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  • What could octopuses possibly have in common with us?

    章魚究竟有哪些地方和我們是類似的?

  • After all, they don't have lungs, spines, or even a plural noun we can all agree on.

    畢竟,它們並沒有肺、脊椎或甚至沒有一個複數名詞是我們可以共通的。

  • But what they do have is the ability to solve puzzles,

    但它們卻能夠具有解開謎團的能力,

  • learn through observation,

    透過觀察而學習,

  • and even use tools,

    和甚至使用工具,

  • just like some other animals we know.

    就像其他我們所知道的動物一樣。

  • And what makes octopus intelligence so amazing

    而讓章魚的智慧如此令人驚艷的原因

  • is that it comes from a biological structure

    在於他們的生物結構

  • completely different from ours.

    與我們截然不同

  • The 200 or so species of octopuses

    約兩百多種的章魚

  • are mollusks belonging to the order cephalopoda,

    屬於軟體動物,被歸類在頭足類中,

  • Greek for head-feet.

    這個自是希臘文的頭和腳。

  • Those heads contain impressively large brains,

    它們的頭部內有令人印象深刻的巨大大腦,

  • with a brain to body ratio similar to that of other intelligent animals,

    它的腦-身體比值和其他有智慧動物比值差不多,

  • and a complex nervous system with about as many neurons as that of a dog.

    且具有一個複雜的神經系統,其內的神經元與一隻狗差不多。

  • But instead of being centralized in the brain,

    但是構造並不是神經元全集中在大腦區域,

  • these 500 million neurons are spread out in a network of interconnected ganglia

    這五億個神經元分佈在一個互相連結的神經節網路中

  • organized into three basic structures.

    分別組織在三個基礎的結構當中。

  • The central brain only contains about 10% of the neurons,

    中央大腦只約含10%的神經元數量,

  • while the two huge optic lobes contain about 30%.

    其他兩個巨大的感光腦葉約含30%。

  • The other 60% are in the tentacles,

    其他的6成都在觸角當中,

  • which for humans would be like our arms having minds of their own.

    也就像人類自己的手臂能夠具有自己的心智一般。

  • This is where things get even more interesting.

    這讓事情變得更有趣了。

  • Vertebrates like us have a rigid skeleton to support our bodies,

    像我們這種脊椎動物具有堅固的骨骼來支撐我們的身體,

  • with joints that allow us to move.

    並有關節讓我們能夠自在活動。

  • But not all types of movement are allowed.

    但並非任合姿勢動作都辦得到。

  • You can't bend your knee backwards,

    舉例來說,你不可能把膝蓋往後扳,

  • or bend your forearm in the middle, for example.

    或是讓前肢的中間彎曲

  • Cephalopods, on the other hand, have no bones at all,

    反觀,頭足類完全不具有骨骼

  • allowing them to bend their limbs at any point and in any direction.

    讓它們能夠在任何方向和關節點處彎曲肢體。

  • So shaping their tentacles

    所以他們的觸角

  • into any one of the virtually limitless number of possible arrangements

    能夠形成任何形狀或動作

  • is unlike anything we are used to.

    與我們的結構相差甚遠

  • Consider a simple task, like grabbing and eating an apple.

    考慮一個簡單的任務,像是抓取一顆蘋果然後吃掉它。

  • The human brain contains a neurological map of our body.

    人類大腦中有一幅身體的神經元網絡地圖。

  • When you see the apple,

    當你看見蘋果,

  • your brain's motor center activates the appropriate muscles,

    你大腦中運動中心啟動適當的肌肉群,

  • allowing you to reach out with your arm

    讓你的手臂可以拿到那些蘋果,

  • grab it with your hand,

    用手把蘋果抓起來;

  • bend your elbow joint,

    彎曲你的肘關節;

  • and bring it to your mouth.

    和把蘋果拿到你的嘴中。

  • For an octopus, the process is quite different.

    對一隻章魚來說,同樣動作的過程是很不一樣的。

  • Rather than a body map,

    它們頭族類的大腦具有像是行為記憶圖書館,

  • the cephalopod brain has a behavior library.

    而不像我們人類擁有身體上的地圖。

  • So when an octopus sees food,

    所以當一隻章魚看見了食物,

  • its brain doesn't activate a specific body part,

    它的大腦並不運作身體的某個特定部位,

  • but rather a behavioral response to grab.

    而是一種行為上的抓取回應動作。

  • As the signal travels through the network,

    當信號傳遞過整個網絡,

  • the arm neurons pick up the message

    手臂的神經元就會收到訊息

  • and jump into action to command the movement.

    然後介入指揮運動的操作。

  • As soon as the arm touches the food,

    一旦手臂碰觸到食物,

  • a muscle activation wave travels all the way through the arm to its base,

    肌肉會啟動訊號波傳到手臂的根部,

  • while the arm sends back another wave from the base to the tip.

    而手臂傳回另一個訊號波從根部回到端部。

  • The signals meet halfway between the food and the base of the arm,

    這些訊號傳遞到手臂根部和食物的中間點

  • letting it know to bend at that spot.

    讓手臂知道要在哪個點彎曲。

  • What all this means is that each of an octopus's eight arms

    這些表示章魚八隻腳中任何一隻

  • can essentially think for itself.

    都能夠替自己獨立運作思考。

  • This gives it amazing flexibility and creativity

    這給了它們面對新的狀況和問題時,

  • when facing a new situation or problem,

    能運用驚人的應變性和創造力,

  • whether its opening a bottle to reach food,

    不論是要打開一個瓶子以拿到食物、

  • escaping through a maze,

    逃脫迷宮、

  • moving around in a new environment,

    在新環境中悠遊

  • changing the texture and the color of its skin to blend into the scenery,

    改變自己皮膚上的紋理和顏色以隱沒入周遭的環境當中、

  • or even mimicking other creatures to scare away enemies.

    或者甚至模仿其他生物來嚇走敵人等等。

  • Cephalopods may have evolved complex brains

    頭足類動物可能遠早於我們脊椎動物的祖先

  • long before our vertebrate relatives.

    就演化出更複雜的大腦。

  • And octopus intelligence isn't just useful for octopuses.

    且章魚的智商不僅對於章魚有幫助。

  • Their radically different nervous system and autonomously thinking appendages

    它們的輻射發散狀的不同神經系統和擁有自主思考能力肢體

  • have inspired new research

    對於發展以軟物質製造具有應變性的機器人

  • in developing flexible robots made of soft materials.

    的研究上有很大的啟發。

  • And studying how intelligence can arise along such a divergent evolutionary path

    而研究究竟在如此分歧的演化路途中,智慧生物是如何形成

  • can help us understand more about intelligence and consciousness in general.

    夠夠幫助我們了解更多關於智慧和意識知識。

  • Who knows what other forms of intelligent life are possible,

    誰曉得還有哪些種類的智慧生物可能存在在這個星球上,

  • or how they process the world around them.

    或者它們如何辨識、察覺周遭的世界的。

What could octopuses possibly have in common with us?

章魚究竟有哪些地方和我們是類似的?

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 章魚 手臂 神經元 大腦 彎曲

【TED-Ed】為什麼章魚大腦是如此的不凡!(Cláudio L. Guerra (Why the octopus brain is so extraordinary - Cláudio L. Guerra)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2016 年 05 月 18 日
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