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  • Antarctica! Home to the South Pole - s, penguins,

    南極洲,南極企鵝的家,

  • and about 5,000 people during the summers.

    而且在夏季大約有 5,000 人在那

  • But less than 1,000 during the ever-dark winter.

    但在永夜的冬季不到 1,000 人

  • No one lives on the continent permanently.

    沒有人永久住在南極大陸

  • So, who owns Antarctica?

    所以,南極洲究竟歸誰擁有?

  • Most stuff outside national borders -

    大多數的東西都在國界之外-

  • the sea floor, the moon, really all of space,

    海底、月亮,真的所有的空間,

  • is the Common Heritage of Mankind.

    是人類共同的遺產

  • It belongs to none of us, and all of us -

    它不屬於我們任何一人,是我們共同擁有的

  • held in trust for future generations.

    後代子孫都是這樣相信並傳承下來的

  • Which is nice, if perhaps a bit presumptive, to say that

    這樣是好的,如果根據一點點推定來說,

  • the entire Universe is ours.

    整個宇宙都是我們的

  • And maybe someone will have something to say about that eventually.

    也許最後會有人有不同想法

  • (Story for another time)

    (這又是另一個故事了)

  • But still, well done humanity!

    但目前仍然,人類幹得好!

  • Except... it's never that simple.

    除非,沒那麼簡單

  • Because the paperwork on Antarctica sort of saysCommon Heritage of Mankind”,

    因為南極的文書記錄寫道:「人類的共同遺產」,

  • but it doesn't go all in.

    但它沒有包含全部

  • Here's why - explorers started landing in Antarctica in about the 1800's,

    原因是-探險者登陸在南極洲時大約是在 1800 年代,

  • planting flags and making claims.

    插上旗子並宣佈登陸

  • But these claims were a bit hollow,

    但這個說辭略微空洞,

  • because, on the Civilisation tech tree,

    因為在文明的樹枝圖上,

  • Antarctica wasn't colonisable.

    南極沒有被殖民過,

  • Nonetheless, like Monopoly, the optimal colonial strategy isClaim everything you land on”.

    然而,就像壟斷,最佳的殖民策略就是「宣稱你登陸的土地的一切是你的」

  • In the early 1900's, the UK toyed with claiming "all" of Antarctica,

    在 1900 年代初期,英國玩弄式的宣稱所有南極洲都是它們的,

  • before scaling back her ambitions to just

    在女王想要將野心縮小到

  • the coastal parts she had explored to the South Pole.

    她發現過的海岸線一路到南極前,

  • France also claimed coastal explorations to the Pole,

    法國也宣稱沿海征討到了極地,

  • followed by Norway, followed by the Nazis.

    接著挪威和納粹政府也如此宣稱

  • Mid century, Argentina and Chile claimed slices overlapping with the UK,

    本世紀中葉,阿根廷跟智利聲稱與英國領土重疊,

  • who they figured was rather too busy at the time to care,

    只是英國無暇關心,

  • but later she and her now independent colonies totally did.

    但之後英國和它的獨立殖民地就開始在意了

  • This left the Antarctica a mess of competing claims,

    這些讓南極洲有一段時間在領土上非常混亂,

  • at a bad time to have large territorial disputes.

    有非常大的爭議

  • Complicating things, the United States and the Soviet Union gave themselves the right to make a claim on Antarctica,

    更複雜的是,美國和蘇俄給予各國對於南極洲宣稱自己領土的權利

  • not now, but maybe later.

    不是現在,但之後可能會發生

  • Given this, quite remarkably, in 1959, the US, and USSR, and ten other countries, Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, and the UK, made a treaty to ease the tensions, saying that on Antarctica, there would be - no military, no mining, and no nuclear exploding.

    有鑑於此,1959 年美國、蘇俄等十個國家,阿根廷、澳大利雅、比利時、智利、法國、日本、紐西蘭、挪威、南美洲和英國,共同制定了一個條約以緩和緊張的局勢,條約內容提到,在南極洲,將不會有戰爭、沒有採礦、沒有核武試爆

  • The Antarctican paperwork is the first Cold War disarmament treaty,

    這份南極洲文件是第一份冷戰時期的解除武裝合約,

  • and set aside the continent for science and nature.

    並為南極大陸留出更多在科學與自然方面的用途

  • By the way, because it's a nature preserve,

    順便提到,由於它是一個自然保護區,

  • there's a rule about garbage, "Leave nothing behind".

    有個關於垃圾的規定是「不能留下任何垃圾」

  • Nothing.

    任何

  • Travel to Antarctica in the Summer, and you'll fly back with your poo in the Winter.

    你如果在夏天去南極旅遊,你冬天飛離時必須帶走你所有的便便

  • So, this looks pretty great,

    所以這感覺蠻好的,

  • what's the problem with the line about common heritage?

    但對於 「共同遺產」有什麼問題嗎?

  • Well, no one actually gave up their claims on Antarctica,

    嗯... 沒有人真正放棄它們在南極洲上主張的領土權,

  • because the only way to get everyone to sign was to include this clause,

    因為讓每個人都簽的唯一方法是包含以下這項條款,

  • which sidesteps the issue.

    這項迴避了問題的條款

  • Basically saying countries will act "as though" Antarctica is the Common Heritage of Mankind,

    基本內容是說國家會表現得很像 「南極洲是人類的共同遺產」,

  • and "as though" they have no claims,

    而且很像「大家都沒有主張領土權」這件事,

  • but they aren't legally "for realsies" giving up anything -

    但條約上沒有要求,沒有法律上的嚴格規定各國放棄任何東西

  • which is why maps of Antarctica often include the current state of claim wedges.

    這是為什麼南極洲地圖常常包括了目前有主張的領土雛型

  • This blank spot, by the way, is nobody's,

    這個空白的點,順便說,就是沒有歸屬於誰的,

  • leaving it the largest territory unclaimed on earth by any nation,

    這是最大一塊沒有任何國家認領的領土,

  • so far, anyway.

    到目前為止,反正

  • Now, unlike the colonial days,

    現在,不像以前殖民時期,

  • countries have the tech to build permanently staffed bases on Antarctica,

    國家有高科技在南極州建立永久的資源基地,

  • and it just so happens that countries build their bases in their own claims,

    各個國家在自己主張的領土範圍內建立自己的基地只是恰巧,

  • leaving no clear answer to this question.

    關於領土權的問題還沒有明確的答案

  • According to the Treaty, Antarctica belongs to everyone,

    根據條約,南極洲屬於每一個人,

  • but the Treaty itself has an intentional hole.

    但條約本身有個刻意的漏洞

  • So Antarctica exists in this quantum state

    因此南極洲處於這種情況下

  • where the claims are real and unreal.

    在這些主張領土權似是而非的情況下

  • Some countries build within their "borders",

    一些國家建立他們的邊界範圍,

  • and some countries without claims, like China,

    有些國家沒有主張,像是中國,

  • build their bases on the continent wherever,

    就在南極洲各處建立他們國家的基地,

  • because it belongs to everyone, right guys?

    因為南極洲是屬於大家的,對嗎各位?

  • These claims don't really matter,

    這些主張並不是真的那麼重要,

  • until they do in the 2040's,

    直到 2040 年代,

  • when the mining ban comes up for review.

    當採礦禁令來進行審查

  • Oh, and there's possibly a lot of oil in Antarctica,

    噢,可能會發現有大量的油在南極洲,

  • not to mention 70% of the world's fresh water,

    更何況還有地球 70% 的淡水資源,

  • which could be the more valuable resource in the future.

    而這可能會變成未來最有價值的資源

  • The US and the Soviet... er... Russia,

    美國和蘇俄... 呃俄羅斯,

  • might just yet dust off those "One-free-claim-because-I-say-so" tickets.

    可能還沒重新開始某種「我說了算」的競爭

  • But for now Antarctica is as the Treaty intended -

    但現在南極洲是

  • a continental nature reserve, and scientific research haven.

    自然保護區和科學研究的天堂

Antarctica! Home to the South Pole - s, penguins,

南極洲,南極企鵝的家,

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【時事英文】南極洲到底該歸誰擁有呢? (Who Owns Antarctica? (Bizarre Borders Part 3))

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    Emily 發佈於 2016 年 02 月 15 日
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