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  • Whether you are trying to lose 20 pounds, get that promotion at work, or quit smoking, sticking to your goal isn't an easy task - after all, 45% of people drop their New Year's resolutions after a month.

    無論你想要減重20磅、升遷或戒煙,要持之以恆達成目標並不容易,畢竟,有45%的人在許了願望後的一個月就放棄了。

  • So why is it so difficult to keep motivated?

    到底為什麼這麼難保持動力?

  • And how can science help us achieve what we're after?

    而科學如何幫助我們達成目標呢?

  • In one MIT study, students were given two types of tasks. In the first they had to hit 2 keys on a keyboard as many times as possible in 4 minutes, and those that did it the fastest would receive money.

    在一項麻省理工學院的實驗中,學生被指派兩項任務。第一項是在四分鐘內盡量點擊電腦上兩個按鍵,動作最快的能拿到獎金。

  • For some, the reward was $300 while for others, only $30.

    有些實驗組別的獎金為300美金,有些則只有30美金。

  • Interestingly, performance was 95% greater in the high $300 group, highlighting how money can be a motivator.

    有趣的是,獎金為300美金的組別的表現比獎金為30美金的組別好95%,強調錢是一大誘因。

  • But in the second task, the same students were asked to solve a more complex math problem, and this time, those offered the high reward performed 32% slower than the small reward group.

    但在第二項任務中,學生們要解一道困難的數學題,這次,高獎金組別的速度卻比低獎金組別慢了 32%

  • This is known as the 'distraction effect'.

    這被稱為「干擾效應」。

  • When we are given a task that requires problem solving, economic or emotional pressure can cause focus to shift to the motivator, ultimately dividing your attention and reducing performance.

    當我們被指派需要解題的任務時,經濟和情緒上的壓力會將我們的注意力轉移到獎賞上,導致分心並且降低績效。

  • When we look inside the brains of individuals, fMRI scans reveal that people who complete a challenge for fun, and people who do it for a reward show similar activity throughout the brain.

    當我們深入觀察人的大腦內部,功能性磁振造影秀顯示無壓力的測試者跟有獎賞誘因的測試者腦中有著相似的活動。

  • But interestingly, if those offered a reward the first time are asked to participate again for no reward, scans show a decrease in activity in the anterior striatum and prefrontal areas; parts of the brain linked to self-motivation.

    但有趣的是,那些有獎賞的測試者如果再被要求做同樣的事情,但卻沒有獎賞的話,影像顯示大腦中掌管自我激勵的前部紋狀體和前額葉,活動量都降低了。

  • It seems that rewards may cancel out our natural sense of play.

    看來獎賞會消除我們對事物與生俱來的興趣。

  • So how does this apply to you? Well, it turns out that 'play' is the strongest motivator for sustained behavioural changes.

    這和你又有什麼關係呢?這其實說明了「玩樂」才是我們改變舊習慣的強大動力。

  • It makes sense that we stick with enjoyable activities, but considering 67% of gym memberships go unused, it seems most of us are picking the wrong activities to achieve our goals.

    從事自己有興趣的活動是合理的,但考慮到 67% 的健身房會籍沒被使用過,表示我們選了錯誤的活動來實現目標。

  • You might burn the most calories on a treadmill, but not if you stop going after 2 weeks. Pick something you actually like doing!

    也許跑步機對燃燒脂肪最有效,但如果只持續兩周就放棄結果就不同了。選擇你真正喜歡的事來做吧!

  • Your goal itself also matters; a study investigating reasons for exercise found that those focused on weight loss spent 32% less time exercising than those who said they want to feel better in day-to-day life.

    你的目標本身也很重要,一項調查運動員音的研究指出,為了減肥的人花在運動的時間,比為了讓自己活得更好的人少了 32%。

  • And while it's always good to have a positive attitude, optimism may not always be the best strategy.

    雖然保持正面的態度是好事,但有時候樂觀並非最佳策略。

  • In a study of 210 females trying to quit smoking, participants who only imagined major success with few obstacles were less likely to reduce cigarette consumption.

    在一項針對 210 位試圖戒菸的女性進行的研究中,那些只幻想自己不用經過阻礙就能成功的受測者,降低戒菸量的可能性更小。

  • Positive thoughts can often trick your brain into thinking you've already achieved the goal, giving you a sense of reward and reducing motivation.

    正向思考有時候會讓你的大腦沉浸在已經成功的假象中,讓你因有成就感因降低動力。

  • But this doesn't mean negative thoughts are good.

    但這不代表負面思想是好的。

  • Imagining a goal coming true, and then thinking through the obstacles that stand in your way is the best mixed approach. This is known as 'mental contrasting'.

    想像你目標即將實現,再想想途中所要克服的障礙,是綜合兩者思維的最佳做法,這就是所謂的「心智對比」。

  • Finally, try and avoid the 'what the hell' effect. This behaviour was first addressed when researchers gave dieters varying sizes of milkshakes, from small to large.

    最後,試著避免「管他的」效應。第一次針對這種行為的實驗,是研究者給正在控制飲食的受測者不同大小的奶昔。

  • And then offered them ice cream afterwards.

    然後再給他們冰淇淋。

  • It turns out, those who had large milkshakes also ended up eating more ice cream because 'what the hell - I've already ruined my diet, I might as well go all out'.

    結果,那些喝了大杯奶昔的受測者,反而吃了更多的冰淇淋,因為他們心想「管他的!反正我已經破戒了,乾脆就多吃點吧」。

  • Anticipating that you will have some bumps along the road to success whether it be a fitness goal, quitting smoking or work aspirations will bring you closer to making your goals a reality.

    預期自己在成功的路上會遇到些阻礙,不管目標是健身、戒煙或是工作期許,這麼做都會讓你的目標更實際。

  • Want some tips for motivation with short term goals? Like that assignment that is due tomorrow?

    想知道提昇短期目標動力的方法嗎?像是明天就要交的作業?

  • Check out our latest AsapTHOUGHT video on the best tips to overcome that lazy feeling.

    趕快去看看我們教你如何對付懶惰的最新影片。

  • Link in the description.

    連結在簡介欄。

  • Special thanks to Audible for supporting this episode and giving you a free 30-day trial at "audible.com/asap".

    特別感謝 Audible 贊助了我們這集節目,提供你們在 audible.com/asap 三十天的免費試用期。

  • This week we wanted to recommend the book 'No Sweat' by Michelle Seger, which translates years of research on exercise and motivation into simple ideas that aim to empower you out of exercise failure! You can get a free 30-day trial at "audible.com/asap" and choose from a massive selection! We love them as they are great when you're on the go.

    這星期我們想推薦 No Sweat 這本書,作者是 Michelle Segar這本書集結了長年以來對於運動跟動力關連性研究的精華,幫助你不再失敗。

  • And subscribe for more weekly science videos!

    訂閱觀看每週科學影片!

Whether you are trying to lose 20 pounds, get that promotion at work, or quit smoking, sticking to your goal isn't an easy task - after all, 45% of people drop their New Year's resolutions after a month.

無論你想要減重20磅、升遷或戒煙,要持之以恆達成目標並不容易,畢竟,有45%的人在許了願望後的一個月就放棄了。

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用科學方法讓你做事更有動力! (The Science Of Motivation)

  • 91981 7202
    Yin Nam Mo 發佈於 2017 年 08 月 29 日
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