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  • Baked or fried,

    烘焙或油炸

  • boiled or roasted,

    水煮或火烤

  • as chips or fries.

    削成薄片或薯條

  • At some point in your life, you've probably eaten a potato.

    在你生活裡,總有機會吃到馬鈴薯

  • Delicious, for sure,

    可口美味,當然了

  • but the fact is potatoes have played a much more significant role in our history

    但其實在歷史上,馬鈴薯扮演著更重要的角色

  • than just that of the dietary staple we have come to know and love today.

    不僅是我們今天熟悉、熱愛的日常主食而已

  • Without the potato,

    沒有馬鈴薯的話

  • our modern civilization might not exist at all.

    現代文明可能就不存在了

  • 8,000 years ago in South America, high atop the Andes,

    8000年以前的南美洲,在安第斯山脈的山頂上

  • ancient Peruvians were the first to cultivate the potato.

    古代祕魯人最早開始種植馬鈴薯

  • Containing high levels of proteins and carbohydrates,

    富含蛋白質和碳水化合物

  • as well as essential fats, vitamins and minerals,

    人體必需脂肪、維他命和礦物質

  • potatoes were the perfect food source to fuel a large Incan working class

    馬鈴薯是大批印加帝國勞工階層,充沛精力的來源

  • as they built and farmed their terraced fields,

    讓他們有力氣建造、耕作梯田、

  • mined the Rocky Mountains,

    開挖洛磯山脈的礦產

  • and created the sophisticated civilization of the great Incan Empire.

    也因此發展出文明而偉大的印加帝國

  • But considering how vital they were to the Incan people,

    雖然馬鈴薯作物,對印加人民來說非常重要

  • when Spanish sailors returning from the Andes

    但是當西班牙水手從安地斯山脈返家

  • first brought potatoes to Europe,

    第一次將馬鈴薯輸入歐洲的時候

  • the spuds were duds.

    一切卻只是徒勞

  • Europeans simply didn't want to eat

    歐洲人根本不想吃這種

  • what they considered dull and tasteless oddities from a strange new land,

    他們覺得沒口感、沒味道,又來自異國的怪東西

  • too closely related to the deadly nightshade plant

    而且馬鈴薯和致命的茄科植物

  • belladonna for comfort.

    用於鎮定藥物的顛茄太相似了,讓他們渾身不自在

  • So instead of consuming them, they used potatoes as decorative garden plants.

    所以歐洲人決定不吃馬鈴薯、並用於園藝裝飾,

  • More than 200 years would pass before the potato caught on

    馬鈴薯200年後才

  • as a major food source throughout Europe,

    成為歐洲的主要食物來源

  • though even then,

    即使成為主食

  • it was predominantly eaten by the lower classes.

    吃馬鈴薯的人大多來自下層階級

  • However, beginning around 1750,

    然而,從1750年左右開始

  • and thanks at least in part

    一方面是因為

  • to the wide availability of inexpensive and nutritious potatoes,

    馬鈴薯能低價取得,又富含營養

  • European peasants with greater food security

    歐洲農民的食物供給十分穩定

  • no longer found themselves at the mercy of the regularly occurring grain famines of the time

    不再受罪於當時經常發生的糧食飢荒

  • and so their populations steadily grew.

    於是馬鈴薯漸漸地越來越受歡迎

  • As a result, the British, Dutch and German Empires

    結果,英國、荷蘭和德意志帝國崛起

  • rose on the backs of the growing groups of farmers, laborers, and soldiers,

    以農民、勞動人口和軍隊的成長做為後盾

  • thus lifting the West to its place of world dominion.

    將西方的重要性擴及全世界

  • However, not all European countries sprouted empires.

    然而,不是所有的歐洲國家都發展成帝國

  • After the Irish adopted the potato,

    愛爾蘭人開始種馬鈴薯之後

  • their population dramatically increased,

    人口快速成長

  • as did their dependence on the tuber as a major food staple.

    他們依賴根莖類食物,而馬鈴薯變成了主食

  • But then disaster struck.

    但災難突然降臨

  • From 1845 to 1852,

    從1845到1852年

  • potato blight disease ravaged the majority of Ireland's potato crop,

    馬鈴薯晚疫病摧殘了大部分的愛爾蘭馬鈴薯作物

  • leading to the Irish Potato Famine,

    導致了愛爾蘭的「馬鈴薯飢荒」

  • one of the deadliest famines in world history.

    是世界史上死亡人數最多的飢荒之一

  • Over a million Irish citizens starved to death,

    超過一百萬愛爾蘭人民死於飢荒

  • and 2 million more left their homes behind.

    有兩百多萬人只好離開家鄉

  • But of course, this wasn't the end for the potato.

    但可想而知,這不是馬鈴薯的結局

  • The crop eventually recovered,

    馬鈴薯作物還是恢復了

  • and Europe's population, especially the working classes,

    而歐洲人口,尤其是勞工階層的人口

  • continued to increase.

    持續成長

  • Aided by the influx of Irish migrants,

    加上愛爾蘭移民湧入

  • Europe now had a large, sustainable, and well-fed population

    歐洲有了大批源源不斷,被餵得飽飽的人口

  • who were capable of manning the emerging factories

    能提供充足人力,給大量湧現的工廠

  • that would bring about our modern world via the Industrial Revolution.

    那麼,藉由工業革命的力量,將帶來現代化社會

  • So it's almost impossible to imagine a world without the potato.

    所以,我們幾乎無法想像沒有馬鈴薯的世界

  • Would the Industrial Revolution ever have happened?

    工業革命還會發生嗎?

  • Would World War II have been lost by the Allies

    在第二次世界大戰時,同盟國是否已經戰敗了

  • without this easy-to-grow crop that fed the Allied troops

    假如沒有容易生長的馬鈴薯作物來餵飽同盟軍的話?

  • Would it even have started?

    這場戰爭還會開始嗎?

  • When you think about it like this,

    當你從這個角度思考

  • many major milestones in world history can all be at least partially attributed

    就會把世界歷史裡許多里程碑,一部分歸功於

  • to the simple spud from the Peruvian hilltops.

    來自秘魯山頂上不起眼的馬鈴薯

Baked or fried,

烘焙或油炸

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 馬鈴薯 歐洲 作物 印加 帝國

【TED-Ed】從馬鈴薯看世界歷史- Leo Bear-McGuinness (History through the eyes of the potato - Leo Bear-McGuinness)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2016 年 01 月 09 日
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