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  • Depression is the leading cause of disability in the world.

    憂鬱症是世界上造成人類失能的主要原因

  • In the United States,

    在美國

  • close to 10% of adults struggle with depression.

    近10%的成人深受憂鬱之擾

  • But because it's a mental illness,

    但因為這是心理疾病

  • it can be a lot harder to understand than, say, high cholesterol.

    可能比高膽固醇還更難讓人理解

  • One major source of confusion is the difference between having depression and just feeling depressed.

    常常人們很容易把有憂鬱症和只是心情低落搞混

  • Almost everyone feels down from time to time.

    幾乎每個人都有過心情低落的時候

  • Getting a bad grade,

    成績不理想

  • losing a job,

    被炒魷魚

  • having an argument,

    和人起爭執

  • even a rainy day can bring on feelings of sadness.

    甚至只是雨天也可能帶來憂傷

  • Sometimes there's no trigger at all.

    有時根本沒有任何觸發心情低落的原因

  • It just pops up out of the blue.

    它就這麼樣地憑空冒出

  • Then circumstances change,

    但之後情況就會改變

  • and those sad feelings disappear.

    憂傷的情緒消失不見

  • Clinical depression is different.

    臨床憂鬱症則完全不同

  • It's a medical disorder,

    這是心理健康失調

  • and it won't go away just because you want it to.

    生病不會說好就好

  • It lingers for at least two consecutive weeks,

    通常會跟著你至少連續兩星期

  • and significantly interferes with one's ability to work,

    且會明顯地影響一個人的工作能力、

  • play,

    娛樂

  • or love.

    或愛

  • Depression can have a lot of different symptoms:

    憂鬱可能會有許多不同的症狀

  • a low mood,

    心情不好

  • loss of interest in things you'd normally enjoy,

    對你平常喜愛的事物沒了興趣

  • changes in appetite,

    胃口改變

  • feeling worthless or excessively guilty,

    感到毫無價值或極度愧疚

  • sleeping either too much or too little,

    睡太多或失眠

  • poor concentration,

    無法集中精神

  • restlessness or slowness,

    煩躁或行動緩慢

  • loss of energy,

    沒有精神

  • or recurrent thoughts of suicide.

    萌生自殺的念頭

  • If you have at least five of those symptoms,

    如果你有至少五項上述的症狀

  • according to psychiatric guidelines,

    根據精神病學方針

  • you qualify for a diagnosis of depression.

    你已經罹患憂鬱症

  • And it's not just behavioral symptoms.

    這不僅只是行為上的症狀

  • Depression has physical manifestations inside the brain.

    患憂鬱症的人大腦內會有物理性的改變

  • First of all,

    首先

  • there are changes that could be seen with the naked eye and X-ray vision.

    有些變化可直接以肉眼和X光線看出

  • These include smaller frontal lobes and hippocampal volumes.

    包括了額葉和海馬迴體積縮小

  • On a more microscale,

    微觀下

  • depression is associated with a few things:

    憂鬱症和幾件事有關

  • the abnormal transmission or depletion of certain neurotransmitters,

    某些神經傳導物質不正常的傳遞或消耗

  • especially serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine,

    特別是血清素、正腎上腺素與多巴胺

  • blunted circadian rhythms,

    生理時鐘失調

  • or specific changes in the REM and slow-wave parts of your sleep cycle,

    睡眠周期中的快速動眼期與慢波睡眠期明顯改變

  • and hormone abnormalities,

    荷爾蒙失調

  • such as high cortisol and deregulation of thyroid hormones.

    像是過多的皮質醇和異常濃度的甲狀腺素

  • But neuroscientists still don't have a complete picture

    但神經學家仍然無法全面掌握

  • of what causes depression.

    憂鬱症的成因

  • It seems to have to do with a complex interaction between genes and environment,

    其似乎和複雜的基因與環境交互作用有關

  • but we don't have a diagnostic tool

    但我們沒有診斷的工具

  • that can accurately predict where or when it will show up.

    可以準確預測何時、何地會發生憂鬱症

  • And because depression symptoms are intangible,

    且因為憂鬱症是無形的

  • it's hard to know who might look fine but is actually struggling.

    我們很難知道表面看起來很好的人其實內心十分煎熬

  • According to the National Institute of Mental Health,

    根據國家精神健康研究院

  • it takes the average person suffering with a mental illness

    一般患有憂鬱症的人需要十年以上的時間

  • over ten years to ask for help.

    才會尋求幫助

  • But there are very effective treatments.

    現在有許多成效不錯的治療

  • Medications and therapy complement each other to boost brain chemicals.

    結合藥物和療法刺激腦內物質

  • In extreme cases, electroconvulsive therapy,

    一些極端的例子,如電痙攣療法

  • which is like a controlled seizure in the patient's brain,

    經由電擊在病患的腦中誘發痙攣

  • is also very helpful.

    也是非常有效的方法

  • Other promising treatments,

    其他有希望性的治療

  • like transcranial magnetic stimulation,

    如頭顱磁刺激療法

  • are being investigated, too.

    也正在被研究觀察中

  • So, if you know someone struggling with depression,

    如果你有認識的人正在對抗憂鬱

  • encourage them, gently, to seek out some of these options.

    溫柔地鼓勵他們去尋求這些解決方法

  • You might even offer to help with specific tasks,

    你也可以藉由實際行動提供協助

  • like looking up therapists in the area,

    像是尋找附近的治療師

  • or making a list of questions to ask a doctor.

    或列出一些問題詢問醫生

  • To someone with depression,

    對有憂鬱症的人而言

  • these first steps can seem insurmountable.

    第一步是最難跨出的

  • If they feel guilty or ashamed,

    如果他們感到內疚或丟臉

  • point out that depression is a medical condition,

    告訴他們憂鬱症其實是種疾病

  • just like asthma or diabetes.

    就跟氣喘和糖尿病一樣

  • It's not a weakness or a personality trait,

    不是軟弱的表現也不是本身的人格特質

  • and they shouldn't expect themselves to just get over it

    有憂鬱症的人不該指望只靠自己硬撐過去

  • anymore than they could will themselves to get over a broken arm.

    這和他們從手臂斷掉中恢復過來無法相提並論

  • If you haven't experienced depression yourself,

    如果你本身沒有過憂鬱症的經驗

  • avoid comparing it to times you've felt down.

    千萬別拿它和你心情低落的時候相比

  • Comparing what they're experiencing to normal, temporary feelings of sadness

    拿這些人的經歷和正常、短暫的低落情緒做比較

  • can make them feel guilty for struggling.

    會讓他們感到愧疚與煎熬

  • Even just talking about depression openly can help.

    僅僅只是公開討論憂鬱症也能有所助益

  • For example, research shows that asking someone about suicidal thoughts

    例如,研究顯示詢問某人關於自殺的想法

  • actually reduces their suicide risk.

    其實可減少其自殺的風險

  • Open conversations about mental illness help erode stigma

    把心理疾病攤開來說有助於消除羞恥感

  • and make it easier for people to ask for help.

    讓他們能更勇於尋求協助

  • And the more patients seek treatment,

    當越多病患接受治療

  • the more scientists will learn about depression,

    便越有利於科學家更深入了解憂鬱

  • and the better the treatments will get.

    且得以發展更好的治療方法

Depression is the leading cause of disability in the world.

憂鬱症是世界上造成人類失能的主要原因

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 憂鬱症 低落 治療 療法 症狀

【TED-Ed】什麼是抑鬱症?- Helen M. Farrell (【TED-Ed】What is depression? - Helen M. Farrell)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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