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  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

    我從17歲開始當記者到現在

  • I've been a journalist now since I was about 17,

    現在從事這行很有趣

  • and it's an interesting industry to be in at the moment,

    因為正如各位所知道的

  • because as you all know, there's a huge amount of upheaval

    這個世代的媒體型態已有了很大的變動

  • going on in media, and most of you probably know this

    在座的各位大概都知道

  • from the business angle, which is that the business model

    以商業的角度來看,這個産業已經玩完了

  • is pretty screwed, and as my grandfather would say,

    正如我爺爺所說的,利潤都被谷歌(Google)吃吞噬掉了

  • the profits have all been gobbled up by Google.

    所以現在從事記者這行變得很有趣

  • So it's a really interesting time to be a journalist,

    不過在這遽變中,我比較感興趣的不是輸出端

  • but the upheaval that I'm interested in is not on the output side.

    而是輸入端

  • It's on the input side. It's concern with

    也就是我們取得資訊和新聞的方法

  • how we get information and how we gather the news.

    因為新聞媒體和觀眾之間的力量消長

  • And that's changed, because we've had a huge shift

    已經有了大幅的改變

  • in the balance of power from

    所以一切都變得不一樣了

  • the news organizations to the audience.

    過去長久以來

  • And the audience for such a long time was in a position

    觀眾無法影響新聞或做任何改變

  • where they didn't have any way of affecting news

    因為觀眾無法與媒體取得聯繫

  • or making any change. They couldn't really connect.

    不過現在已經産生了不可逆的轉變

  • And that's changed irrevocably.

    我第一次聯繫新聞媒體是在1984年

  • My first connection with the news media was

    當時BBC的員工罷工一天

  • in 1984, the BBC had a one-day strike.

    當時我很不滿、很生氣,因為我看不到卡通

  • I wasn't happy. I was angry. I couldn't see my cartoons.

    所以我寫了一封信

  • So I wrote a letter.

    信件的結尾我是這樣寫的:「4歲的忠實觀眾Maekham」

  • And it's a very effective way of ending your hate mail:

    我覺得這招真很有用,現在依然管用

  • "Love Markham, Aged 4." Still works.

    我不知道我對那天的抗議事件是否帶來任何的影響

  • I'm not sure if I had any impact on the one-day strike,

    不過我知道的是,三星期後他們才回我的信

  • but what I do know is that it took them three weeks to get back to me.

    這就是信件往返的時間

  • And that was the round journey. It took that long for anyone

    一般人要花這麼久的時間才能産生影響力和收到回覆

  • to have any impact and get some feedback.

    不過這一切已經改變了

  • And that's changed now because, as journalists,

    因為身為記者,我們的互動是即時的

  • we interact in real time. We're not in a position

    我們的角色不再是等待觀眾的反應

  • where the audience is reacting to news.

    我們要反應觀眾,因為我們依賴觀眾

  • We're reacting to the audience, and we're actually relying on them.

    觀眾幫我們挖掘新聞

  • They're helping us find the news. They're helping us

    幫我們找到報導的最佳角度,以及他們想要聽到的東西

  • figure out what is the best angle to take and what is the stuff that they want to hear.

    這就是即時性,迅速且同步

  • So it's a real-time thing. It's much quicker. It's happening

    身為記者就是要捕捉這些訊息

  • on a constant basis, and the journalist is always playing catch up.

    舉個例子讓大家知道我們有多依賴觀眾

  • To give an example of how we rely on the audience,

    9月5日哥斯大黎加發生地震

  • on the 5th of September in Costa Rica, an earthquake hit.

    地震規模7.6,相當大

  • It was a 7.6 magnitude. It was fairly big.

    震波經過60秒後

  • And 60 seconds is the amount of time it took

    抵達250公里外的馬納瓜

  • for it to travel 250 kilometers to Managua.

    從震央發生地震到馬納瓜開始晃動隔了60秒

  • So the ground shook in Managua 60 seconds after it hit the epicenter.

    而推特(Twitter)在地震後30秒就出現了地震的消息

  • Thirty seconds later, the first message went onto Twitter,

    有人發文"temblor",意思就是地震

  • and this was someone saying "temblor," which means earthquake.

    震波以物理的方式傳遞

  • So 60 seconds was how long it took

    需要花上60秒的時間

  • for the physical earthquake to travel.

    而地震的消息只花了30秒的時間

  • Thirty seconds later news of that earthquake had traveled

    便同步傳遍世界各地

  • all around the world, instantly. Everyone in the world,

    理論上每個人都有可能得知

  • hypothetically, had the potential to know that an earthquake

    馬納瓜發生地震的消息

  • was happening in Managua.

    這情況之所以會發生是因為這個人習慣作記錄

  • And that happened because this one person had

    也就是更新個人的最新狀態

  • a documentary instinct, which was to post a status update,

    就像現在大家都會更新個人狀態一樣

  • which is what we all do now, so if something happens,

    不論發生什麼事,我們只要更新狀態、上傳照片和影片

  • we put our status update, or we post a photo,

    這些資訊便不斷的透過雲端更新

  • we post a video, and it all goes up into the cloud in a constant stream.

    這代表有很多的資料

  • And what that means is just constant,

    無時無刻在更新

  • huge volumes of data going up.

    我們看看這些數據的確很嚇人

  • It's actually staggering. When you look at the numbers,

    每分鍾有72小時的影片

  • every minute there are 72 more hours

    上傳到YouTube

  • of video on YouTube.

    也就是說,每秒鐘有超過一個小時的影片上傳

  • So that's, every second, more than an hour of video gets uploaded.

    圖片方面,每秒有58張照片上傳到Instagram

  • And in photos, Instagram, 58 photos are uploaded to Instagram a second.

    有超過3500張照片上傳到臉書(Facebook)

  • More than three and a half thousand photos go up onto Facebook.

    從我開始演說到結束這段期間

  • So by the time I'm finished talking here, there'll be 864

    YouTube會多出864小時的影片

  • more hours of video on Youtube than there were when I started,

    臉書和Instagram上會多出250萬張照片

  • and two and a half million more photos on Facebook and Instagram than when I started.

    所以投入記者這一行很有趣

  • So it's an interesting position to be in as a journalist,

    因為我們應該有管道可以知道所有的事

  • because we should have access to everything.

    我應該可以即時得知世界各地發生的大事

  • Any event that happens anywhere in the world, I should be able to know about it

    這一切不用花到半毛錢

  • pretty much instantaneously, as it happens, for free.

    在座的各位也辦得到

  • And that goes for every single person in this room.

    問題是,當訊息太多時

  • The only problem is, when you have that much information,

    要在這麼龐大的資訊量裡

  • you have to find the good stuff, and that can be

    要找出有用的訊息實在不容易

  • incredibly difficult when you're dealing with those volumes.

    最明顯的例子就是颶風桑達(Sandy)

  • And nowhere was this brought home more than during

    桑達是個超級颶風

  • Hurricane Sandy. So what you had in Hurricane Sandy was

    這個百年難得一見的超級颶風

  • a superstorm, the likes of which we hadn't seen for a long time,

    讓蘋果的股價嚴重受創(笑聲)

  • hitting the iPhone capital of the universe -- (Laughter) --

    我們看到很多從未看過的媒體資訊

  • and you got volumes of media like we'd never seen before.

    這表示記者得去求證

  • And that meant that journalists had to deal with fakes,

    我們必須分辨那些照片是舊照重新上傳

  • so we had to deal with old photos that were being reposted.

    那些是借用先前的颶風照片

  • We had to deal with composite images

    合成出來的圖片

  • that were merging photos from previous storms.

    像是這張借用「明天過後」的照片(笑)

  • We had to deal with images from films like "The Day After Tomorrow." (Laughter)

    我們也得處理一些看起來非常真實

  • And we had to deal with images that were so realistic

    很難確定是否為真的照片

  • it was nearly difficult to tell if they were real at all.

    (笑)

  • (Laughter)

    玩笑歸玩笑,這張出現在Instagram的照片

  • But joking aside, there were images like this one from Instagram

    讓很多記者爭論不休

  • which was subjected to a grilling by journalists.

    沒人能確定,所以Instagram過濾了這張

  • They weren't really sure. It was filtered in Instagram.

    有人質疑光影,幾乎每樣東西都有人質疑

  • The lighting was questioned. Everything was questioned about it.

    結果後來發現這張照片是真的

  • And it turned out to be true. It was from Avenue C

    這張是曼哈頓C街淹水的景象

  • in downtown Manhattan, which was flooded.

    這張照片之所以認定為真

  • And the reason that they could tell that it was real

    是因為他們找到照片的來源

  • was because they could get to the source, and in this case,

    這張照片來自紐約的美食部落客

  • these guys were New York food bloggers.

    這群部落客很有名,頗受尊重

  • They were well respected. They were known.

    這張照片不是假的,而是經過證實的

  • So this one wasn't a debunk, it was actually something that they could prove.

    記者的工作就是過濾訊息

  • And that was the job of the journalist. It was filtering all this stuff.

    記者的工作不是找資料

  • And you were, instead of going and finding the information

    不是提供資料給讀者而已

  • and bringing it back to the reader, you were holding back

    還要把可能造成負面影響的東西剔除

  • the stuff that was potentially damaging.

    所以追朔可信的來源變得越來越重要

  • And finding the source becomes more and more important --

    很多記者從推特(Twitter)尋找來源

  • finding the good source -- and Twitter is where most journalists now go.

    如果運用得當,推特等同可靠的新聞網

  • It's like the de facto real-time newswire,

    因為上面有非常多的訊息

  • if you know how to use it, because there is so much on Twitter.

    2011年的埃及革命是個很好的例子

  • And a good example of how useful it can be

    讓我們知道在推特上獲得訊息的優點與困難

  • but also how difficult was the Egyptian revolution in 2011.

    身為來自都伯林(Dublin)的局外人

  • As a non-Arabic speaker, as someone who was looking

    我不會講阿拉伯語

  • from the outside, from Dublin,

    推特清單(Twitter List)有很多不錯的訊息來源

  • Twitter lists, and lists of good sources,

    有很多可靠且重要的人可以加入清單

  • people we could establish were credible, were really important.

    那我們要如何從無到有建立一個清單?

  • And how do you build a list like that from scratch?

    這不容易,因為你得找對方法

  • Well, it can be quite difficult, but you have to know what to look for.

    有位名為André Pannison的義大利學者

  • This visualization was done by an Italian academic.

    將訊息的聯結視覺化

  • He's called André Pannison, and he basically

    他將穆巴拉克(Hosni Mubarak)下台那天

  • took the Twitter conversation in Tahrir Square

    來自解放廣場(Tahrir Square)的對話集結起來

  • on the day that Hosni Mubarak would eventually resign,

    圖上的點代表推文

  • and the dots you can see are retweets, so when someone

    當有人推一則訊息時,兩個點之間會産生聯結

  • retweets a message, a connection is made between two dots,

    如果越多人推這則訊息

  • and the more times that message is retweeted by other people,

    則産生的點越多,於是聯結就形成了

  • the more you get to see these nodes, these connections being made.

    這種將對話視覺化的方法真的很神奇

  • And it's an amazing way of visualizing the conversation,

    可以從中知道那些人的推文比較有趣

  • but what you get is hints at who is more interesting

    那些人值得調查

  • and who is worth investigating.

    隨荖互動越來越密集

  • And as the conversation grew and grew, it became

    狀態變得越來越熱絡

  • more and more lively, and eventually you were left

    最後你就可以從中找到很多有規律的線索

  • with this huge, big, rhythmic pointer of this conversation.

    你可以從點開始

  • You could find the nodes, though, and then you went,

    然後想:「嗯,我想調查一下這些人,

  • and you go, "Right, I've got to investigate these people.

    這些消息看來很可靠,

  • These are the ones that are obviously making sense.

    我們來看看這些人是誰。」

  • Let's see who they are."

    在一片資訊洪流中

  • Now in the deluge of information, this is where

    這即時訊息網站對記者來說很有趣

  • the real-time web gets really interesting for a journalist like myself,

    因為我們更勝以往

  • because we have more tools than ever

    擁有更多調查的工具

  • to do that kind of investigation.

    當你著手調查訊息來源的時候

  • And when you start digging into the sources, you can go

    你可以做到更深入的程度

  • further and further than you ever could before.

    有時你會遇到很吸引人的題材

  • Sometimes you come across a piece of content that

    你非常非常想用

  • is so compelling, you want to use it, you're dying to use it,

    可是你無法百分之百確定是否能用

  • but you're not 100 percent sure if you can because

    因為你不曉得來是否可信

  • you don't know if the source is credible.

    你不知道訊息是否完整,是否為重新上傳的舊聞

  • You don't know if it's a scrape. You don't know if it's a re-upload.

    所以你要做調查工作

  • And you have to do that investigative work.

    接下來我要播的影片

  • And this video, which I'm going to let run through,

    是我們幾個禮拜前發現的

  • was one we discovered a couple of weeks ago.

    影片:才一秒鐘風就變得很大

  • Video: Getting real windy in just a second.

    (實際風雨聲)

  • (Rain and wind sounds)

    (爆炸聲)哇哩咧!

  • (Explosion) Oh, shit!

    Markham Nolan:如果你是新聞製作人

  • Markham Nolan: Okay, so now if you're a news producer, this is something

    你一定會想播這段,因為真的很精彩

  • you'd love to run with, because obviously, this is gold.

    你知道嗎,這個人的反應實看來很真實

  • You know? This is a fantastic reaction from someone,

    看起來真的是在自家後院拍的

  • very genuine video that they've shot in their back garden.

    不過你如何知道這個人是真是假?

  • But how do you find if this person, if it's true, if it's faked,

    或者是不是舊影片重新上傳?

  • or if it's something that's old and that's been reposted?

    所以我們就去研究這段影片

  • So we set about going to work on this video, and

    我們唯一的線索是YouTube上的使用者名稱

  • the only thing that we had to go on was the username on the YouTube account.

    這個帳號只有上傳一支影片

  • There was only one video posted to that account,

    使用者名為Rita Krill

  • and the username was Rita Krill.

    我們不知道Rita是不是確有其人,或者只是假名

  • And we didn't know if Rita existed or if it was a fake name.

    不過我們仍藉由免費的網路工具尋找

  • But we started looking, and we used free Internet tools to do so.

    我們首先使用Spokeo來尋找Rita Krills這個人

  • The first one was called Spokeo, which allowed us to look for Rita Krills.

    我們搜尋整個美國,結果發現紐約、

  • So we looked all over the U.S. We found them in New York,

    賓州、內華達州、佛州都有人叫作Rita Krills

  • we found them in Pennsylvania, Nevada and Florida.

    所以我們接下去使用第二套免費工具

  • So we went and we looked for a second free Internet tool

    叫作Wolfram Alpha來查詢氣象報導

  • called Wolfram Alpha, and we checked the weather reports

    看看是否和影片拍攝上傳時的天氣吻合

  • for the day in which this video had been uploaded,

    我們查詢這幾個州的天氣

  • and when we went through all those various cities,

    結果發現佛州當天有發生大雷雨

  • we found that in Florida, there were thunderstorms and rain on the day.

    接下來我們打開電話簿

  • So we went to the white pages, and we found,

    搜尋所有名為Rita Krills的資料

  • we looked through the Rita Krills in the phonebook,

    結果我們找到了幾個地址

  • and we looked through a couple of different addresses,

    接下去我們用谷歌地圖(Google Maps)找到了一間房子

  • and that took us to Google Maps, where we found a house.

    這間房子有一個游泳池

  • And we found a house with a swimming pool that looked

    看起來和影片中的很像,所以我們回頭看影片

  • remarkably like Rita's. So we went back to the video,

    找尋可能的線索交叉比對

  • and we had to look for clues that we could cross-reference.

    影片中這裡有個雨傘

  • So if you look in the video, there's the big umbrella,

    泳池中間有張白色的氣墊床

  • there's a white lilo in the pool,

    泳池的邊角是圓角

  • there are some unusually rounded edges in the swimming pool,

    而且後院有兩棵樹

  • and there's two trees in the background.

    回到谷歌地圖拉近一點

  • And we went back to Google Maps, and we looked a little bit closer,

    的確有張白色的氣墊床

  • and sure enough, there's the white lilo,

    有兩棵樹和一支傘

  • there are the two trees,

    這支傘在圖片裡是收合狀態

  • there's the umbrella. It's actually folded in this photo.

    巧合的是泳池的邊角也是圓角

  • Little bit of trickery. And there are the rounded edges on the swimming pool.

    所以我們就打電話給Rita

  • So we were able to call Rita, clear the video,

    確定影片是由她所拍攝的

  • make sure that it had been shot, and then our clients

    結果她很開心,因為不用擔心別人的懷疑

  • were delighted because they were able to run it without being worried.

    尋找真象的過程中

  • Sometimes the search for truth, though,

    態度嚴謹一點會帶來理想的結果

  • is a little bit less flippant, and it has much greater consequences.

    我們一直對敘利亞很有興趣

  • Syria has been really interesting for us, because obviously

    因為當你想要揭露真象

  • a lot of the time you're trying to debunk stuff that can be

    挖掘戰爭罪行的可能證據時

  • potentially war crime evidence, so this is where YouTube

    YouTube可以讓我們知道世界上發生的事

  • actually becomes the most important repository

    儼然成了重要的資料寶庫

  • of information about what's going on in the world.

    這段影片因為內容太血惺

  • So this video, I'm not going to show you the whole thing,

    所以不全部播出來,不過仍可以聽到聲音

  • because it's quite gruesome, but you'll hear some of the sounds.

    影片來自哈馬(Hama)

  • This is from Hama.

    影片:(叫聲)

  • Video: (Shouting)

    在完整的影片裡可以看到

  • And what this video shows, when you watch the whole thing through,

    這些人將一具血跡斑斑的屍體從貨車上搬下來

  • is bloody bodies being taken out of a pickup truck

    然後丟到橋下

  • and thrown off a bridge.

    據說這些人屬於穆斯林兄弟會(Muslim Brotherhood)

  • The allegations were that these guys were Muslim Brotherhood

    他們正把敘利亞官員的屍體丟下橋

  • and they were throwing Syrian Army officers' bodies

    他們不斷的用褻瀆的言語辱罵

  • off the bridge, and they were cursing and using blasphemous language,

    不過也有人針對他們的身份提出反駁

  • and there were lots of counterclaims about who they were,

    認為他們並不是影片中說的那樣

  • and whether or not they were what the video said it was.

    所以我們問了幾位住在哈馬的人

  • So we talked to some sources in Hama who we had been

    我們之前常常在推特上往來

  • back and forth with on Twitter, and we asked them about this,

    因為那座橋可能是線索,所以我們很有興趣

  • and the bridge was interesting to us because it was something we could identify.

    三個人有三種不同的說法

  • Three different sources said three different things about the bridge.

    其中一個說根本沒這座橋

  • They said, one, the bridge doesn't exist.

    另一個說有這座橋,不過不在哈馬,而是在別處

  • Another one said the bridge does exist, but it's not in Hama. It's somewhere else.

    第三個說:「我覺得有這座橋,

  • And the third one said, "I think the bridge does exist,

    不過上游的水壩是關著的,

  • but the dam upstream of the bridge was closed,

    所以河道應該是乾的,這個看來不合理。」

  • so the river should actually have been dry, so this doesn't make sense."

    這就是我們得到的唯一線索

  • So that was the only one that gave us a clue.

    我們再從影片中找尋其它的線索

  • We looked through the video for other clues.

    我們看到特別的欄杆可以當作線索

  • We saw the distinctive railings, which we could use.

    路邊石壆的影子投射在南邊

  • We looked at the curbs. The curbs were throwing shadows south,

    所以這座橋是東西向跨越河流

  • so we could tell the bridge was running east-west across the river.

    石壆是黑白相間

  • It had black-and-white curbs.

    從河流本身可以看出

  • As we looked at the river itself, you could see there's

    西邊有水泥石塊,河面上有一片血

  • a concrete stone on the west side. There's a cloud of blood.

    從這片血可以得知

  • That's blood in the river. So the river is flowing

    河流的流向是由南向北

  • south to north. That's what that tells me.

    從橋上往下看

  • And also, as you look away from the bridge,

    河岸的左邊有一片草皮

  • there's a divot on the left-hand side of the bank,

    然後河道漸漸變窄

  • and the river narrows.

    回到谷歌地圖

  • So onto Google Maps we go, and we start

    我們逐一比對每座橋

  • looking through literally every single bridge.

    我們從水壩開始尋找

  • We go to the dam that we talked about, we start just

    我們找遍所有和道路交叉的河流

  • literally going through every time that road crosses the river,

    刪除不吻合的橋樑

  • crossing off the bridges that don't match.

    我們尋找東西向的道路

  • We're looking for one that crosses east-west.

    我們從水壩一直找到哈馬

  • And we get to Hama. We get all the way from the dam

    不過沒有看到橋

  • to Hama and there's no bridge.

    所以我們進一步用衛星模式尋找

  • So we go a bit further. We switch to the satellite view,

    我們找到另一座橋,於是線索開始串連起來

  • and we find another bridge, and everything starts to line up.

    這座橋看起來像是東西向橫跨河流