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  • Imagine if you could plug your brain into a machine

    想像你可以把腦袋連接到一個機器上


  • that would bring you ultimate pleasure for the rest of your life.

    它將會給你的餘生帶來無限的快樂


  • If you were given the choice to sign up for that kind of existence, would you?

    如果你有機會選擇這樣的生活 你會要接上機器嗎?

  • That's the question philosopher Robert Nozick posed

    這是哲學家羅伯特‧諾齊克所問的問題

  • through a thought experiment he called the Experience Machine.

    是透過一個他稱為 「體驗機器」的假想實驗

  • The experiment asks us to consider a world

    這個實驗要求我們想像一個世界

  • in which scientists have developed a machine that would simulate real life

    在這世界裡,科學家已經創造出 可以模擬真實生活的機器

  • while guaranteeing experiences of only pleasure and never pain.

    並保證只有快樂,沒有痛苦

  • The catch?

    代價是?

  • You have to permanently leave reality behind,

    你必須永遠地脫離現實

  • but you'll hardly know the difference.

    但是你幾乎感覺不到有何差別

  • Your experiences will be indistinguishable from reality.

    你的感受將會跟在現實世界相差無幾

  • Life's natural ups and downs

    生命中自然的高低起伏

  • will just be replaced with an endless series of ups.

    將會被無盡的幸福滿足取代

  • Sounds great, right?

    聽起來很棒,對吧?

  • It may seem like a tempting offer, but perhaps it's not as ideal as it sounds.

    聽起來像是個誘人的提議 但或許它並不是那麼完美

  • The experiment was actually designed to refute a philosophical notion

    這個實驗的設計 是用來反駁一個哲學概念

  • called hedonism.

    稱為「享樂主義」

  • According to hedonists,

    依照享樂主義的說法


  • maximizing net pleasure is the most important thing in life

    “淨快樂最大化” 是人生最重要的事

  • because pleasure is the greatest good that life has to offer.

    因為快樂是生命賦予最美好的事物

  • For hedonists, the best choice that a person could make for himself

    對享樂主義而言,一個人能選擇

  • is one that brings him the greatest possible amount of pleasure

    可以帶給他自己最大快樂的 那就是最好的選擇

  • while bringing him no pain.

    同時沒有痛苦

  • Limitless pleasure minus zero pain equals maximum net pleasure,

    無限的快樂減去零痛苦 等於最大的淨快樂

  • or in other words, the exact scenario the Experience Machine offers.

    換言之,就是那機器提供的情境

  • Therefore, if hedonism is your philosophy of choice,

    因此,如果你尊崇享樂主義

  • plugging in would be a no-brainer.

    連接到那台機器將是個不二選擇

  • But what if there's more to life than just pleasure?

    但是如果人生意義不僅僅是享樂呢?

  • That's what Nozick believed he was demonstrating

    這正是諾奇克相信經由「體驗機器」 的

  • through his Experience Machine thought experiment.

    假想實驗表達了這個觀點

  • Despite the machine's promise of maximum net pleasure,

    儘管機器承諾了最大的淨快樂

  • he still found reason not to plug in,

    他仍找到不要連接機器的理由


  • as do many other experimenters who consider the proposition.

    就像很多想過這個實驗的 其他實驗者也是提出同樣看法

  • But what could possibly dissuade us from choosing a future of ultimate pleasure?

    是什麼會勸阻我們追尋無限快樂的未來?

  • Consider this scenario.

    想像這個劇本


  • Betsy and Xander are in a loving, committed relationship.

    貝琦跟山德是熱戀中的情侶

  • Betsy is head over heels and has never felt happier.

    貝琦如癡如醉,從來沒有如此開心過

  • However, unbeknownst to Betsy,

    但是,貝琦並不曉得

  • Xander has been romancing her sister, Angelica,

    山德正在跟他妹妹安潔莉卡交往

  • with love letters and secret rendezvous for the duration of their relationship.

    在他們的戀愛期間 兩人在她背後互通款曲與幽會

  • If Betsy found out,

    如果貝琦發現真相


  • it would destroy her relationships with both Xander and Angelica,

    將會摧毀她與山德及安潔莉卡的關係

  • and the experience would be so traumatic, she would never love again.

    這段經驗將會創傷太大 讓她再也無法重拾愛情

  • Since Betsy is in blissful ignorance about Xander's infidelity,

    因為貝琪正處於幸福中 而對山德的不忠一無所知

  • hedonists would say she's better off remaining in the dark

    享樂主義者會認為她最好繼續被蒙在鼓裡

  • and maintaining her high level of net pleasure.

    並保持極度開心的狀態

  • As long as Betsy never finds out about the relationship,

    只要貝琦永遠不知道他們兩人的關係

  • her life is guaranteed to go on as happily as it is right now.

    她的一生保證會跟當下一樣快樂


  • So, is there value in Besty knowing the truth of her situation?

    這樣,讓貝琦知道真相有意義嗎?

  • Imagine if you were Betsy.

    想像妳是貝琦

  • Would you prefer to know the truth?

    你會想要知道真相嗎?


  • If the answer is yes,

    如果答案是 “是”


  • you'd be choosing an option that sharply decreases your net pleasure.

    你正做了會陡降你淨快樂的選擇


  • Perhaps, then, you believe that there are things in life

    或許,你相信生命除了享樂之外

  • with greater intrinsic value than pleasure.

    尚有更美好的內在價值

  • Truth, knowledge, authentic connection with other human beings.

    真理、知識、和其他人真實可靠的關係

  • These are all things that might make the list.

    這些都是構成生命意義的要素

  • By never learning the truth,

    如果永遠不知道事情的真相

  • Betsy is essentially living life in her own personal Experience Machine,

    貝琦就會像活在自己的體驗機器裡


  • a world of happiness that's not based in reality.

    一個虛幻快樂的世界

  • This love triangle is an extreme example,

    這個三角戀是一個極端的例子

  • but it mirrors many of the decisions we make in day to day life.

    但它也反映了我們每天做的很多決定

  • So whether you're making a choice for Betsy or for yourself,

    所以不論你是為貝琪或為你自己做決定

  • why might you feel reality should be a factor?

    為什麼你可能覺得 現實應該是一項考慮要素?

  • Is there inherent value in real experiences,

    無論是快樂的或是痛苦的

  • whether pleasurable or painful?

    現實體驗真的有內在價值嗎?


  • Do you yourself have more value

    你自己會更有價值嗎?


  • when you're experiencing real life's pleasures and pains?

    當你經歷真實的快樂與痛苦後

  • Nozick's experiment may not provide all the answers,

    諾齊克的實驗可能無法提供所有解答


  • but it forces us to consider whether real life, though imperfect,

    但它驅使我們思考 “不完美的現實


  • holds some intrinsic value beyond the pleasure of plugging in.

    超越虛幻享樂” 是否隱含更多的價值

Imagine if you could plug your brain into a machine

想像你可以把腦袋連接到一個機器上


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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 機器 快樂 實驗 痛苦 主義

【TED-Ed】你會選擇生活沒有痛苦? - Hayley Levitt and Bethany Rickwald (Would you opt for a life with no pain? - Hayley Levitt and Bethany Rickwald)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2016 年 01 月 09 日
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