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  • My name is Arvind Gupta, and I'm a toymaker.

    我叫Arvind Gupta,我製作玩具

  • I've been making toys for the last 30 years.

    過去30年我一直在製作玩具

  • The early '70s, I was in college.

    70年代早期我還是大學生

  • It was a very revolutionary time.

    那是一個非常革命性的時期

  • It was a political ferment, so to say --

    是政治上的動亂

  • students out in the streets of Paris,

    巴黎的學生上街遊行

  • revolting against authority.

    向威權挑戰

  • America was jolted

    反越戰的運動以及人權運動

  • by the anti-Vietnam movement, the Civil Rights movement.

    讓美國處於躁動的階段

  • In India, we had the Naxalite movement,

    在印度,我們有納薩爾派的運動

  • the [unclear] movement.

    和其他的運動

  • But you know, when there is a political churning of society,

    但你知道當社會上有政治的擾動時

  • it unleashes a lot of energy.

    就會宣洩出許多能量

  • The National Movement of India

    印度的國民運動

  • was testimony to that.

    就是明顯的見證

  • Lots of people resigned from well-paid jobs

    許多人辭掉自己高薪的工作

  • and jumped into the National Movement.

    投身到了國民運動中去了

  • Now in the early '70s,

    在70年代初期

  • one of the great programs in India

    印度最重要的計畫之一

  • was to revitalize

    就是復興

  • primary science in village schools.

    鄉鎮學校的基礎科學

  • There was a person, Anil Sadgopal, did a Ph.D. from Caltech

    有一個叫做Gopal的人,他在加州理工學院拿到博士

  • and returned back as a molecular biologist

    回來後成為分子生物學家

  • in India's cutting-edge research institute, the TIFR.

    在TIFR,印度最重要的研究中心工作

  • At 31, he was not able

    在31歲時,他沒有辦法

  • to relate the kind of [unclear] research,

    把自己正在進行的研究

  • which he was doing with the lives of the ordinary people.

    應用到人民的日常生活

  • So he designed and went and started a village science program.

    所以他企劃了一個鄉鎮科學計畫,並開始實行

  • Many people were inspired by this.

    許多人都被這個想法所激發

  • The slogan of the early '70s

    70年代初期的口號

  • was "Go to the people.

    是「走向人民」

  • Live with them; love them.

    「與他們一起生活,愛他們」

  • Start from what they know. Build on what they have."

    「從人民知道的著手,從他們已擁有開始建設」

  • This was kind of the defining slogan.

    這是很代表性的口號

  • Well I took one year.

    我花了一年的時間

  • I joined Telco, made TATA trucks, pretty close to Pune.

    我進入Telco工作,在哪裡生產TATA卡車,就在Pune附近

  • I worked there for two years,

    我在那裡工作了兩年

  • and I realized that I was not born to make trucks.

    然後我發現自己不適合去做卡車

  • Often one doesn't know what one wants to do,

    人常常不知道自己想要做什麼

  • but it's good enough to know what you don't want to do.

    但是知道自己不想做什麼也夠好的了

  • So I took one year off, and I went to this village science program.

    所以我請了一年假,去參加這個鄉鎮科學計畫

  • And it was a turning point.

    這成為一個轉捩點

  • It was a very small village --

    那是一個小村落

  • a weekly bazaar

    每星期有一次市集

  • where people, just once in a week, they put in all the vats.

    村民在這一星期一次的市集會把東西拿出來都裝在桶里

  • So I said, "I'm going to spend a year over here."

    我告訴自己:「你將要在這裡過一年了」

  • So I just bought one specimen

    我在市集裡每一個路邊攤

  • of everything which was sold on the roadside.

    都買了一個東西做樣本

  • And one thing which I found

    其中一個我找到的

  • was this black rubber.

    是一條黑色的橡皮圈

  • This is called a cycle valve tube.

    這個叫做氣門嘴

  • When you pump in air in a bicycle, you use a bit of this.

    當你要幫腳踏車充氣時會用到它

  • And some of these models --

    還有一些這些模型也會

  • so you take a bit of this cycle valve tube,

    現在你拿起一個氣門嘴

  • you can put two matchsticks inside this, and you make a flexible joint.

    你可以把兩根火柴放進去,就可以做出一個可動關節

  • It's a joint of tubes. You start by teaching angles --

    兩根管子的連結,你可以從教角度開始

  • an acute angle, a right angle, an obtuse angle, a straight angle.

    銳角,直角,鈍角,平角

  • It's like its own little coupling.

    像一個小小的耦合

  • If you have three of them, and you loop them together,

    如果你有三個,然後你把它們連起來

  • well you make a triangle.

    把它作成一個三角形

  • With four, you make a square,

    有四個,你可以作個正方形

  • you make a pentagon, you make a hexagon,

    做個五角型,做個六角形

  • you make all these kind of polygons.

    你可以做出所有這些多邊形

  • And they have some wonderful properties.

    然後他們有一些奇妙的特質

  • If you look at the hexagon, for instance,

    比如說你看著一個六角形

  • it's like an amoeba, which is constantly changing its own profile.

    它就像是一隻阿米巴,可以不停的改變外貌

  • You can just pull this out, this becomes a rectangle.

    把這個拔下來,它就變成矩形

  • You give it a push, this becomes a parallelogram.

    稍稍拉開,便成了平行四邊形

  • But this is very shaky.

    但這總是可活動的

  • Look at the pentagon, for instance,

    比如說這個五邊形

  • pull this out -- it becomes a boat shape trapezium.

    把這個拔起,就變成像船一樣的梯形

  • Push it and it becomes house shaped.

    推一下就成了房子的型狀

  • This becomes an isosceles triangle --

    這樣就變成等腰三角形

  • again, very shaky.

    再次展現它有多靈巧

  • This square might look very square and prim.

    這個正方形看起來非常整齊方正

  • Give it a little push -- this becomes a rhombus.

    稍微推弄一下,它變成了菱形

  • It becomes kite-shaped.

    像風箏的形狀

  • But give a child a triangle,

    但僅給小孩一個三角形

  • he can't do a thing to it.

    他玩不出什麼變化

  • Why use triangles?

    為什麼我們用三角形

  • Because triangles are the only rigid structures.

    因為三角形是唯一堅固的結構

  • We can't make a bridge with squares

    我們不能用正方形來造橋

  • because the train would come, it would start doing a jig.

    因為當火車經過時這種橋會劇烈搖晃

  • Ordinary people know about this

    這是一般人的常識

  • because if you go to a village in India,

    因為你只要到印度任一村莊瞧瞧

  • they might not have gone to engineering college,

    他們也許沒有主修工程的大學文憑

  • but no one makes a roof placed like this.

    但沒有人會把屋頂蓋成這樣

  • Because if they put tiles on top, it's just going to crash.

    因為這種屋頂一放上瓦片就會垮掉

  • They always make a triangular roof.

    他們蓋的一定是三角形的屋頂

  • Now this is people science.

    所以這是常民知識

  • And if you were to just poke a hole over here

    然後如果你在這裡戳一個洞

  • and put a third matchstick,

    接著放進第三根火柴

  • you'll get a T joint.

    你就有一個T型接頭

  • And if I were to poke all the three legs of this

    如果我在這個三角形的三個頂點上

  • in the three vertices of this triangle,

    戳進去這個T形連接的三條邊

  • I would make a tetrahedron.

    我能做出一個四面體

  • So you make all these 3D shapes.

    你可以做出這些3D多面體

  • You make a tetrahedron like this.

    做出一個像這樣的四面體

  • And once you make these,

    當你做完這些

  • you make a little house.

    你就能做出來個房子。

  • Put this on top.

    把這個放在上面,

  • You can make a joint of four. You can make a joint of six.

    你就能連成四個,連成六個。

  • You just need a ton.

    你只需要很多這些(小零件)

  • Now this was -- you make a joint of six,

    你看這個-這是做成的六個連在一起的

  • you make an icosahedron.

    你能做出一個二十面體

  • You can play around with it.

    你可以隨意把玩這個小東西

  • This makes an igloo.

    作個雪屋

  • Now this is in 1978.

    1978年

  • I was a 24-year-old young engineer.

    我當時是二十四歲的年輕工程師

  • And I thought this was so much better than making trucks.

    然後我想,這比製造卡車棒多了

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • If you, as a matter of fact, put four marbles inside,

    事實上,如果你放四顆玻璃彈球在裏面

  • you simulate the molecular structure of methane, CH4.

    這樣你就能造出甲烷(CH4)的分子結構

  • Four atoms of hydrogen, the four points of the tetrahedron,

    是氫的四個原子,四面體的四個點,

  • which means the little carbon atom.

    就是碳原子

  • Well since then,

    從那時起

  • I just thought that I've been really privileged

    我覺得我萬分有幸

  • to go to over 2,000 schools in my country --

    能夠去我們國家的兩千所學校

  • village schools, government schools,

    鄉村學校,國立學校

  • municipal schools, Ivy League schools --

    市立學校,常春藤聯盟學校

  • I've been invited by most of them.

    我被很多所學校邀請

  • And every time I go to a school,

    每當我去一所學校

  • I see a gleam in the eyes of the children.

    看到孩子們眼中閃著光

  • I see hope. I see happiness in their faces.

    我能看到希望。我能在他們臉上看到快樂。

  • Children want to make things. Children want to do things.

    孩子們想要製作東西。孩子們想要動手去做。

  • Now this, we make lots and lots of pumps.

    瞧這兒,我們做了很多打氣筒。

  • Now this is a little pump

    這是一個小的氣筒

  • with which you could inflate a balloon.

    你能用它來給氣球充氣。

  • It's a real pump. You could actually pop the balloon.

    這可是個真正的打氣筒,你能把氣球給打爆了。

  • And we have a slogan

    我們有句話說:

  • that the best thing a child can do with a toy is to break it.

    一個孩子能對玩具做的最好的事情就是拆掉它

  • So all you do is --

    那我們就這麼做吧 --

  • it's a very kind of provocative statement --

    這聽上去多有挑戰性啊

  • this old bicycle tube and this old plastic [unclear]

    這個舊的自行車內胎和舊塑料管

  • This filling cap will go very snugly into an old bicycle tube.

    這個塑料管可以很容易地放進舊自行車內胎

  • And this is how you make a valve.

    這是怎樣做個閥門

  • You put a little sticky tape.

    你在這兒貼上膠帶

  • This is one-way traffic.

    這樣就是單向流通的了

  • Well we make lots and lots of pumps.

    我們做了很多很多的泵

  • And this is the other one --

    這是另外一個

  • that you just take a straw, and you just put a stick inside

    你拿跟吸管,放根小棍進去

  • and you make two half-cuts.

    切兩個口

  • Now this is what you do,

    現在你這樣

  • is you bend both these legs into a triangle,

    你把這腿彎成一個三角形

  • and you just wrap some tape around.

    然後纏上膠帶

  • And this is the pump.

    這就成了一個泵

  • And now, if you have this pump,

    那你有了這個泵

  • it's like a great, great sprinkler.

    就好像你有了個很棒的灑水器

  • It's like a centrifuge.

    好像離心機

  • If you spin something, it tends to fly out.

    如果你插在水裏面轉,水就會飛出來

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Well in terms of -- if you were in Andhra Pradesh,

    那麼--如果你在安德拉普拉德士

  • you would make this with the palmyra leaf.

    你就能用棕櫚葉子做這個

  • Many of our folk toys

    很多我們的民間玩具

  • have great science principles.

    都包含很多科學原理

  • If you spin-top something, it tends to fly out.

    如果你旋轉東西,那它可能會飛起來

  • If I do it with both hands, you can see this fun Mr. Flying Man.

    如果我兩個手來搓,你就能看到這個有趣的飛人先生了。

  • Right.

  • This is a toy which is made from paper. It's amazing.

    這是個紙做的玩具,讓人稱奇。

  • There are four pictures.

    有四個圖片

  • You see insects,

    你看有昆蟲

  • you see frogs, snakes, eagles, butterflies,

    有青蛙、蛇

  • frogs, snakes, eagles.

    青蛙、蛇、鷹

  • Here's a paper which you could [unclear] --

    這是張能讓你一起跳舞的紙

  • designed by a mathematician at Harvard in 1928,

    在1928年由一位哈佛的數學家設計

  • Arthur Stone,

    他名叫亞瑟斯棟

  • documented by Martin Gardner in many of his many books.

    這在馬丁嘉德勒的很多著作中記錄過

  • But this is great fun for children.

    但對小孩來說這太好玩了

  • They all study about the food chain.

    他們都學過食物鏈

  • The insects are eaten by the frogs; the frogs are eaten by the snakes;

    像是青蛙吃蟲子;蛇類吃青蛙

  • the snakes are eaten by the eagles.

    老鷹吃蛇類

  • And this can be, if you had a whole photocopy paper --

    然後就可以變成,如果你有一張紙

  • A4 size paper --

    A4大小的紙

  • you could be in a municipal school, you could be in a government school --

    不管你是在市立學校還是國立學校

  • a paper, a scale and a pencil -- no glue, no scissors.

    只要一張紙,一把尺子,一支鉛筆,不需要膠水不需要剪刀

  • In three minutes, you just fold this up.

    三分鐘,你就能夠折好

  • And what you could use it for is just limited by your imagination.

    然後你就能拿它做任何你想的到的應用

  • If you take a smaller paper, you make a smaller flexagon.

    如果你那拿張小點的紙,你就做個小點的翻紙

  • With a bigger one, you make a bigger one.

    大張一點的紙,你就能做的大一點

  • Now this is a pencil with a few slots over here.

    這裡有一支鉛筆,上面有些凹槽

  • And you put a little fan here.

    然後在這人安上一片扇葉

  • And this is a hundred-year-old toy.

    這是個有百年曆史的玩具

  • There have been six major research papers on this.

    已經有六篇著名的研究論文研究它

  • There's some grooves over here, you can see.

    這兒有些溝槽,你能看到

  • And if I take a reed -- if I rub this,

    如果我拿個簧片,然後我刮這個鉛筆

  • something very amazing happens.

    神奇的事情發生了

  • Six major research papers on this.

    六篇重要的研究論文就是探討它的

  • As a matter of fact, Feynman, as a child, was very fascinated by this.

    事實上,有個小孩子名叫費因曼很為之著迷

  • He wrote a paper on this.

    後來他寫了一篇關於它的論文

  • And you don't need the three billion-dollar Hadron Collider

    你不需要一台三十億美元的分子對撞機

  • for doing this. (Laughter) (Applause)

    就能做這些

  • This is there for every child,

    這樣的玩具每個孩子都能得到

  • and every child can enjoy this.

    每個孩子都會喜歡玩

  • If you want to put a colored disk,

    如果你拿一張彩色的磁盤

  • well all these seven colors coalesce.

    那麼這七種顏色合并

  • And this is what Newton talked about 400 years back,

    這就是牛頓在400年前提到的

  • that white light's made of seven colors,

    白光是由七色光組成

  • just by spinning this around.

    只需要轉動它就可以看到

  • This is a straw.

    這是一根吸管

  • What we've done, we've just sealed both the ends with tape,

    我們已經把這兩端用膠條封起來

  • nipped the right corner and the bottom left corner,

    在右下角和左上角剪個口子

  • so there's holes in the opposite corners, there's a little hole over here.

    所以在相對的兩邊都有一個口子,這裡有個口子

  • This is a kind of a blowing straw.

    這就成了根吹氣管

  • I just put this inside this.

    我把它放到這裡面

  • There's a hole here, and I shut this.

    這兒有個洞,我堵上它

  • And this costs very little money to make --

    製作這些基本上都不花錢

  • great fun for children to do.

    卻能給孩子們來帶很多樂趣

  • What we do

    現在我們

  • is make a very simple electric motor.

    做一個很簡單的發電機

  • Now this is the simplest motor on Earth.

    這是世界上最簡單的發電機了

  • The most expensive thing is the battery inside this.

    他最昂貴的部份就是裏面的這枚電池

  • If you have a battery, it costs five cents to make it.

    如果你有了一枚電池,那麼只要再花5分錢來製作它

  • This is an old bicycle tube,

    這是個用舊的自行車內胎

  • which gives you a broad rubber band, two safety pins.

    一個寬橡膠帶,兩枚別針

  • This is a permanent magnet.

    這是一塊永磁鐵

  • Whenever current flows through the coil, this becomes an electromagnet.

    當電流經過線圈,他就成了電磁鐵

  • It's the interaction of both these magnets

    正是這些磁力的相互作用

  • which makes this motor spin.

    使得這個電機轉起來

  • We made 30,000.

    我們做了3萬個

  • Teachers who have been teaching science for donkey years,

    那些教授科學多年的老師們

  • they just muck up the definition and they spit it out.

    他們把定義弄混然後生硬地講出來

  • When teachers make it, children make it.

    但是如果老師製作這個,孩子們也動手作

  • You can see a gleam in their eye.

    你能看到他們眼中閃爍的光芒

  • They get a thrill

    他們瞭解到科學究竟是什麽

  • of what science is all about.

    並為之感到興奮

  • And this science is not a rich man's game.

    這樣的科學不是富人的遊戲

  • In a democratic country,

    在一個民主的國度

  • science must reach to our most oppressed,

    科學應該覆蓋到哪怕是最底層的人們

  • to the most marginalized children.

    讓那些最邊緣化的孩子也能隨時掌握

  • This program started with 16 schools

    這個項目從最初的16所學校

  • and spread to 1,500 government schools.

    現在發展到1500所國立學校

  • Over 100,000 children learn science this way.

    超過十萬名兒童通過這樣的項目學習科學

  • And we're just trying to see possibilities.

    我們仍在嘗試新的發張可能

  • Look, this is the tetrapak --

    瞧,這是一個利樂包

  • awful materials from the point of view of the environment.

    從環保的角度來講這些都是不好的材料

  • There are six layers -- three layers of plastic, aluminum --

    這裡一共有六層 -- 三層塑料,鋁 --

  • which are are sealed together.

    都封在一起

  • They are fused together, so you can't separate them.

    這些層都是熔在一起的所以不能分開

  • Now you can just make a little network like this

    現在你可以把它們連在一起

  • and fold them and stick them together

    折叠並且粘在一起

  • and make an icosahedron.

    這樣就能做成一個二十面體

  • So something which is trash,

    所以這些本來是垃圾的東西

  • which is choking all the seabirds,

    這些噎住海鳥的廢物

  • you could just recycle this into a very, very joyous --

    你可以把它回收,變成非常好玩的玩具

  • all the platonic solids can be made with things like this.

    它可以做成任何的規範多面體

  • This is a little straw,

    這裡有根小吸管

  • and what you do is you just nip two corners here,

    你把在這兒剪兩個角

  • and this becomes like a baby crocodile's mouth.

    這就像個小鱷魚的嘴

  • You put this in your mouth, and you blow.

    把它放到嘴裡,然後往裡吹氣

  • (Honk)

    (吹出響聲)

  • It's children's delight, a teacher's envy, as they say.

    人麼說,這讓孩子們高興,老師們嫉妒

  • You're not able to see how the sound is produced,

    你不能看到聲音是怎麼產生的

  • because the thing which is vibrating goes inside my mouth.

    因為振動的部份在我嘴裏面

  • I'm going to keep this outside, to blow out. I'm going to suck in air.

    現在我把它放在外面,我往裡吸氣