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  • The simple questions are the hardest ones to answer.

    看似簡單的問題往往最難回答。

  • What is a thing?

    「東西」是什麼?

  • Why do things happen?

    「事情」為什麼會發生?

  • And why DO they happen the way they do?

    又為什麼會「這麼」發生?

  • Let's try to approach this step by step.

    讓我們一步步嘗試看這個問題吧。

  • What are you made of?

    你是什麼做的?

  • You are matter,

    你是物質做的,

  • which is made of molecules,

    物質是分子做的,

  • which are made of atoms,

    分子是原子做的,

  • and those are made of elementary particles.

    原子是「基本粒子」做的。

  • But, if elementary particles are the smallest things that exist,

    如果說「基本粒子」是最小的存在,

  • What are THEY made of?

    它們又是什麼做的呢?

  • To answer a simple question, let's start simply.

    要回答這個簡單的問題,就要簡單來看。

  • Let's wipe the universe clean.

    把整個宇宙清空,

  • Away with matter, antimatter, radiation, particles, anything.

    趕走所有物質、反物質、輻射、粒子,等等。

  • Now let's take a closer look at absolutely nothing.

    看看「什麼都沒有」是什麼吧。

  • What is empty space?

    「什麼都沒有」是什麼?

  • Is it what we call a vacuum?

    是所謂的「真空」嗎?

  • There are no atoms, no matter, nothing!

    原子、物質什麼的都沒有!

  • Is it really all that empty?

    真的是空的嗎?

  • Nothing gives us the building blocks for everything.

    不過,「什麼都沒有」是萬物存在的基礎。

  • In a sense, empty space is a lot like a vast, calm ocean.

    在某種意義上,「什麼都沒有」就像是一片浩瀚平靜的海洋:

  • While the water is very still when nothing is happening,

    雖然在「什麼都沒有」的時候,水是靜止的,

  • a stiff breeze can create some serious waves.

    但一點波動就能引發壯觀的波浪。

  • Our universe works a lot like this.

    我們的宇宙就像這樣。

  • There are these oceans everywhere.

    「水面」到處都是,

  • Physicists call them fields.

    被物理學家們稱為「場」。

  • This might be strange and new,

    「場」可能令人感覺稀奇古怪,

  • but think about radiation for example.

    但想想輻射。

  • By exciting what's known as the electromagnetic field, a little kink is created

    當所謂的「電磁場」被激發,就會產生一個小小的「波動」,

  • which is the particle we call the photon.

    就是我們所說的「光子」。

  • The particle that carries radiation, we perceive it as light.

    這種粒子帶有輻射,讓我們看到「光」。

  • This isn't unique to light; every particle in the universe is made this way.

    不僅光,宇宙中的所有粒子都是這樣的。

  • There are fields for every particle of matter all with their own rules.

    每一種粒子都有自己的「場」,按自己的規則運作。

  • For example, along with the electromagnetic field, there is an electron field everywhere in the universe

    比如說,除了「電磁場」以外,宇宙中還充滿著「電子場」,

  • and little kinks in that field are electrons.

    其中的「波瀾」就是電子。

  • All together, the fields of our universe can produce 17 particles which can be divided into 3 categories.

    宇宙中總共有十七種不同的粒子,主要分為三類:

  • The leptons, and the quarks, and the bosons.

    輕子,夸克和波色子。

  • Leptons consist of the electron as well as its cousins: muon and tau particles.

    輕子包含電子及其近親:μ介子和τ介子,

  • Each has an associated neutrino.

    各有一種相關的中微子。

  • Then, there are quarks.

    然後就是夸克。

  • The quarks are the nuclear family of particles.

    夸克組成原子核,

  • They're always found bound together in groups and pairs

    它們成對或組地綁在一起,

  • and make up protons and neutrons, which make up the nuclei of atoms.

    形成中子和質子,也就是原子核。

  • Together, the leptons and quarks are the matter particles.

    一起來說,輕子和夸克就是「物質」的粒子,

  • They make up all the things you see.

    它們組成你看得見的萬物,

  • The air you breathe, the sun that warms you,

    呼吸的空氣,溫暖的太陽,

  • the computer you're using right now to distract yourself from the stuff you should be doing.

    和令人分心的電腦。

  • But things don't just exist, they also do stuff.

    不過「東西」不僅僅是「存在」;它們也會「做事」。

  • In some philosophical sense, the properties of a thing are just as much a part of it as existence itself.

    從某種哲學意義上來說,「東西」的「性質」與「東西」的「存在」一樣重要。

  • This is where the bosons and the fields that makes them come in to play.

    這就需要提到波色子了。

  • While the quarks and leptons are made by the matter fields,

    夸克和輕子都由「物質場」組成,

  • the bosons are made by force fields.

    但波色子由「力場」組成。

  • We call a rule of the universe a force.

    「力」就是我們所說的「宇宙法則」。

  • And so far, 4 fundamental forces have been discovered:

    迄今為止,人們已經發現了四種「基本作用力」:

  • Electromagnetism, gravity, and the strong and weak nuclear forces.

    電磁力,萬有引力以及強、弱核力。

  • These forces are the rule book of a game where the pieces are the particles, and the game is the universe.

    這些力就是「宇宙」遊戲的規則紙,

  • They tell particles what they can do and how they can do it.

    告訴各種粒子「做」什麼事、怎麼去「做」。

  • Bishops move diagonally,

    就像象只能打斜行走,

  • massless particles move at the speed of light,

    無質量粒子以光速前進;

  • knights can jump,

    正如馬可以跳躍棋格,

  • gravity attracts.

    萬有引力吸引不同物體。

  • The forces are the rules for how particles interact

    這些基本作用力就是粒子「互動」的規則,

  • Which ultimately make them the rules for how particles assemble into all the big things we see in the universe.

    指引著大量粒子凝結成我們看到的大千世界。

  • Gravity isn't just the rule for orbits around the sun or apples falling from trees.

    萬有引力說的不是「地球繞著太陽轉」或者「蘋果從樹上掉下來」,

  • As a rule, it says matter attracts, which builds planets and stars.

    而是「物質都互相吸引」,從而產生行星和恆星。

  • Electromagnetism isn't just the rule for magnets attracting or repelling, or electric currents in light bulbs.

    電磁力造就的也不僅是「磁鐵相斥或相吸」或「電流讓燈泡亮」,

  • It governs all atomic bonds, building every molecule.

    而是各種原子鍵,讓原子形成分子。

  • Together, forces and particles are sort of like the Tinkertoys of existence.

    一起來說,粒子和力就像是「存在」的「小小建築師」玩具。

  • The bosons are like messengers. Passed between, you could say, connecting the matter particles.

    波色子就像是信使,在物質粒子之間遊走,或者說,連結它們。

  • Which they use to tell each other how to move.

    它們告訴物質粒子如何移動。

  • Each particle uses a certain set of the forces to interact with other particles.

    每一個粒子都用不同的力來與其他粒子「互動」。

  • Quarks, for example, can interact with each other with electromagnetism and the strong nuclear force,

    比如說,夸克就會使用強核力和電磁力;

  • but electrons don't use the strong force, just electromagnetism.

    但電子就只會使用電磁力。

  • The quarks exchange strong force bosons, communicating the strong nuclear attraction to each other,

    夸克利用強核力的波色子來吸引和綁定其他夸克,

  • while the protons they build exchange the particles of electromagnetism, photons with the electrons.

    形成質子,質子又與電子交換光子(電磁力波色子)來互相綁定。

  • Thus, the quarks end up locked up in nuclei,

    結果,夸克被鎖在原子核中,

  • while the electrons remain attached by their electric attraction, building atoms.

    電子就在核外靠電磁力組成原子。

  • Even though the universe has lots of big, messy phenomena like life, supernova, and computers,

    即使宇宙有很多複雜的現象,比如生命,超新星和電腦,

  • that seem complex on the surface.

    雖然令人眼花撩亂,

  • If you zoom in far enough on anything, you just get 17 particles emerging from underlying fields,

    但你只要儘管放大,就會發現它們不過是十七種源自場的粒子,

  • playing a game with 4 rules.

    進行著一場只有四條規則的遊戲。

  • To summarize, in the most basic form we know right now, this is what things are.

    總的來說,以我們知識的限度,「東西」就是這樣。

  • This theory is what physicists call the Standard Model of Particle Physics.

    這套理論就是物理學家們所說的「標準模型」。

  • You are basically nothing more than disturbances

    你不過是宇宙之洋的小小波瀾,

  • on an ocean that's excited by energy and guided by forces that make up the rules of the universe.

    由能量激發,以創造宇宙規則的力為嚮導。

  • But why? And what is a force?

    不過為什麼?力又是什麼東西?

  • We'll have to explore a few more simple questions to get to the bottom of this.

    探索這些之前,我們還需要釐清多幾個「簡單的問題」。

  • We made some wallpapers from some of the graphics in this video: You can get them on patreon.com

    我們用這部影片的圖像又製作了幾張壁紙:去 patreon.com 領取吧;

  • If you want to help us make more videos, you can do so there.

    在那裡你們也可以幫助我們製作更多影片。

  • We really appreciate your support.

    真的很感謝大家的幫助。

  • While you decide, here are some more videos we made.

    在你決定之前,多看幾部我們的影片吧。

  • Subtitles by the Amara.org community

    由 Amara.org 社群提供的字幕

The simple questions are the hardest ones to answer.

看似簡單的問題往往最難回答。

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【科學知識】「東西」究竟是什麼組成的?(What Is Something?)

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    mommy 發佈於 2016 年 02 月 17 日
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