物

  • When sugar moves from the digestive tract to the blood stream,

    當糖從消化器系統到血液中時

  • your body kicks into action to transfer it into your tissues

    身體會會開始將糖轉換到組織中

  • where it can be processed and used for energy.

    轉換成能量來源

  • Insulin, a hormone synthesized in the pancreas,

    胰島素 一種在胰腺中合成的激素

  • is one of the body's main tools for sugar management.

    是控制血糖含量的激素之一

  • When you eat and your blood sugar rises,

    當我們吃完東西 血糖上升時

  • insulin is secreted into the blood.

    身體分泌胰島素到血液中

  • It prompts your muscle and fat cells to let glucose in

    它讓葡萄糖進入肌肉和脂肪細胞中

  • and jump starts the conversion of sugar to energy.c

    立馬開始轉換成能量

  • The degree to which a unit of insulin lowers the blood sugar

    每單位的胰島素降血糖的程度

  • helps us understand something called insulin sensitivity.

    讓我們暸解細胞對胰島素的敏感度

  • The more a given unit of insulin lowers blood sugar,

    每單位胰島素所降低得血糖越多

  • the more sensitive you are to insulin.

    代表細胞對胰島素越敏感

  • If insulin sensitivity goes down, that's known as insulin resistance.

    如果敏感度降低 就是胰島素抗性

  • The pancreas still sends out insulin,

    胰腺持續分泌胰島素

  • but cells, especially muscle cells, are less and less responsive to it,

    但細胞 尤其是肌肉細胞 對胰島素越來越不敏感

  • so blood sugar fails to decrease,

    血糖無法下降

  • and blood insulin continues to rise.

    血液中胰島素卻持續上升

  • Chronically consuming a lot of carbohydrates

    長期攝取過多的碳水化合物

  • may lead to insulin resistance,

    可能導致胰島素抗性

  • and many scientists believe that insulin resistance

    許多科學家認為 胰島素抗性

  • leads to a serious condition called metabolic syndrome.

    導致許多嚴重的代謝症候群

  • That involves a constellation of symptoms,

    包括一系列的併發症

  • including high blood sugar,

    像是高血糖

  • increased waist circumference,

    腰圍增加

  • and high blood pressure.

    和高血壓

  • It increases the risk of developing conditions,

    雖這狀況嚴重 風險也增加

  • like cardiovascular disease

    像是心血管疾病

  • and type II diabetes.

    還有第二型糖尿病

  • And its prevalence is rapidly increasing all over the world.

    而這種問題正在世界蔓延

  • As much as 32% of the population in the U.S. has metabolic syndrome.

    在美國 32%的人口有代謝症候群

  • So let's get back to your diet.

    讓我們回到你的飲食吧

  • Whether your food tastes sweet or not, sugar is sugar,

    不論你的食物吃起來甜不甜 糖就是糖

  • and too many carbs can be a problem.

    太多碳水化合物會造成問題

  • So maybe you'll want to take a pass

    所以或許你該考慮跳過

  • on that pasta sushi roll pita burrito donut burger sandwich.

    這些義大利麵 壽司 捲餅 皮塔餅 甜甜圈 漢堡 和三明治

Which of these has the least carbohydrates?

在這些東西中,哪一個是含碳水化合物最少的呢?

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 胰島素 碳水化合物 血糖 鍵結 細胞

【TED-Ed】碳水化合物如何影響你的健康? (How do carbohydrates impact your health? - Richard J. Wood)

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    Casper Hsu 發佈於 2016 年 02 月 25 日
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