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  • We read fiction for many reasons.

    我們為了種種的理由看小說

  • To be entertained,

    為了娛樂自己

  • to find out who done it,

    為了找出嫌疑犯

  • to travel to strange, new planets,

    為了旅行到一個陌生的新星球

  • to be scared,

    為了被嚇

  • to laugh,

    為了開懷大笑

  • to cry,

    為了放聲大哭

  • to think,

    為了思考

  • to feel,

    為了感覺

  • to be so absorbed that for a while we forget where we are.

    為了沉浸其中而暫時忘記身處何處

  • So, how about writing fiction?

    來寫篇小說,如何?

  • How do you suck your readers into your stories?

    你要怎樣吸引讀者進入你的故事?

  • With an exciting plot? Maybe.

    精彩的情節?可能吧!

  • Fascinating characters? Probably.

    迷人的角色?或許吧!

  • Beautiful language? Perhaps.

    優美的文句?大概吧!

  • "Billie's legs are noodles. The ends of her hair are poison needles.

    「比莉的腳像麵條 她的髮梢是毒針

  • Her tongue is a bristly sponge, and her eyes are bags of bleach."

    她的舌頭是乾硬的海綿 而她的眼睛是兩袋漂白劑」

  • Did that description almost make you feel as queasy as Billie?

    這樣的敘述有沒有 讓你覺得跟比莉一樣想吐?

  • We grasp that Billie's legs aren't actually noodles.

    我們知道比莉的腳不是真的麵條

  • To Billie, they feel as limp as cooked noodles.

    對比莉來說, 它們癱軟得和煮熟的麵一樣

  • It's an implied comparison, a metaphor.

    這是一種隱晦的比較,叫做「暗喻」

  • So, why not simply write it like this?

    那為什麼不直接這樣寫就好?

  • "Billie feels nauseated and weak."

    「比莉感到噁心、虛弱」

  • Chances are the second description wasn't as vivid to you as the first.

    大概是第二種說法 沒有第一種來得生動

  • The point of fiction is to cast a spell,

    小說的目的就是要施點魔法

  • a momentary illusion that you are living in the world of the story.

    讓讀者有置身於故事中的短暫幻覺

  • Fiction engages the senses,

    小說會驅策你用到數種感官

  • helps us create vivid mental simulacra

    幫讀者在心中產生生動的擬像

  • of the experiences the characters are having.

    就跟故事中角色的感覺一樣

  • Stage and screen engage some of our senses directly.

    舞台劇和影片直接用到我們幾種感官

  • We see and hear the interactions of the characters and the setting.

    我們看到也聽到 角色和佈景間的互動

  • But with prose fiction,

    但對於散文式的小說

  • all you have is static symbols on a contrasting background.

    你只有靜止的黑字躺在白紙上

  • If you describe the story in matter-of-fact, non-tactile language,

    如果你只是平舖直述的描繪故事

  • the spell risks being a weak one.

    你的文字魔法可能就很弱了

  • Your reader may not get much beyond interpreting the squiggles.

    你的讀者可能只是看懂描述的字而已

  • She will understand what Billie feels like,

    她會知道比莉的感覺

  • but she won't feel what Billie feels.

    但她無法感同身受

  • She'll be reading, not immersed in the world of the story,

    她只是在看書,但難以融入故事

  • discovering the truths of Billie's life at the same time that Billie herself does.

    去發覺比莉當下那刻的生活真實面

  • Fiction plays with our senses:

    小說運用到我們各種感官:

  • taste,

    味覺、

  • smell,

    嗅覺、

  • touch,

    觸覺、

  • hearing,

    聽覺、

  • sight,

    視覺、

  • and the sense of motion.

    和動態的感覺

  • It also plays with our ability to abstract and make complex associations.

    它同時運用到我們的抽象力 和產生複雜聯想的能力

  • Look at the following sentence.

    看看下面文句

  • "The world was ghost-quiet,

    「世界如幽靈般死寂,

  • except for the crack of sails and the burbling of water against hull."

    只有風帆啪啪作響 和水撞擊船身所發出的嘩啦聲」

  • The words, "quiet," "crack," and "burbling,"

    「寂靜」、「啪啪作響」 和「嘩啦聲」等字

  • engage the sense of hearing.

    運用到聽覺

  • Notice that Buckell doesn't use the generic word sound.

    注意 Buckell(作者)並沒有 用到「聲音」這個大眾化的字眼

  • Each word he chooses evokes a particular quality of sound.

    他所選的每個字都可以 喚起腦中一種特定的聲音

  • Then, like an artist laying on washes of color

    接著,像一個畫家躺在顏料淺灘中

  • to give the sense of texture to a painting,

    把這些感覺畫出來

  • he adds another layer, motion, "the crack of sails,"

    他加了另一層 ─動感─ 「風帆啪啪作響」

  • and touch, "the burbling of water against hull."

    以及觸感 ─ 「和水撞擊船身所發出的嘩啦聲」

  • Finally, he gives us an abstract connection

    最後,他給了一個抽象的連結

  • by linking the word quiet with the word ghost.

    把「寂靜」和「幽靈」做結合

  • Not "quiet as a ghost,"

    他不是寫「和幽靈一樣安靜」

  • which would put a distancing layer of simile

    這樣可能會使讀者感受到的

  • between the reader and the experience.

    和你要表達的比喻產生距離

  • Instead, Buckell creates the metaphor "ghost-quiet"

    反之,Buckell 用了 「如幽靈般死寂」這個比喻

  • for an implied, rather than overt, comparison.

    作為暗示,而不是直接式地比較

  • Writers are always told to avoid cliches

    作家們都會避免陳腔爛調

  • because there's very little engagement for the reader in an overused image,

    因為讀者對太常出現的畫面興趣缺缺

  • such as "red as a rose."

    像是「玫瑰般的紅色」

  • But give them,

    但如果我們說:

  • "Love...began on a beach.

    「愛...萌生於海灘

  • It began that day when Jacob saw Anette in her stewed-cherry dress,"

    萌生於雅各看見安妮特 穿著燉櫻桃色洋裝的那天」

  • and their brains engage in the absorbing task

    讀者就會融入這引人入勝的思緒中

  • of figuring out what a stewed-cherry dress is like.

    想像燉櫻桃色洋裝到底長怎樣

  • Suddenly, they're on a beach about to fall in love.

    突然間,讀者來到了海灘 即將墜入情網

  • They're experiencing the story at both a visceral and a conceptual level,

    他們會同時體驗到故事的內在和概念

  • meeting the writer halfway in the imaginative play

    與作者富於想像力

  • of creating a dynamic world of the senses.

    所創造出來的感官世界相契合

  • So when you write, use well-chosen words

    所以當你動筆時, 用些精心挑選出的字

  • to engage sound, sight, taste, touch, smell, and movement.

    來增加視、聽、味、觸、嗅 和動感的體驗

  • Then create unexpected connotations among your story elements,

    接著在故事之中 設計些讓人料想不到的內容

  • and set your readers' brushfire imaginations alight.

    點亮讀者的想像力

We read fiction for many reasons.

我們為了種種的理由看小說

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 比莉 讀者 小說 幽靈 感官

【TED-Ed】如何讓寫作更生動 - Nalo Hopkinson (How to write descriptively - Nalo Hopkinson)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2016 年 01 月 09 日
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