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  • I have been teaching for a long time,

    我從事教職已有一段很長的時間

  • and in doing so

    而在我教書的過程當中

  • have acquired a body of knowledge about kids and learning

    我學了很多關於孩子與學習的知識

  • that I really wish more people would understand

    我非常希望更多人可以了解

  • about the potential of students.

    學生的潛能

  • In 1931, my grandmother --

    1931年,我的祖母

  • bottom left for you guys over here --

    從你們那邊看過來左下角那位

  • graduated from the eighth grade.

    從八年級結業(相當於國中二年級)

  • She went to school to get the information

    她上學以取得知識

  • because that's where the information lived.

    因為在過去,那是知識的所在

  • It was in the books; it was inside the teacher's head;

    那是在書本裡,在老師的腦袋裡

  • and she needed to go there to get the information,

    而她需要專程到學校取得這些知識

  • because that's how you learned.

    因為那是當時學習的途徑

  • Fast-forward a generation:

    快轉過一個世代

  • this is the one-room schoolhouse, Oak Grove,

    這是個只有一間教室的學校,Oak Grove

  • where my father went to a one-room schoolhouse.

    我父親就是在這間只有一個教室的學校就讀

  • And he again had to travel to the school

    而同樣的,他不得不去上學

  • to get the information from the teacher,

    以從老師那兒取得知識

  • stored it in the only portable memory he has, which is inside his own head,

    然後將這些知識儲存在他唯一可攜帶的硬碟 - 就是他自己的腦袋裡

  • and take it with him,

    然後將這些隨身攜帶

  • because that is how information was being transported

    因為這是過去知識被傳遞的唯一途徑

  • from teacher to student and then used in the world.

    從老師傳給學生,接著在世界上使用

  • When I was a kid,

    當我還小的時候

  • we had a set of encyclopedias at my house.

    我們家裡有一套百科全書

  • It was purchased the year I was born,

    它是在我出生的那一年購買的

  • and it was extraordinary,

    而那是非常了不起的事情

  • because I did not have to wait to go to the library to get to the information.

    因為我不需要等著去圖書館取得這些知識

  • The information was inside my house

    這些知識就存在我的屋子裡

  • and it was awesome.

    而那真是太棒了

  • This was different

    這個經歷

  • than either generation had experienced before,

    和過去兩代相比,是非常不同的

  • and it changed the way I interacted with information

    這改變了我和知識互動的方式

  • even at just a small level.

    即使改變的幅度很小

  • But the information was closer to me.

    這些知識卻離我更近了

  • I could get access to it.

    我可以自由的接觸它

  • In the time that passes

    從我還是個念中學的孩子

  • between when I was a kid in high school

    到我開始教書

  • and when I started teaching,

    這幾年間

  • we really see the advent of the Internet.

    我們真的親眼目睹網路的進展

  • Right about the time that the Internet gets going

    就在網路開始

  • as an educational tool,

    成為教學工具的時候

  • I take off from Wisconsin

    我離開威斯康辛州

  • and move to Kansas, small town Kansas,

    搬到勘薩斯州,勘薩斯的小鎮

  • where I had an opportunity to teach

    在那裡我有機會教書

  • in a lovely, small-town,

    那是一個小而美麗的城鎮

  • rural Kansas school district,

    在勘薩斯的鄉村學區

  • where I was teaching my favorite subject,

    教我最喜歡的學科

  • American government.

    "美國政府"

  • My first year -- super gung-ho -- going to teach American government,

    教書的第一年,充滿熱情,準備教"美國政府"

  • loved the political system.

    我當時熱愛政治系統

  • Kids in the 12th grade:

    這些十二年級的孩子(相當於高中三年級)

  • not exactly all that enthusiastic

    對於美國政府體系

  • about the American government system.

    並不完全充滿如此的熱情

  • Year two: learned a few things -- had to change my tactic.

    開始教書的第二年,我了解了一些事情,我得改變教學方針

  • And I put in front of them an authentic experience

    我提供他們一個真實體驗的機會

  • that allowed them to learn for themselves.

    讓他們可以自主學習

  • I didn't tell them what to do or how to do it.

    我沒有告訴他們得做什麼,或是要怎麼做

  • I posed a problem in front of them,

    我只是在他們面前提出一個問題

  • which was to put on an election forum for their own community.

    要他們在自己的社區設立一個選舉論壇

  • They produced flyers. They called offices.

    他們設計傳單,聯絡各個選舉辦公室

  • They checked schedules. They were meeting with secretaries.

    他們和秘書排定行程

  • They produced an election forum booklet

    他們設計了一本選舉論壇手冊

  • for the entire town to learn more about their candidates.

    提供給全鎮的鎮民讓他們更了解他們的候選人

  • They invited everyone into the school

    他們邀請鎮民到學校

  • for an evening of conversation

    參與一個晚上的座談

  • about government and politics

    談論關於政府與政治

  • and whether or not the streets were done well,

    還有鎮裡的街道是否修建完善

  • and really had this robust experiential learning.

    學生們真的得到健全的體驗式學習

  • The older teachers -- more experienced --

    學校裡比較資深年長的老師

  • looked at me and went,

    看著我說

  • "Oh, there she is. That's so cute. She's trying to get that done."

    "喔,瞧瞧她,多天真,竟想試著這麼做"

  • (Laughter)

    (大笑)

  • "She doesn't know what she's in for."

    "她不知道她把自己陷入怎麼樣的局面"

  • But I knew that the kids would show up,

    但我知道孩子們會出席

  • and I believed it,

    而我真的這樣相信

  • and I told them every week what I expected out of them.

    每個禮拜我都對他們說我是如何期待他們的表現

  • And that night, all 90 kids --

    而那天晚上,全部九十個孩子

  • dressed appropriately, doing their job, owning it.

    每個人的穿戴整齊,各司其職,完全掌握了論壇

  • I had to just sit and watch.

    我只需要坐在一旁看著

  • It was theirs. It was experiential. It was authentic.

    那是他們的夜晚,那是經驗,那是真實的經驗

  • It meant something to them.

    那對他們來說具有某些意義

  • And they will step up.

    而他們將會更努力

  • From Kansas, I moved on to lovely Arizona,

    離開堪薩斯,我搬到美麗的亞利桑納州

  • where I taught in Flagstaff for a number of years,

    我在Flagstaff小鎮教了幾年書

  • this time with middle school students.

    這次是教國中的學生

  • Luckily, I didn't have to teach them American government.

    幸運地,我這次不用教美國政治

  • Could teach them the more exciting topic of geography.

    而是教更令人興奮的學科 - 地理

  • Again, "thrilled" to learn.

    再一次,非常期待的要學習

  • But what was interesting

    但有趣的是

  • about this position I found myself in in Arizona,

    在這個亞歷桑納州的教職

  • was I had this really

    我所面對的

  • extraordinarily eclectic group of kids to work with

    是一群非常多樣,彼此差異懸殊的孩子

  • in a truly public school,

    是一所真正的公立學校

  • and we got to have these moments where we would get these opportunities.

    在那裡,有些時候,我們得到了一些機會

  • And one opportunity

    而其中一個機會是

  • was we got to go and meet Paul Rusesabagina,

    我們得以和Paul Russabagina 碰面

  • which is the gentleman

    電影"盧安達飯店"

  • that the movie "Hotel Rwanda" is based after.

    是根據這位先生的事作為藍本

  • And he was going to speak at the high school next door to us.

    他當時正要到隔壁的高中演講

  • We could walk there. We didn't even have to pay for the buses.

    我們可以步行到那所學校,我們甚至不用付公車車費

  • There was no expense cost. Perfect field trip.

    完全不需要額外的支出,非常完美的校外教學

  • The problem then becomes

    然後接著的問題是

  • how do you take seventh- and eighth-graders to a talk about genocide

    你要怎麼和七,八年級的學生談論種族屠殺

  • and deal with the subject in a way

    用怎麼樣的方式來處理這個議題

  • that is responsible and respectful,

    一種負責任和尊重的方式

  • and they know what to do with it.

    讓學生們知道該怎麼面對這個議題

  • And so we chose to look at Paul Rusesabagina

    所以我們決定要以 Paul Rusesabagina

  • as an example of a gentleman

    作一個模範

  • who singularly used his life to do something positive.

    看看他如何利用自己個人的生命做些正面的事情

  • I then challenged the kids to identify

    接著,我挑戰這些孩子,要他們去找出

  • someone in their own life, or in their own story, or in their own world,

    在他們的生命裡,在他們自己的故事中,或是在他們自己的世界裡

  • that they could identify that had done a similar thing.

    那些他們認為也做過類似事情的人

  • I asked them to produce a little movie about it.

    我要求他們為這些人和事蹟製作一部短片

  • It's the first time we'd done this.

    這是我們第一次嘗試製作短片

  • Nobody really knew how to make these little movies on the computer,

    沒有人真的知道如何利用電腦製作短片

  • but they were into it. And I asked them to put their own voice over it.

    但他們非常投入,我要他們把自己的意見也錄進去

  • It was the most awesome moment of revelation

    那實在是最能引發反思的時刻

  • that when you ask kids to use their own voice

    當你要孩子們用他們自己的聲音

  • and ask them to speak for themselves,

    要他們為自己說話

  • what they're willing to share.

    說那些他們願意分享的故事

  • The last question of the assignment is:

    這項作業的最後一個問題是

  • how do you plan to use your life

    你打算怎麼利用你自己的生命

  • to positively impact other people?

    去正面的影響其他人

  • The things that kids will say

    當你問孩子們問題然後花時間傾聽

  • when you ask them and take the time to listen

    他們說出來的計畫

  • is extraordinary.

    是非常了不起的

  • Fast-forward to Pennsylvania, where I find myself today.

    快轉到賓州,我現在住的地方

  • I teach at the Science Leadership Academy,

    我在科學領導學院教書

  • which is a partnership school between the Franklin Institute

    是富蘭克林學院

  • and the school district of Philadelphia.

    和費城學區協同的合夥計畫

  • We are a nine through 12 public school,

    我們是一間公立高中

  • but we do school quite differently.

    但我們的教學方式很不一樣

  • I moved there primarily

    我起初搬到那裡

  • to be part of a learning environment

    是為了親身參與一個教學環境

  • that validated the way that I knew that kids learned,

    一個可以證實我所理解孩子有效學習方式的環境

  • and that really wanted to investigate

    一個願意探索

  • what was possible

    所有可能性的教學環境

  • when you are willing to let go

    當你願意放棄

  • of some of the paradigms of the past,

    一些過去的標準模式

  • of information scarcity when my grandmother was in school

    放棄資訊匱乏的念頭,如同我祖母的那個年代

  • and when my father was in school and even when I was in school,

    還有我父親甚至是我自己念書的那些年代

  • and to a moment when we have information surplus.

    認知我們正處於資訊過剩的時代

  • So what do you do when the information is all around you?

    所以你該怎麼處理那些環繞四周的資訊?

  • Why do you have kids come to school

    你為什麼要孩子們來學校?

  • if they no longer have to come there to get the information?

    如果他們再也不需要特意到學校取得這些資訊?

  • In Philadelphia we have a one-to-one laptop program,

    在賓州,我們有一個人人有筆電的計畫

  • so the kids are bringing in laptops with them everyday,

    所以這些孩子每天帶著他們的筆記型電腦

  • taking them home, getting access to information.

    帶著電腦回家,隨時取得資訊

  • And here's the thing that you need to get comfortable with

    而有一件事,是你需要學著適應的

  • when you've given the tool

    當你給了學生工具

  • to acquire information to students,

    讓他們可以自主取得資訊

  • is that you have to be comfortable with this idea

    你得適應一個想法

  • of allowing kids to fail

    那就是允許孩子失敗

  • as part of the learning process.

    把失敗視為學習的一部分

  • We deal right now in the educational landscape

    我們現在面對教育大環境

  • with an infatuation

    帶著一種

  • with the culture of one right answer

    迷戀單一解答的文化

  • that can be properly bubbled on the average multiple choice test,

    一種用均化單選題得到解答的文化

  • and I am here to share with you:

    而我在這裡要和你們分享

  • it is not learning.

    這不是學習

  • That is the absolute wrong thing to ask,

    這絕對是個錯誤

  • to tell kids to never be wrong.

    要求孩子們永遠不可以犯錯

  • To ask them to always have the right answer

    要求他們永遠都要有正確的解答

  • doesn't allow them to learn.

    不能令他們去學習

  • So we did this project,

    所以我們發展了這個計畫

  • and this is one of the artifacts of the project.

    這是這個計畫的其中一項作品

  • I almost never show them off

    我幾乎從來沒有展示過這些

  • because of the issue of the idea of failure.

    因為我們對於錯誤與失敗的觀念

  • My students produced these info-graphics

    我的學生們做了這些資訊畫報

  • as a result of a unit that we decided to do at the end of the year

    當作我們某個單元的成果,我們決定在年底做這些畫報

  • responding to the oil spill.

    回應漏油事件

  • I asked them to take the examples that we were seeing

    我要求他們拿

  • of the info-graphics that existed

    他們看過的資訊圖表當做範例

  • in a lot of mass media,

    在大眾傳播媒體裡展示的那些

  • and take a look at what were the interesting components of it,

    仔細看看那些範例裡頭有趣的元素是什麼

  • and produce one for themselves

    然後自己設計一個

  • of a different man-made disaster from American history.

    以美國歷史中另一個人為災難為主題的畫報

  • And they had certain criteria to do it.

    我為這項作業設了一些其他的條件

  • They were a little uncomfortable with it,

    他們對這個作業有些不自在

  • because we'd never done this before, and they didn't know exactly how to do it.

    因為我們從來沒有作過這樣的作業,而他們不完全知道要怎麼進行

  • They can talk -- they're very smooth,

    他們可以談論這議題,相當流利

  • and they can write very, very well,

    他們也能寫得非常非常好

  • but asking them to communicate ideas in a different way

    但當被要求要用一種另類的方式表達想法的時候

  • was a little uncomfortable for them.

    他們有點無所適從

  • But I gave them the room to just do the thing.

    但我給了他們空間去做這個作業

  • Go create. Go figure it out.

    去創造,去自己發現該怎麼做

  • Let's see what we can do.

    讓我們拭目以待我們可以完成些什麼

  • And the student that persistently

    最後那些總是

  • turns out the best visual product did not disappoint.

    呈現最佳視覺效果作品的學生,這次也沒有讓人失望

  • This was done in like two or three days.

    這個作品大概花了兩三天的時間

  • And this is the work of the student that consistently did it.

    而這是來自一個作業品質非常穩定的學生

  • And when I sat the students down, I said, "Who's got the best one?"

    然後當我要所有學生坐下來,我問他們"誰交出了最好的作品?"

  • And they immediately went, "There it is."

    他們立刻指著這個作品回答"這件"

  • Didn't read anything. "There it is."

    他們並沒有細讀其中的內容,就回答了"這件"

  • And I said, "Well what makes it great?"

    然後我說,"那麼,是什麼因素讓這個作品這麼好?"

  • And they're like, "Oh, the design's good, and he's using good color.

    他們回答說,"喔,設計得很好,他用了很好的顏色組合,還有一些..."

  • And there's some ... " And they went through all that we processed out loud.

    他們分別說了想法,我們一起討論了之後

  • And I said, "Go read it."

    我說,"現在去讀讀內容"

  • And they're like, "Oh, that one wasn't so awesome."

    接著他們說"喔,現在看起來好像其實沒有那麼好"

  • And then we went to another one --

    後來我們移到另外一個版子前面

  • it didn't have great visuals, but it had great information --

    那個作品沒有很好的視覺設計,但是有非常好的資訊內容

  • and spent an hour talking about the learning process,

    我們接著花了大概一個小時討論這個學習過程

  • because it wasn't about whether or not it was perfect,

    因為那並不是關於哪個作品比較完美

  • or whether or not it was what I could create.

    或是我能或不能創造出這樣的東西

  • It asked them to create for themselves,

    這作業是要他們為自己創作

  • and it allowed them to fail,

    這作業也讓他們有失敗的可能

  • process, learn from.

    消化思考之後,從失敗中學習

  • And when we do another round of this in my class this year,

    今年,若我們又再一次作類似的作業時

  • they will do better this time,

    他們都將會比去年進步

  • because learning

    因為學習

  • has to include an amount of failure,

    必須包含一定程度的失敗

  • because failure is instructional

    因為失敗具有教學意義

  • in the process.

    在學習的過程中

  • There are a million pictures

    我有上百萬個照片

  • that I could click through here,

    可以展示

  • and had to choose carefully -- this is one of my favorites --

    可我得小心的選擇,好,這是我最喜歡的一張

  • of students learning,

    學生正在學習的照片

  • of what learning can look like

    學習可以看起來是什麼樣子

  • in a landscape where we let go of the idea

    在一個我們放棄傳統念頭的環境中

  • that kids have to come to school to get the information,

    放棄學生非得來學校以取得知識這樣的想法

  • but instead, ask them what they can do with it.

    取而代之,問他們,他們可以利用這些資訊做些什麼?

  • Ask them really interesting questions.

    問他們真正有趣的問題

  • They will not disappoint.

    他們不會讓人失望

  • Ask them to go to places,

    要求他們去不同的地方

  • to see things for themselves,

    去親眼見識不同的事情

  • to actually experience the learning,

    去真正的體驗學習

  • to play, to inquire.

    去玩,去查詢

  • This is one of my favorite photos,

    這是我最喜歡的照片之一

  • because this was taken on Tuesday,

    因為這是一張星期二照的照片

  • when I asked the students to go to the polls.

    當我要求學生們去投票

  • This is Robbie, and this was his first day of voting,

    這是Robbie,這是他第一次投票

  • and he wanted to share that with everybody and do that.

    而他想要和大家分享這個投票的經歷

  • But this is learning too,

    但這也是學習

  • because we asked them to go out into real spaces.

    因為我們要他們到外頭真實的世界去

  • The main point

    重點是

  • is that, if we continue to look at education

    如果我們繼續把教育

  • as if it's about coming to school

    當作是要來學校

  • to get the information

    取得資訊