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  • For many of us,

    我們許多人

  • a typical day involves interactions with hundreds of companies.

    每天會和上百個公司互動

  • Buying their goods, using their services,

    動輒購買他們的產品、使用他們的服務

  • even wearing their names.

    甚至品牌的衣著穿搭

  • Corporations and companies

    大大小小的公司

  • have become such a familiar part of the modern landscape

    如今成為現代風景的一部份

  • that it's easy to forget they're artificial entities

    而我們忘卻這些僅止於人造產物

  • created to allow real people to do business.

    以便於我們從事商業活動

  • But there are some types of companies

    不過某些型態的企業

  • that aren't engaged in any business at all.

    並非從事商業活動

  • Instead, these anonymous companies

    這些匿名公司的存在

  • exist mainly to disguise people doing things

    反而只是偽裝行事

  • they'd rather not have the public know about.

    從事一些不願大眾知曉的事

  • And these people go to great lengths to hide any links between their names

    他們不遺餘力地隱匿他們的名字

  • and the companies they own.

    還有公司的名稱

  • The life of an anonymous company

    匿名公司的生命歷程

  • usually begins in what's known as a secrecy jurisdiction,

    大都起於司法審判管轄的保密工作

  • a place whose laws allow new companies to be registered

    以法律允許新公司的註冊事宜

  • with little disclosure about who owns or controls them.

    對公司的擁有與掌控權加以保密

  • Some may simply not require collecting that information.

    有些法律並不要求公司資訊的獲取

  • Others may collect it,

    有些反而會要求

  • but make it nearly inaccessible to anyone else.

    但不會讓任何人取得此資訊

  • And the lack of incentive to verify companies' real owners

    而缺乏查驗公司真正擁有者的動機

  • makes it easy for people to cover their tracks.

    容易讓人們掩護他們的行蹤

  • For example, someone may register a company in the name of a relative,

    例如,有人會利用親戚

  • an associate,

    合夥人

  • or even a nominee director

    或甚至是任命理事的名義來註冊

  • who acts on instruction from the company's actual owner

    並依照公司真正擁有者的指令行事

  • while keeping their name confidential.

    並對他們的名字保密

  • Once registered, a company can do many of the same things as a human being,

    一旦註冊成功,一個公司也能做一般人能做的事

  • like opening bank accounts,

    例如,銀行開戶

  • buying and owning assets,

    購置與擁有資產

  • and transferring money.

    與資金的移轉

  • What's more, it can be listed as the owner of other companies,

    此外,它也可以是其他公司的擁有者

  • including ones opened in places with stricter disclosure rules.

    包括開設在保密條款更加嚴密的地方公司

  • This allows someone to create a complex world-wide chain of ownership

    這讓全球鍊的擁有權得以產生

  • that can take years to unravel.

    這要花上幾年的時間散佈

  • A company based in the U.S.

    在美國設立據點的公司

  • may be wholly owned by another one in Liechtenstein,

    可能由另一個位在列支敦士登的公司所持有

  • which is owned in turn by one in the British Virgin Islands.

    而這間公司由在英屬維爾京群島的公司所持有

  • And an anonymous company can be transferred to a new owner at any time

    一個匿名公司可以隨時地轉移擁有權

  • with no public record of the change.

    不帶有任何公開的變更紀錄

  • So why all the anonymity?

    那麼,為何要匿名呢?

  • Defenders of financial secrecy argue that wealthy individuals need it

    財務保密的擁護者辯道,有錢的個體需要匿名

  • to avoid intrusive media attention

    以避免媒體的關注

  • and threats to personal security.

    還有避免加諸個人安全的威脅

  • But while this may sometimes be justified,

    雖然這樣的說辭是合法的

  • anonymous companies play a role in almost every type of economic crime,

    不過,匿名公司在經濟犯罪上佔有一席之地

  • including many major corruption cases.

    包括許多重大的貪汙案

  • They are used by corporations evading taxes,

    企業逃漏稅

  • rogue governments skirting sanctions,

    遊走法律邊緣

  • terrorists buying arms,

    恐怖分子購置槍械

  • and dictators financing wars.

    獨裁者為戰事籌募資金

  • Organized crime groups launder their profits through anonymous companies.

    犯罪組織與匿名公司有利益掛勾

  • Corrupt government officials award valuable contracts

    貪汙的政府官員將有價值的承包合約

  • to corporations they secretly own.

    給了他們自己私有的企業

  • International oligarchs with criminal connections or questionable pasts

    過去不為人道的國際寡頭政治慣犯

  • have used anonymous companies to discretely buy luxury apartments

    利用匿名公司在倫敦與紐約等大城

  • in cities like London and New York City,

    分道購買豪宅

  • keeping them as safe stores of wealth.

    豪宅當作財富的安全保險箱

  • And even when criminals are convicted,

    即使罪犯被定罪了

  • their anonymously held assets

    他的匿名資產

  • may be difficult for authorities to locate or seize,

    政府當局很難查找其藏匿處並查封

  • making it harder for victims to be compensated.

    這讓受害者難以求償

  • Efforts are now underway to chip away at these crime-enabling mechanisms.

    當局正努力地消弭此犯罪機制的勢力

  • International authorities and NGOs

    國際當局與非政府組織

  • have called for requiring companies to state who ultimately makes their decisions

    呼籲企業應當公開政策決策者

  • and benefits from their assets.

    與資產利潤透明化

  • But while progress is being made,

    雖然現況有所進展

  • international cooperation has been difficult to achieve,

    然而國際公司卻很難做到

  • as governments that profit from registering anonymous companies

    因為從註冊匿名公司獲利的政府

  • are reluctant to lose business.

    並不願意放下手上的企業

  • And some of the most popular places for this practice

    匿名犯罪受歡迎的地方

  • are located not on remote, tropical tax shelters,

    反而不位在遙遠、典型的逃稅天堂

  • but within the same advanced nations which claim to be leading the fight

    而是位在同樣的已開發國家

  • for global financial transparency.

    他們主張國際財務的透明化

  • But still, it's a fight worth fighting.

    要說的是,此仗值得一打

  • Closing the legal loopholes that enable anonymous companies

    防治法律漏洞

  • would help us cut down on corruption and illegal activity.

    有助於減少貪污與非法事業

  • It would also allow us, as the general public,

    這也讓我們,平明老百姓

  • to better understand the flow of enormous sums of money

    多加認識龐大的資金流

  • that impact politics, our daily lives, and the health of our world.

    這可是影響著政治、日常,還有我們世界的健全運作

For many of us,

我們許多人

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 匿名 公司 企業 法律 當局

TED-Ed】揭發匿名公司如何減少犯罪--全球見證者 (【TED-Ed】How exposing anonymous companies could cut down on crime - Global Witness)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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