Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

自動翻譯
  • What keeps us healthy and happy

    是什麼讓我們保持健康和快樂

  • as we go through life?

    在我們的生活中?

  • If you were going to invest now

    如果你現在要投資

  • in your future best self,

    在你未來最好的自己。

  • where would you put your time and your energy?

    你會把你的時間和精力放在哪裡?

  • There are lots of answers out there.

    外面有很多答案。

  • We're bombarded with images of what's most important in life.

    我們'被生活中最重要的影像轟炸。

  • The media are filled with stories of people who are rich

    媒體上充斥著很多人發財的故事。

  • and famous and building empires at work.

    並在工作中建立帝國。

  • And we believe those stories.

    而我們相信這些故事。

  • There was a recent survey of millennials

    最近有一項關於千禧一代的調查。

  • asking them what their most important life goals were,

    問他們最重要的人生目標是什麼。

  • and over 80 percent said

    而超過80%的人表示

  • that a major life goal for them was to get rich.

    他們的一個主要人生目標就是發財。

  • And another 50 percent of those same young adults

    而另外50%的年輕人

  • said that another major life goal

    說,另一個重要的人生目標

  • was to become famous.

    是為了成名。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And we're constantly told to lean in to work, to push harder

    我們不斷地被告知要靠著工作,要更加努力地工作

  • and achieve more.

    並取得更大的成績。

  • We're given the impression that these are the things that we need to go after

    我們給人的印象是,這些都是我們需要去追求的東西

  • in order to have a good life.

    為了有一個好的生活。

  • But is that true?

    但這是真的嗎?

  • Is that really what keeps people happy as they go through life?

    這真的是讓人在生活中快樂的原因嗎?

  • Pictures of entire lives,

    整個生活的照片。

  • of the choices that people make and how those choices work out for them,

    人們所做的選擇以及這些選擇對他們的影響。

  • those pictures are almost impossible to get.

    這些照片幾乎不可能得到。

  • Most of what we know about human life

    我們對人類生活的大部分了解

  • we know from asking people to remember the past,

    我們從問人記事中得知。

  • and as we know, hindsight is anything but 20/20.

    我們知道,事後諸葛亮是什麼 但20/20。

  • We forget vast amounts of what happens to us in life,

    我們會忘記生活中發生在我們身上的大量事情。

  • and sometimes memory is downright creative.

    有時候,記憶力簡直就是創意。

  • Mark Twain understood this.

    馬克-吐溫明白這一點。

  • He's quoted as saying,

    他'的引見說。

  • "Some of the worst things in my life never happened."

    "我生命中最糟糕的一些事情從來沒有發生過.&quot。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And research shows us that we actually remember the past more positively

    而研究表明,我們對過去的記憶其實更積極一些。

  • as we get older.

    隨著年齡的增長。

  • I'm reminded of a bumper sticker that says,

    我'想起了一個保險槓貼紙,上面寫著:。

  • "It's never too late to have a happy childhood."

    "擁有一個快樂的童年,永遠不會太晚&quot。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But what if we could watch entire lives

    但是,如果我們可以觀看整個生活

  • as they unfold through time?

    當他們通過時間展開?

  • What if we could study people from the time that they were teenagers

    如果我們能從人的青少年時期開始研究他們呢?

  • all the way into old age

    垂垂老矣

  • to see what really keeps people happy and healthy?

    來看看真正能讓人快樂和健康的是什麼?

  • We did that.

    我們做到了。

  • The Harvard Study of Adult Development

    哈佛成人發展研究

  • may be the longest study of adult life that's ever been done.

    可能是最長的成人生活研究,'的曾經做過。

  • For 75 years, we've tracked the lives of 724 men,

    75年來,我們已經追蹤了724個男人的生活。

  • year after year, asking about their work, their home lives, their health,

    年復一年,詢問他們的工作、家庭生活、健康狀況。

  • and of course asking all along the way without knowing how their life stories

    當然也會一路問下去,卻不知道他們的人生故事是怎樣的。

  • were going to turn out.

    是要變成。

  • Studies like this are exceedingly rare.

    這樣的研究是極其罕見的。

  • Almost all projects of this kind fall apart within a decade

    幾乎所有的這類項目都在十年內分崩離析。

  • because too many people drop out of the study,

    因為有太多的人退出了研究。

  • or funding for the research dries up,

    或研究經費枯竭。

  • or the researchers get distracted,

    或研究人員心不在焉。

  • or they die, and nobody moves the ball further down the field.

    或者他們死了,沒有人再把球往下傳。

  • But through a combination of luck

    但是,通過運氣的結合

  • and the persistence of several generations of researchers,

    以及幾代研究者的堅持。

  • this study has survived.

    這項研究已經倖存下來。

  • About 60 of our original 724 men

    我們原來的724名男子中約有60人

  • are still alive,

    還活著。

  • still participating in the study,

    仍在參與研究。

  • most of them in their 90s.

    他們中的大多數人在他們的90年代。

  • And we are now beginning to study

    而我們現在開始研究

  • the more than 2,000 children of these men.

    這些人的2 000多名子女。

  • And I'm the fourth director of the study.

    而我'是研究的第四個主任。

  • Since 1938, we've tracked the lives of two groups of men.

    自1938年以來,我們'一直在追蹤兩組人的生活。

  • The first group started in the study

    第一組開始在研究

  • when they were sophomores at Harvard College.

    當他們在哈佛學院讀大二的時候。

  • The were from what Tom Brokaw has called "the greatest generation".

    他們來自湯姆-布羅考所謂的"最偉大的一代"。

  • They all finished college during World War II,

    他們都在二戰期間完成了大學學業。

  • and then most went off to serve in the war.

    然後大部分人都去服兵役了。

  • And the second group that we've followed

    而第二組,我們已經跟進的'。

  • was a group of boys from Boston's poorest neighborhoods,

    是一群來自波士頓'最貧窮街區的男孩。

  • boys who were chosen for the study

    被選為研究對象的男孩

  • specifically because they were from some of the most troubled

    特別是因為他們來自一些最麻煩的地方。

  • and disadvantaged families

    和弱勢家庭

  • in the Boston of the 1930s.

    在20世紀30年代的波士頓。

  • Most lived in tenements, many without hot and cold running water.

    大多數人住在公寓裡,許多人沒有冷熱自來水。

  • When they entered the study,

    當他們進入研究。

  • all of these teenagers were interviewed.

    所有這些青少年都接受了採訪。

  • They were given medical exams.

    他們進行了體檢。

  • We went to their homes and we interviewed their parents.

    我們去了他們的家裡,我們採訪了他們的父母。

  • And then these teenagers grew up into adults

    然後這些青少年長大成人

  • who entered all walks of life.

    進入各行各業的人。

  • They became factory workers and lawyers and bricklayers and doctors,

    他們成了工廠工人、律師、磚匠和醫生。

  • one President of the United States.

    一位美國總統;

  • Some developed alcoholism. A few developed schizophrenia.

    有些人發展為酗酒。少數人患上了精神分裂症。

  • Some climbed the social ladder

    一些人爬上了社會的階梯

  • from the bottom all the way to the very top,

    從最底層一直到最頂層。

  • and some made that journey in the opposite direction.

    而有些人則反其道而行之。

  • The founders of this study

    本研究的創始人

  • would never in their wildest dreams

    做夢也想不到

  • have imagined that I would be standing here today, 75 years later,

    沒想到75年後的今天,我會站在這裡。

  • telling you that the study still continues.

    告訴你,研究還在繼續。

  • Every two years, our patient and dedicated research staff

    每兩年,我們的耐心和敬業的研究人員

  • calls up our men and asks them if we can send them

    叫上我們的人,問他們能不能派他們去。

  • yet one more set of questions about their lives.

    又多了一個關於他們生活的問題。

  • Many of the inner city Boston men ask us,

    很多波士頓內城的男人問我們。

  • "Why do you keep wanting to study me? My life just isn't that interesting."

    "你為什麼一直想研究我?我的生活就是不'有趣的&quot。

  • The Harvard men never ask that question.

    哈佛的人從來不會問這個問題。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • To get the clearest picture of these lives,

    為了最清楚地瞭解這些生活。

  • we don't just send them questionnaires.

    我們不只是給他們發問卷。

  • We interview them in their living rooms.

    我們在他們的客廳裡採訪他們。

  • We get their medical records from their doctors.

    我們從他們的醫生那裡拿到他們的病歷。

  • We draw their blood, we scan their brains,

    我們抽他們的血,我們掃描他們的大腦。

  • we talk to their children.

    我們和他們的孩子談話。

  • We videotape them talking with their wives about their deepest concerns.

    我們錄下他們與妻子的談話,講述他們最深切的擔憂。

  • And when, about a decade ago, we finally asked the wives

    而當,大約十年前,我們終於問妻子們

  • if they would join us as members of the study,

    如果他們願意加入我們成為研究的成員。

  • many of the women said, "You know, it's about time."

    許多婦女說,"你知道,這是關於時間.&quot。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So what have we learned?

    那麼我們學到了什麼呢?

  • What are the lessons that come from the tens of thousands of pages

    從數萬頁的文件中,我們得到了什麼啟示?

  • of information that we've generated

    的資訊,我們已經產生

  • on these lives?

    在這些生活上?

  • Well, the lessons aren't about wealth or fame or working harder and harder.

    好吧,這些教訓並不是關於財富或名聲,也不是關於更努力、更辛苦的工作。

  • The clearest message that we get from this 75-year study is this:

    從這75年的研究中,我們得到的最清晰的資訊是:。

  • Good relationships keep us happier and healthier. Period.

    良好的人際關係能讓我們更快樂,更健康。期。

  • We've learned three big lessons about relationships.

    我們'學到了關於關係的三大教訓。

  • The first is that social connections are really good for us,

    第一,社會關係對我們真的很好。

  • and that loneliness kills.

    孤獨會殺死人

  • It turns out that people who are more socially connected

    事實證明,與社會關係較好的人。

  • to family, to friends, to community,

    對家人,對朋友,對社會。

  • are happier, they're physically healthier, and they live longer

    是更快樂,他們'身體更健康,他們的壽命更長。

  • than people who are less well connected.

    比起那些人緣較差的人。

  • And the experience of loneliness turns out to be toxic.

    而孤獨的體驗,原來是有毒的。

  • People who are more isolated than they want to be from others

    那些比他們更願意與他人隔離的人

  • find that they are less happy,

    發現他們不那麼快樂。

  • their health declines earlier in midlife,

    他們的健康狀況在中年早期有所下降。

  • their brain functioning declines sooner

    他們的大腦功能會更快地衰退

  • and they live shorter lives than people who are not lonely.

    而且他們的壽命比不寂寞的人短。

  • And the sad fact is that at any given time,

    而可悲的是,在任何時候。

  • more than one in five Americans will report that they're lonely.

    超過五分之一的美國人將報告,他們'孤獨。

  • And we know that you can be lonely in a crowd

    我們知道你在人群中會很孤獨

  • and you can be lonely in a marriage,

    而你在婚姻中也會很孤獨。

  • so the second big lesson that we learned

    所以我們學到的第二大教訓

  • is that it's not just the number of friends you have,

    是它'不只是你有多少朋友。

  • and it's not whether or not you're in a committed relationship,

    和它'不是是否你'在一個承諾的關係。

  • but it's the quality of your close relationships that matters.

    但重要的是你親密關係的品質。

  • It turns out that living in the midst of conflict is really bad for our health.

    事實證明,生活在衝突中,對我們的健康真的很不利。

  • High-conflict marriages, for example, without much affection,

    比如說,高衝突的婚姻,沒有太多的感情。

  • turn out to be very bad for our health, perhaps worse than getting divorced.

    結果對我們的健康非常不利,也許比離婚還糟糕。

  • And living in the midst of good, warm relationships is protective.

    而生活在良好的、溫暖的人際關係中,是一種保護。

  • Once we had followed our men all the way into their 80s,

    有一次,我們跟著我們的人一直到80多歲。

  • we wanted to look back at them at midlife

    我們想在中年的時候回頭看看他們。

  • and to see if we could predict

    並看看我們是否能預測

  • who was going to grow into a happy, healthy octogenarian

    他要長成一個快樂健康的八旬老人。

  • and who wasn't.

    和誰不是'。

  • And when we gathered together everything we knew about them

    當我們把我們所知道的關於他們的一切聚集在一起時

  • at age 50,

    50歲時。

  • it wasn't their middle age cholesterol levels

    它不是'他們的中年膽固醇水準

  • that predicted how they were going to grow old.

    預測他們將如何變老。

  • It was how satisfied they were in their relationships.

    是他們對自己的感情有多滿意。

  • The people who were the most satisfied in their relationships at age 50

    50歲時對感情最滿意的人。

  • were the healthiest at age 80.

    是80歲時最健康的。

  • And good, close relationships seem to buffer us

    而良好的親密關係似乎可以緩衝我們的壓力

  • from some of the slings and arrows of getting old.

    從一些彈弓和箭的老去。

  • Our most happily partnered men and women

    我們最幸福的男女伴侶。

  • reported, in their 80s,

    報道,80多歲的。

  • that on the days when they had more physical pain,

    那在他們身體比較疼痛的日子裡。

  • their mood stayed just as happy.

    他們的心情就這樣快樂的待著。

  • But the people who were in unhappy relationships,

    但關係不愉快的人。

  • on the days when they reported more physical pain,

    在他們報告更多身體疼痛的日子裡。

  • it was magnified by more emotional pain.

    它被更多的情感痛苦所放大。

  • And the third big lesson that we learned about relationships and our health

    我們學到的關於人際關係和健康的第三大課。

  • is that good relationships don't just protect our bodies,

    是好的人際關係不只是保護我們的身體。

  • they protect our brains.

    他們保護我們的大腦。

  • It turns out that being in a securely attached relationship

    原來,在一段牢靠的感情中。

  • to another person in your 80s is protective,

    對另一個80多歲的人是保護。

  • that the people who are in relationships

    戀愛中的人

  • where they really feel they can count on the other person in times of need,

    在那裡,他們真正感到在需要的時候可以依靠對方。

  • those people's memories stay sharper longer.

    那些人'的記憶保持更清晰的時間。

  • And the people in relationships

    而關係中的人

  • where they feel they really can't count on the other one,

    在他們覺得自己真的不能指望對方的地方。

  • those are the people who experience earlier memory decline.

    這些人都是記憶力下降較早的人。

  • And those good relationships, they don't have to be smooth all the time.

    而那些好的關係,並不一定要一直平穩。

  • Some of our octogenarian couples could bicker with each other

    我們的一些八旬夫婦可以互相爭吵的。

  • day in and day out,

    日復一日,日復一日。

  • but as long as they felt that they could really count on the other

    但只要他們覺得自己真的可以依靠其他的人

  • when the going got tough,

    當事情變得艱難的時候。

  • those arguments didn't take a toll on their memories.

    那些爭論並沒有對他們的記憶造成傷害。

  • So this message,

    所以這個消息。

  • that good, close relationships are good for our health and well-being,

    良好的親密關係有利於我們的健康和幸福。

  • this is wisdom that's as old as the hills.

    這是智慧的'是古老的山丘。

  • It's your grandmother's advice, and your pastor's.

    這'是你奶奶'的建議,也是你牧師'的建議。

  • Why is this so hard to get?

    為什麼這麼難搞?

  • For example, with respect to wealth, we know

    例如,在財富方面,我們知道

  • that once your basic material needs are met,

    一旦你的基本物質需求得到滿足。

  • wealth doesn't do it.

    財富沒有'做。

  • If you go from making 75,000 dollars a year

    如果你從年薪7萬5千美元

  • to 75 million,

    到7500萬。

  • we know that your health and happiness will change very little,

    我們知道,你的健康和幸福不會有什麼變化。

  • if at all.

    如果有的話。

  • When it comes to fame,

    說到名氣。

  • the constant media intrusion

    媒妁之言

  • and the lack of privacy

    和缺乏隱私的問題

  • make most famous people significantly less healthy.

    使大多數名人的健康狀況明顯下降。

  • It certainly doesn't keep them happier.

    這當然不會讓他們更開心。

  • And as for working harder and harder,

    而至於工作上,則要更加努力,更加辛苦。

  • there is that truism that nobody on their death bed

    俗話說:"人死不能復生

  • ever wished they had spent more time at the office.

    曾經希望他們花更多的時間在辦公室。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Why is this so hard to get and so easy to ignore?

    為什麼這麼難得到,又這麼容易被忽略?

  • Well, we're human.

    嗯,我們是人類。

  • What we'd really like is a quick fix,

    我們'真正想要的是快速解決。

  • something we can get

    能得到

  • that'll make our lives good and keep them that way.

    那'會讓我們的生活變得美好,並讓他們保持這樣的狀態。

  • Relationships are messy and they're complicated

    關係是混亂的,他們'是複雜的

  • and the hard work of tending to family and friends,

    以及照顧家人和朋友的辛苦。

  • it's not sexy or glamorous.

    這不是性感或迷人的。

  • It's also lifelong. It never ends.

    它'也是終身的。它永遠不會結束。

  • The people in our 75-year study who were the happiest in retirement

    在我們75年的研究中,退休後最幸福的人是誰?

  • were the people who had actively worked to replace workmates with new playmates.

    是積極努力用新的玩伴替換工作夥伴的人。

  • Just like the millennials in that recent survey,

    就像最近那個調查中的千禧一代一樣。

  • many of our men when they were starting out as young adults

    我們的許多男人在剛成年的時候

  • really believed that fame and wealth and high achievement

    真的認為名利雙收,功成名就

  • were what they needed to go after to have a good life.

    是他們需要去追求的好生活。

  • But over and over, over these 75 years, our study has shown

    但是,在這75年裡,我們的研究一次又一次地顯示出

  • that the people who fared the best were the people who leaned in to relationships,

    表現最好的人是那些靠著關係的人。

  • with family, with friends, with community.

    與家人,與朋友,與社會。

  • So what about you?

    那你呢?

  • Let's say you're 25, or you're 40, or you're 60.

    比方說,你'25歲,或者你'40歲,或者你'60歲。

  • What might leaning in to relationships even look like?

    傾力打造的人際關係究竟可能是什麼樣的?

  • Well, the possibilities are practically endless.

    嗯,可能性實際上是無窮無盡的。

  • It might be something as simple as replacing screen time with people time

    這可能是一些簡單的東西,如取代螢幕時間與人的時間。

  • or livening up a stale relationship by doing something new together,

    或通過一起做一些新的事情來活躍陳舊的關係。

  • long walks or date nights,

    長途跋涉或約會之夜。

  • or reaching out to that family member who you haven't spoken to in years,

    或聯繫那個你多年沒有聯繫的家人。

  • because those all-too-common family feuds

    因為那些司空見慣的家仇國仇